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CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control

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Title: CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control


1
CHAPTER 8 Deviance and Social Control
  • Section 1 Deviance
  • Section 2 Crime

2
Objectives
Section 1 Deviance
  • Explain the nature and social functions of
    deviance.
  • Compare the theories that have been proposed to
    explain deviance.

3
Nature of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Because there are so many norms governing
    behavior, occasional violations are unavoidable.
  • deviance behavior that violates significant
    social norms
  • people are considered deviant for repeat
    behavior, commits an act that has serious
    negative consequences for society

4
Nature of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Labeling deviance has 2 components
  • to be considered deviant by society, an
    individual must first be detected committing a
    deviant act, behavior is known to others
  • the individual must be stigmatized by society
  • stigma mark of social disgrace that sets the
    deviant apart from the rest of society
  • What is considered deviant varies from society to
    society and during different time periods

5
Social Functions of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Emile Durkheims The Rules of Sociological Method
    observed that deviance has some uses in social
    life.
  • Clarifying Norms defines the boundaries of
    acceptable behavior, punishment serves as
    warnings to others
  • Unifying the Group serves to draw the line
    between conforming members of society and
    outsiders the nonconforming members,
    reinforces sense of community and belief in
    shared values

6
Social Functions of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Diffusing Tension acts that allow individuals
    to relieve tension without disrupting the basic
    fabric of society
  • unauthorized demonstrations
  • Promoting Social Change can help prompt social
    change by identifying problem areas
  • Providing Jobs provides legitimate jobs
  • judges, lawyers, police officers, prison
    personnel, parole officers, crime reporters
  • criminologists social scientists who study
    criminal behavior

7
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Functionalists deviance is a natural part of
    society
  • American society places high value on certain
    goals, not everyone has access to legitimate
    means to achieve these goals
  • strain theory - as the natural outgrowth of the
    values, norms, and structures of society
  • under the strain of incompatible goals and means,
    individuals fall victim to anomie
  • anomie situation that arises when the norms of
    society are unclear or are no longer applicable,
    leave individuals without guidelines for behavior

8
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Sociologist Robert K. Merton suggest that
    individuals respond to the culturally approved
    goals and legitimate means of achieving goals in
    5 ways.
  • conformity many accept culturally approved goals
    and means
  • innovation accept cultural goals, but do not
    accept the approved means to reaching these
    goals, devise new means for achieving goals and
    then violate accepted norms (become deviants)

9
Section 1 Deviance
Theories of Deviance
  • Mertons Functionalist Perspective
  • ritualism find it impossible to achieve
    cultural goals by acceptable means, they abandon
    the goals while continuing expected rules of
    behavior
  • retreatism reject both cultural goals and
    acceptable means of attaining them, may drop out
    of society
  • rebellion want to substitute a new set of goals
    and means for the approved set

10
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Conflict Theorists deviance is a result of
    competition and social inequality, struggle
    between those who possess power and those who do
    not
  • people with power commit deviant act to maintain
    power
  • people without power to obtain economic rewards
    or because of low self-esteem and feelings of
    powerlessness

11
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Richard Quinneys Conflict Theory
  • ruling class labels threatening behavior as
    deviant
  • lower class has limited opportunity, forced into
    deviant behavior
  • to protect their power, ruling class establishes
    ideologies to explain deviance as a problem among
    lower class
  • law enforcement are directed toward the types of
    crimes committed by lower classes (results in
    higher arrest rates)
  • people without power do not necessarily commit
    more crimes than others, but are the types of
    crimes that are most likely to be detected and
    punished

12
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionists as either natural in people
    with weak ties to the community (control theory),
    as a learned behavior (cultural transmission
    theory), or as a label (labeling theory)
  • control theory natural occurrence, interest in
    why people conform rather than the causes of
    deviance
  • social ties determine conformity, high
    integration causes conformity
  • communities with strong social bonds have lower
    rates of deviance because strong social control
    over those who deviate

13
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Travis Hirschi Interactionist Perspective
  • control theory
  • people form bonds in 4 ways
  • form attachments with others who accept the norms
    of society
  • strong belief in the moral codes of society
  • show commitment to traditional societal values
    and goals
  • fully involved in non-deviant behavior and
    activities

14
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Hirschi and Gottfredson Interactionist
    Perspective
  • control theory
  • conformity is a result of self-control
  • people with strong self-control conform
  • socialization determines a persons level of
    self-control
  • children develop high levels of self-control if
    parents punish deviant behavior and reward for
    conformity

15
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • cultural transmission based on socialization,
    deviance is a learned behavior through
    interaction with others, the norms and values
    being transmitted are deviant, the individual
    becomes socialized into deviant behavior rather
    than socially acceptable behavior
  • cultural transmission views all individuals as
    conformists
  • difference between deviants and rest of society
    is the norms the individual chooses to conform to

