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Title: Chapter Two:

Chapter Two
  • Theories of Development

What Theories Do
  • Developmental theorysystematic statement of
    principles and generalizations that provides a
    coherent framework for studying development

What Theories Do, cont.
  • Theories
  • form basis for hypotheses that can be tested by
    research studies
  • formulating right question is more difficult that
    finding right answers
  • generate discoveries
  • offer insight and guidance by providing coherent

What Theories Do, cont.
  • Different Types
  • grand theoriescomprehensive, traditional
  • originated in psychology
  • minitheoriestheories that focus on specific area
    of development
  • originated more in sociology through study of
    social groups and family structures
  • emergent theoriesnew, comprehensive groupings of
  • multidisciplinary approach includes historic
    events and genetic discoveries

Grand Theories
  • Grand Theoriespowerful framework for
    interpreting and understanding change and
    development that applies to all individuals in
    all contexts, across all contents

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Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Psychoanalytic theory interprets human
    development in terms of motives and drives

Freuds Ideas
  • Sigmund Freud
  • Three stages of development in first six years
  • oral, anal, phallic
  • in early childhood, latency and then adolescence,
  • each stage includes potential conflicts
  • how a person experiences and resolves conflicts
    determines personality and patterns of behavior

Eriksons Ideas
  • Erik Erikson, a follower of Freud, proposed 8
    developmental stages, each characterized by a
    developmental crisis
  • trust vs. mistrust
  • autonomy vs. shame
  • initiative vs. guilt
  • industry vs. inferiority
  • identity vs. role diffusion
  • intimacy vs. isolation
  • generativity vs. stagnation
  • integrity vs. despair

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  • Behaviorism is built on laws of behavior and
    processes by which behavior is learned
  • focus ways we learn specific behaviors that can
    be described, analyzed, and predicted with
    scientific accuracy

Laws of Behavior
  • Conditioningany process in which behavior is
  • Classical conditioningIvan Pavlov
  • process by which a neutral stimulus become
    associated with a meaningful stimulus
  • stimulus and response (respondent conditioning)
  • Operant conditioningB. F. Skinner
  • process by which a response is gradually learned
    via reinforcement or punishment
  • also called instrumental conditioning

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Social Learning
  • Extension of learning theory that includes
    modeling which involves people observing behavior
    and patterning their own after it
  • Modeling
  • process in which people observe, then copy
  • Alfred Banduramost likely to occur if model is
    admired or observer is inexperienced
  • self-efficacy motivates people to change
    themselves and their contexts

Cognitive Theory
  • Focuses on the structure and development of
    thought processes, which shape perceptions,
    attitudes, and actions.
  • Jean Piagets 4 Stages
  • sensorimotor
  • pre-operational
  • concrete operational
  • formal operational

Cognitive Theory, cont.
  • Cognitive equilibriumstate of mental balance
  • Cognitive adaptationassimilation, accommodation
    of ideas

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Emergent Theories
  • Emergent theories arise from several accumulated
    minitheories and may be the new systematic and
    comprehensive theories of the future

Sociocultural Theory
  • Seeks to explain growth of individual knowledge,
    development, and competencies in terms of
    guidance, support, and structure supplied by the
  • human development is the result of dynamic
    interaction of the developing persons and their
    surrounding culture

Guided Participation
  • Guided participationtutor engages learner in
    joint activities, providing instruction and
    direct involvement in learning
  • Apprenticeship in thinkingmentor provides
    instruction and support needed by novice

The Zone of Proximal Development
  • Zone of proximal developmentrange of skills
    learner can perform with assistance but not
  • learner is drawn into learning by teacher
  • Cultural variations Basic principles are
    universal, but skills, challenges, and
    opportunities vary from culture to culture,
    depending on the values and structures of the
    cultures society

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Epigenetic Theory
  • Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the
    environmentthe newest developmental theory
  • stresses that we have powerful instincts and
    abilities that arise from our biological
    heritage. Timing and pace of certain
    developmental changes are genetically guided
  • performismeverything is set in advance by genes
    and then is gradually manifested in the course of

