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Introducing plants

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Perennials Live through many years May die back in winter, but re-grow in the spring (asparagus, peonies, many grasses). Most have woody stems (palms, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introducing plants


1
Introducing plants
  • Section 22-1

2
Criteria for Kingdom Plantae
  • Cell type Eukaryotes.
  • Cell number Multicellular.
  • Cell structure Cell wall made of cellulose.
  • Mode of nutrition Autotrophic.
  • Carry out photosynthesis using the green pigments
    chlorophyll a and b.
  • Some are parasitic or saprobes.

3
Plant Life Cycle
All plants have a life cycle with alternation of
generations, in which the haploid gametophyte
phase alternates with the diploid sporophyte
phase.
Textbook, page 552
4
Plant Life CycleAlternation of Generations!
  • Haploid (N)
  • Gametophyte plant (N)
  • Produces either sperm or eggs.
  • (gametes reproductive cells)
  • Diploid (2N)
  • The sperm and egg join to create the Sporophyte
    plant (2N), which is diploid.
  • Egg and sperm join to create spores by meiosis.

5
Plant Survival
  • Sunlight needed to carry out photosynthesis.
  • Minerals and water are needed to make new plant
    parts.
  • Gas exchange (through photosynthesis and cellular
    respiration) must occur without losing excessive
    amounts of water.
  • Movement of water and nutrients is required for
    plant energy production and growth.

6
Evolutionary Cladogram of Plants
7
Overview of the Plant Kingdom
The majority of plant life is ______________.
8
Bryophytes
  • Section 22-2

9
Bryophytes (ex. mosses, liverworts, hornworts)
  • Life cycles depend on water for reproduction.
  • Abundant in moist environments (bogs, near
    streams, in rain forests) because there is no
    vascular tissue.
  • Sphagnum moss alive is used in gardening,
    and when compacted (peat) its used for fuel.

(Angiosperms)
10
Typical Moss Plant
11
Life Cycle of a Moss
12
FernsSeedless Vascular Plants
  • Section 22-3

13
What developed between plant divisions 1 and 2?
  • Vascular Tissue developed!

Vascular tissue specialized tissue to transport
water and nutrients throughout the plant.
14
Phylum Pterophyta Ferns
  • Ex. horsetails, club mosses, ferns.
  • Leaves are called fronds.
  • Undergound stems called rhizomes .
  • Found in moist, shaded forest areas.
  • Sori clusters of sporangia (spores on the
    underside of fronds).

15
Vascular Tissue
  • Tracheids are specialized cells that can move
    fluids through the plant body, even against the
    force of gravity.
  • Xylem (moves water upward).
  • Phloem (moves nutrients and
    carbohydrates throughout the
    plant).

16
Typical Fern Plant
17
Life Cycle of a Fern
18
GymnospermsSeed Plants
  • Section 22-4

19
Gymnosperms Cone Bearers
  • Means naked seed.
  • Includes conifers (pines spruces) and palms
    (cycads ginkgoes).
  • Adapted seed to allow reproduction without water
    able survive in dry and extreme temperatures.

20
Reproduction Free from Water
  • Second evolutionary development of plants
    seeds.
  • Adaptations that allows seed plants to reproduce
    without water include
  • Flowers and cones.
  • Transfer of sperm by pollination.
  • Protection of embryos in seeds.
  • Necessary to meet the challenges of surviving on
    land.

21
Diagram of a Pine Seed
  • Embryo
  • Growing part of seed containing
  • Endosperm
  • Tissue that provides nutrition for the developing
    seed.
  • Seed Coat
  • Protective outer covering of the seed.

Embryo
Endosperm
Seed Coat
22
Reproduction
  • Germination early growth stage of a plant
    embryo.
  • Dormancy period of time during which a plant
    embryo is alive but not growing.
  • Features that allow seeds to reproduce without
    water
  • Reproduction in cones.
  • Movement of gametes by pollination.
  • Protection of embryo in a seed.

23
Pollination
  • Transfer of pollen from the male reproductive
    structure to the female reproductive structure.

24
Adaptations
  • Needles
  • Winged Seeds

25
AngiospermsFlowering Plants
  • Section 22-5

26
Anthophyta Angiosperms
  • Dominate plant life.
  • Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants.
  • has ovaries (fruit) to protect the seeds.
  • Attracts animals which help with pollination.

27
Diversity of Angiosperms
  • Can be classified into
  • Stems herbaceous vs. woody.
  • Lifespans annuals, biennials, perennials.
  • monocotyledon vs. dicotyledon.