16
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • differential association the frequency and
    closeness of associations a person has with
    deviant and nondeviant individuals
  • Edwin Sutherland, learning of deviant behavior
    occurs in primary groups
  • Sykes and Matza some show strong commitment to
    societys norms yet still engage in deviance
  • techniques of neutralization people suspend
    their moral beliefs to commit deviant acts,
    learned through social interaction are a block on
    the controls that discourage deviant behavior

17
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • Sykes and Matza 5 techniques of neutralization
  • deny responsibility
  • deny injury
  • denying the victim
  • condemning the authorities
  • appealing to higher loyalties

18
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • labeling theory focuses on how individuals come
    to be identified as deviant, rather than why
    people perform deviant acts
  • all people commit deviant acts yet not everyone
    is labeled as deviant
  • Lemert and Becker
  • deviance has 2 types primary and secondary

19
Theories of Deviance
Section 1 Deviance
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • labeling theory
  • primary deviance nonconformity that goes
    undetected by those in authority, occasional acts
    and well concealed acts, do not consider
    themselves deviant and neither does society
  • secondary deviance results in the individual
    being labeled as deviant and accepting the label
    as true
  • degradation ceremony public setting, individual
    is denounced, found guilty, or given new identity
    of a deviant, people are judged in light of their
    new label, becomes master status, restricts
    options in society, self-fulfilling prophecy

20
Objectives
Section 2 Crime
  • Identify the principal types of crime in the
    United States.
  • Explain the characteristics of the American
    criminal-justice system.

21
Crime Statistics
Section 2 Crime
  • crime any act that is labeled as such by those
    in authority, is prohibited by law, and is
    punishable by the government
  • Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) published annually by
    the FBI
  • chart page 187
  • limits on statistics
  • not all complaints make it to official stats of
    formal reports
  • not all crime reported (family or friends)
  • only file formal reports on serious crime
  • officer is influenced to file a formal report
    based on attitude of individual making the
    complaint

22
Types of Crime in the U.S.
Section 2 Crime
  • charts page 188-189
  • Violent Crime includes murder, robbery, rape,
    aggravated assault most victims are African
    Americans small percent of all crimes committed
  • Crime Against Property stealing or damaging
    others property includes burglary, larceny
    (theft other than auto), vehicle theft, arson
    more common than violent crimes (1 every 3
    seconds)
  • Victimless Crime includes prostitution, illegal
    gambling, illegal drug use offender is the only
    victim

23
Types of Crime in the U.S.
Section 2 Crime
  • White Collar Crime committed by high-status
    individuals in the course of their professions
    (politicians, corporate employees) includes
    fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement estimate costs
    of 300 billion
  • Organized Crime the pursuit of crime as a big
    business, use legitimate business as a front for
    criminal activities
  • crime syndicate large-scale organization of
    professional criminals that controls some vice or
    business through violence or the threat of
    violence

24
American Criminal-Justice System
Section 2 Crime
  • Police have most immediate control over who is
    arrested for a criminal act
  • police discretion police have the power to
    decide who is actually arrested
  • size of population, number of criminal offenses,
    and number of police officers make discretion
    necessary
  • factors that influence police discretion
    seriousness of offense, wishes of the victim,
    attitude of suspect, presence of bystanders, race
  • racial profiling - practice of assuming that
    nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit
    crime than white Americans

25
American Criminal-Justice System
Section 2 Crime
  • Courts determine the guilt or innocence of an
    accused person by means of a trial and assigns
    some form of punishment if there is a guilty
    finding
  • 90 of all case are settled through plea
    bargaining
  • plea bargaining process of legal negotiation
    that allows an accused person to plead guilty to
    a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentences
  • allows courts to reduce volume of caseloads with
    avoiding expensive and time-consuming trials

26
American Criminal-Justice System
Section 2 Crime
  • Corrections sanctions (prison, parole,
    probation) used to punish those found guilty of
    crimes
  • sanctions serve 4 functions
  • retribution act of revenge for victim and
    society
  • deterrence discourage offenders from committing
    future crimes
  • rehabilitation reform criminals so they can
    return to society as law- abiding citizens
  • social protection prevent additional crimes
  • recidivism term for repeated criminal
    behaviors, 62 of released prisoners will be
    charged with new crimes, 41 will return to
    prison within 3 years

27
American Criminal-Justice System
Section 2 Crime
  • Juvenile-Justice System used to punish
    offenders younger than age 18, developed in the
    1960s
  • courts must now guarantee juveniles same legal
    rights and privileges as adult defendants
  • try to provide more services
  • can be tried as adults for serious offenses
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