With, On, and Around the Genes
  • Genetic refers to the entire genome that makes up
    the particular genes that cause each person to be
  • each human has a genetic foundation that is
  • epigenetic theory acknowledges the powerful
    instincts and abilities that arise from our
    biological heritage

With, On, and Around the Genes, cont.
  • Epi with, around, before, after, on, or near
    surrounding factors
  • epigeneticsurrounding factors that affect
    expression of genetic instructions
  • some surrounding factors may be stress factors
    others may be facilitating factors
  • Genetic-environmental Interactions
  • genes never function alone

Genetic Adaptation
  • Adaptation of the Genes
  • selective adaptation means that genes for the
    traits that are most useful will become more
    frequent, thus making survival of species more

What Theories Can Contribute
  • Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of
    importance of early childhood experiences
  • Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate
    environment on learning
  • Cognitive theory helps us understand how
    intellectual process and thinking affect actions

What Theories Can Contribute, cont.
  • Sociocultural theory has reminded us that
    development is embedded in a rich and
    multifaceted context
  • Epigenetic theory emphasizes interactions between
    inherited forces and immediate contexts

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Other Theories
  • Brief Solution Focused
  • Narrative
  • Art
  • Play
  • PsychoDrama
  • Object-Relations
  • Jungian
  • Transactional Analysis
  • 12 - step
  • Social Learning
  • Biblio-therapy

What Theories Can Contribute, cont.
  • Eclectic perspective
  • approach taken by most developmentalists in which
    they apply aspects of each of the various
    theories rather than staying with just one
  • Integrated is better

Eclectic verses Integrated
  • Eclectic picks from multiple sources without
    common thread

  • Integration picks from theories with purpose and
    with commonality

Level of Concepts
The Nature-Nurture Controversy
  • Is it heredity or environment that shapes us?
  • How much is a result of any given
    characteristics, behavior or pattern of
    development is a result of genes and how much is
    a result of experiences
  • Policy and practice nature/nurture theories are
    implicit in many public policies

Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
  • AD/HD and homosexualityHow and to what extent
    are nature and nurture involved in each case?
  • Evidence from AD/HD research that it can come
    from either

Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
Homosexuality, cont.
  • Earlier assumptions about homosexuality more
    nurture than nature. As hypotheses tested,
    nurture was revealed as less crucial
  • sexual orientation may be a matter of nature
  • sexual expression may be a matter of cultural
    attitude (nurture) but not sexual orientation
  • evidence supporting nature as main factor (e.g.,
    affect of genetic linkage, prenatal hormones)

Theoretical Perspectives on Hyperactivity and
Homosexuality, cont.
  • Ideology often adds to complexity and
    polarization of opinions on many subjects when
    nature and nurture are considered
  • Important to separate assumptions from facts
  • done via research and testing of hypotheses

Chapter Three
  • Heredity and Environment

The Genetic Code
  • Development that is dynamic, ongoing,
    interactional, and unique just four chemicals
    are the basic building blocks of the genetic code

What Genes Are
  • Genes are made up of DNAthe complex protein code
    of genetic information
  • DNA directs the form and function of each body
    cell as it develops

What Genes Are, cont.
  • Each molecule of DNA is called a chromosome
  • Chromosomes contain instructions to make all the
    proteins a living being needs
  • The complete packet of instructions is called a
  • Each person has 23 sets of chromosomes, or 46
  • The human genome contains 30,000 genes

The Beginnings of Human Life
  • Gametereproductive cell that directs process by
    which genetic information combined and
  • Father gametessperm
  • Mother gametesovum

Zygote and Genotype
  • Male and female gametes fuse and become a zygote
  • Zygote begins process of duplication and division
  • two reproductive cells
  • Genotypethe genetic information from the 46
  • set at human conception and endures through life

Sex Determination and Sex Ratio
  • Of 22 out of 23 pairs of human chromosome, the
    matching chromosomes are very closely matched
  • but not identical
  • some genes come in slight, normal variations
    called alleles
  • The 23rd pair is different
  • in females, it is designated XX
  • in males, it is designated XY