28
Monocots vs. Dicots
29
Lifespans
  • Annuals
  • Complete life cycle in one year.
  • Biennials
  • Life cycle takes 2 years
  • Year one germinate and grow roots, maybe leaves.
  • Year two grow new stems, leaves, and flowers.
  • Perennials
  • Live through many years
  • May die back in winter, but re-grow in the spring
    (asparagus, peonies, many grasses).
  • Most have woody stems (palms, trees,
    honeysuckle).

30
Examples of Monocotyledons(Liliopsida)
  • Grasses which include grains such as corn and
    wheat.
  • Lilies.
  • Orchids.
  • Palms.

31
Examples of Dicotylendons(Magnoliopsida)
  • Roses
  • Mallows
  • Tomatoes
  • Oaks
  • Daisies

32
Plant Parts
  • Transport
  • Roots, stems, leaves.
  • Energy Production
  • Leaves.
  • Reproduction
  • Flowers.

33
Roots (Transport)
  • Taproot primary root grows down from the stem
    with secondary roots forming.
  • ex. carrot, potato, radish
  • Fibrous small lateral roots that spread out just
    below surface of the soil.
  • ex. weeds

34
4 Root Functions
  • Absorbs water nutrients from the soil.
  • Transports water nutrients to stem.
  • Anchors plant to maintain stability.
  • Stores food and water.

35
Structure of Roots
36
Stems (Transport)
  • Woody
  • Thick cell walls that support the plant.
  • Trees, shrubs, and vines.
  • Herbaceous
  • Stems are smooth, supported by hydrostatic
    pressure (turgor).
  • Dandilions, zinnias, petunias.

37
Stems
38
3 Functions of Stems
  • Transports water nutrients from roots to
    leaves.
  • Supports/produces leaves, branches,
    fruits/flowers.
  • Stores food.

39
Transport in Plants
  • Capillary action the tendency of water to rise
    in a thin tube.
  • The result of the water molecules ability to
    stick to one another (cohesion)and to the walls
    of the tube (adhesion).
  • Contributes to the movement of water up the cells
    of the xylem tissue.

40
Leaves (Transport Energy Production)
  • Photosynthesis
  • Process that plants use to produce their food.
  • 6CO2 6H2O ?C6H12O6 6O2
  • Transpiration
  • Loss of water and exchange of carbon dioxide.

41
Structure of Leaves
  • Cuticle
  • Waxy outer surface retains moisture.
  • Mesophyll
  • Middle layer of leaf where photosynthesis occurs.
  • Palisade layer (upper).
  • Spongy layer (underside).

42
Structure of Leaves (contd)
  • Epidermis
  • Skin of leaf - responsible for gas exchange.
  • Upper and lower.
  • Stomata
  • Outside layer of leaf opening in epidermis where
    gas and water exchange (controlled by guard
    cells).

43
Gas Exchange in Leaves
  • Turgor pressure (water pressure)
  • Stomata close automatically when supplies of
    water from roots start to dry up.
  • Guard cells trigger when water is scarce causing
    stomata to become flaccid and pores close.

44
Leaf Vein Types
Parallel Pinnate
Palmate
45
Flowers (Reproduction)
46
Structure of Flowers
47
Typical Flower Structure
  • Petals
  • Highly colored part of the flower, may contain
    perfume and/or nectar glands.
  • Sepals
  • Small green structures on the base of a flower
    that protect the flower bud.

Image found at http//biology.clc.uc.edu
48
Male Plant Organ
  • Stamen contains
  • Anther produces pollen.
  • Filament upholds anther.

49
Female Plant Organ
  • Pistil (carpels) contains
  • Stigma sticky for pollen to attach.
  • Style sperm travel to ovary.
  • Ovary (fruit) stores ovules (eggs).

50
Seed Dispersal
  • Wind
  • Water
  • Animal

Flower Pollination
  • Animals
  • Wind

Factors that affect seed germination
  • Temperature
  • Moisture

51
Plant Response
  • Plant hormones chemical substances that control
    a plants patterns of growth development.
  • Target cell cell that has a receptor for a
    particular hormone.

52
Tropisms (Response)
  • Tropism response of a plant to an environmental
    stimulus.
  • Gravitotropism response of a plant to the force
    of gravity.
  • Phototropism tendency of a plant to grow towards
    light.
  • Thigmotropism response of plants to touch.
  • Auxin substance produced in the tip of the
    seedling that stimulates cell elongation.

53
  • Photoperiodism the timing of seasonal activities
    such as flowering and growth.
  • Herbicides auxinlike compounds in high
    concentrations that are toxic to plants therefore
    inhibiting growth.
  • Chemical defenses many plants defend themselves
    against insect attack by manufacturing compounds
    that have powerful effects on animals, ex. poison
    oak.
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