Sex Determination and Sex Ratio, cont.
  • Females always contribute one X
  • Males will have 1/2 of the sperm contributing an
    X and the other half contributing a Y
  • Critical factor in determining the sex of a
    zygote is which sperm reaches the ovum first

Sex Determination and Sex Ratio, cont.
  • Other factors include
  • rarely, male sperm may only carry either X or Y
  • sometimes a womans uterus either unusually
    alkaline or acid, giving either an X or Y sperm
    an advantage
  • in a stressful pregnancy XY embryos are more
    likely to be expelled than are XX embryos in a
    spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage
  • current sex ratio in United States is 52 males to
    48 females

Multiple Zygotes
  • Monozygotic twinsidentical twins (or
    quadruplets) originate from one zygote
  • share identical instructions
  • possibility of cloning
  • 1/3 of twins monozygotic

Multiple Zygotes, cont.
  • Dizygotic twinsfrom two separate zygotes
  • Dizygotic births occur once in every 60 births,
    and occur as frequently as 1 in 6 pregnancies,
    but usually only 1 twin develops past embryo

Multiple Zygotes, cont.
  • Dizygotic twins
  • women in late 30s are three times more likely to
    have dizygotic twins
  • as menopause approaches, ovulation becomes
    irregular with some cycles producing no ovas and
    others producing multiple ovas
  • share no more genes than other offspring (about
    50 percent)
  • 50 percent of the time one twin is male

Duplication, Division, and Differentiation
  • The zygote contains a complete set of
    instructions to create a person
  • Complex instructions on duplication, cell
    division, and differentiation

Duplication and Division
  • Zygote begins duplication and division within
    hours after conception
  • the 23 pairs of chromosomes duplicate, forming
    two complete sets of the genetic code for that
    person (zygote)
  • these two pair sets move toward the opposite
    sides of the zygote and the single cell in the
    zygote splits down the middle
  • the zygotes outer membrane surrounds two cells,
    each containing a complete set of the original
    genetic code
  • these two cells then duplicate and divide to
    become four, then eight, and so on

Duplication and Division, cont.
  • by birth, your original zygote has duplicated and
    divided into 10 trillion cells . . . by
    adulthood, its 100 trillion cells
  • Every cell carries an exact copy of the complete
    genetic instructions inherited by the one-celled

  • Not just any cell found in the zygote can become
    a person
  • At the 8-cell stage a third process,
    differentiation, occurs
  • Cells begin to specialize
  • they take different forms
  • they reproduce at different rates, depending on
    where in the growing mass they are located

Differentiation, cont.
  • Certain genes affect differentiation by switching
    other genes on and others off so that the other
    genes produce the right proteins at the right
    timeson-off switching mechanisms
  • Genotypethe genetic potential

Gene - Gene Interactions
  • Multifactoral traitsinherited traits produced by
    interaction of genes and environment
  • Polygenetic traitsinherited traits produced by
    gene interaction
  • These are affected by on-off switching
    mechanisms, additive genes, and
    dominant-recessive genes

Additive Genes
  • Additive genesone of a number of genes affecting
    a specific trait
  • each additive gene contributes to the trait
  • skin color and height are determined by them
  • every additive gene has some impact on a persons
  • when genes interact this way, all the involved
    genes contribute fairly equally

Dominant and Recessive Genes
  • Nonadditive genesphenotype shows one gene more
    influential than other genes
  • This is also referred to as the
    dominant-recessive pattern
  • gene showing the most influence is referred to as
  • gene showing the least influence is referred to
    as recessive

Dominant and Recessive Genes, cont.
  • X-linked geneslocated on X chromosome
  • if recessive gene is X-linked, that it is on the
    X chromosome is critical
  • males have only one X chromosome females have 2
    X chromosomes
  • Whatever recessive genes a male inherits on his X
    chromosome cannot be counterbalanced or dominated
    by alleles on a second X, so any recessive genes
    on X will be expressed
  • Explains why males have more X-linked disorders
    (ex. color blindness, many allergies, several
    diseases, some learning disabilities)

More Complications
  • Genes direct the creation of 20 amino acids that
    produce thousands of proteins forming the bodys
    structure and directing biochemical functions
  • proteins of each body cell are continually
    affected by other proteins, nutrients, and toxins
    that influence the cell functioning

More Complications, cont.
  • genetic imprintingtendency of certain genes to
    be expressed differently when inherited from
    mother than from father (tagging)
  • some of the genes which influence height, insulin
    production, and several forms of mental
    retardation affect a child differently depending
    on which parent they came from

Genetic Diversity
  • Every person is unique

Mechanisms of Genetic Diversity
  • Since each gamete contains only 23 chromosomes,
    why is every conception genetically unique?
  • 8 million chromosomally different ova x 8 million
    of the same 64 trillion different possibilities
    of children from each couple

Health Benefits of Genetic Diversity
  • Genetic diversity safeguards human health
  • Minute differences can affect the ability to
    stave off certain diseases
  • Genetic diversity maintains the species

From Genotype to Phenotype
  • Every psychological characteristic is genetically
  • Every psychological characteristic and personal
    trait is affected by the environment

From Genotype to Phenotype, cont.
  • Genotypegenetic potential
  • Phenotypethe actual appearance of an
    indivudal--combination of genetic potential and
  • we are all carriers of the unexpressed genes
  • we can pass them along through the sperm or ova

Behavior Genetics
  • Behavior geneticsstudy of effects of genes on
  • personality patterns, psychological disorders,
    and intellectual abilities

Senility Caused by Alzheimers Disease
  • Most common and feared type of senility is
    Alzheimers disease
  • amyloid B protein accumulates in the brain,
    leading to dysfunction and destruction of brain
    cells and disruption of the mind
  • Can be geneticbut only when early-onset

Senility Caused by Alzheimers Disease, cont.
  • If late-onset, may be a combination of genes
    and environment
  • other predictors may include hypertension,
    diabetes, high cholesterol, diet, exercise, not
    smoking, weight control, mental alertness, and
    physical health

  • Inherited biochemistry makes some people highly
    susceptible to alcohol addiction
  • addictive pull can be overpowering, or weak, or
    something in the middle
  • may explain ethnic variations

Alcoholism, cont.
  • Not simply a biochemical reactionit is
    psychological and physical, and biological thus
    alcoholism is polygenetic, with alcoholics
    inheriting a combination of biochemistry-affecting
    and temperament-affecting genes
  • Culture counts too(whether alcohol is present in

Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities
  • We now give attention to these because we can
  • disruptions of normal development
  • origins of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities
  • misinformation and prejudice add to problems of
    people with these abnormalities

Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • A gamete with more than or less than 23
    chromosomes creates a zygote with chromosomal
  • most likely variable that creates chromosomal
    abnormalities is mothers age (over 35)
  • fathers age (over 40) also a variable

Chromosomal Abnormalities, cont.
  • Most zygotes with chromosomal abnormalities never
    come to term
  • spontaneous abortion occurs in about one-half of
    all fetus with chromosomal abnormalities

Down Syndrome
  • Three chromosomes at gene 21 (trisomy-21)
  • Syndromea cluster of distinct characteristics
    that occur together in a given disorder

Abnormalities of the 23rd Pair
  • Location of sex chromosome
  • Kleinfelters syndromeXXY
  • seemingly normal child has delayed puberty
  • Fragile X syndrome
  • hanging on by a thread (mutated gene)
  • intensifies from generation to generation
  • Page 78

Genetic Testing and Genetic Counseling
  • Individuals with a parent, sibling, or child with
    a serious genetic condition known to be dominant
    or recessive
  • Couples with history of early spontaneous
    abortions, stillbirths, or infertility
  • Couples from the same ethnic group or
    subgroupespecially if closely related
  • Women over 35 and men over 40

The Process of Genetic Counseling
  • Counselor constructs couples family history
  • charts patterns of health and illness over
  • Some tests provide information before conception

The Process of Genetic Counseling, cont.
  • Other tests are prenatal- page 83
  • alpha-fetoprotein assay
  • ultrasound (AKA sonogram)
  • amniocentesis
  • chorionic villi sampling
  • pre-implantation testing (used in in vitro
  • gamete selection ova/and or sperm are screened
    to select ones free of particular problems

A Basis for Decision
  • Many want to know ahead of time
  • Some do not
  • There is a more knowledge of what is to comeor

  • If both partners are carriers of a serious
    condition or are at high risk because of age or
    family characteristics, they may turn to
  • in-vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
  • zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIF)
  • artificial insemination donor (AID)
  • postponement of pregnancy until promising
    treatments are further developed

Chapter Four
  • Prenatal Development and Birth

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From Zygote to Newborn
  • Germinal periodfirst 14 days
  • Embryonic period3rd through 8th weeks
  • Fetal period9th week through birth

Process of Conception
Germinal The First 14 Days
  • Zygote divides and keep dividing (at least though
    3rd doubling they are the same)
  • At this stage (8 cells) differentiation begins
  • early stem cells take on distinct
  • they gravitate to locations, foreshadowing the
    type of cells they will become

Germinal The First 14 Days, cont.
  • At about a week after conception the multiplying
    cells separate into two masses
  • outer layer forms a shell (later the placenta)
    and the inner cells from a nucleus (later the
  • first task of out cells to achieve implantation
    embed themselves into the nuturant environment of
    the uterus
  • 60 of all natural conceptions fail to implant
    70 of in vitro procedures fail to implant

Embryo From the Third to the Eighth Week
  • First sign of human structure thin line down the
    middle (22 days) that becomes the neural tube,
    which eventually forms the central nervous
    system, including brain and spinal column
  • fourth week
  • head begins to take shape
  • heart begins with a miniscule blood vessel that
    begins to pulsate

Embryo From the Third to the Eighth Week, cont.
  • fifth week
  • arm and leg buds appear
  • tail-like appendage extends from the spine
  • eighth week
  • embryo weighs 1 gram and is 1 inch long
  • head more rounded face formed
  • all basic organs and body parts (but for sex)
  • 20 of all embryos spontaneously abort now

Fetus From the Ninth Week Until Birth
  • Called a fetus from 9th week on

Third Month
  • Sex organs take shape (Y cell sends signal to
    male sex organs for females, no signal occurs)
  • genital organs fully shaped by 12th week
  • All body parts present
  • Fetus can move every part of body
  • Fetus weighs 3 ounces and is 3 inches long

Middle Three Months Preparing to Survive
  • Heartbeat stronger
  • Digestive and excretory systems develop more
  • Impressive brain growth (6X in size and
  • new neurons develop (neurogenesis)
  • synapsesconnections between neurons

Middle Three Months Preparing to Survive, cont.
  • Age of viabilityage at which preterm baby can
    possibly survive (22 weeks)
  • 26 weeks survival rate about 50
  • brain maturation critical to viability
  • weight critical to viability
  • 28 weeks survival rate about 95

Fetal Brain Maturation
Final Three Months Viability to Full Term
  • Maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular
  • critical difference
  • Gains weight4.5 lbs. in last 10 weeks

Risk Reduction
  • Despite complexity, most babies are born healthy
  • Most hazards are avoidable
  • Teratologystudy of birth defects
  • Teratogens (ter-at-o-gens)broad range of
    substances that can cause environmental insults
    that may cause prenatal abnormalities or later
    learning abilities

Determining Risk
  • Risk analysisweighing of factors that affect
    likelihood of teratogen causing harm

Timing of Exposure
  • Critical periodin prenatal development, the time
    when a particular organ or other body part is
    most susceptible to teratogenic damage
  • entire embryonic period is critical

Amount of Exposure
  • Dose and/or frequency
  • Threshold effectteratogen relatively harmless
    until exposure reaches a certain level

Amount of Exposure, cont.
  • Interaction effectrisk of harm increases if
    exposure to teratogen occurs at the same time as
    exposure to another teratogen or risk

Genetic Vulnerability
  • Genetic susceptibilities product of genes
    combined with stress
  • Folic-acid deficiency may cause neural- tube
  • occurs most commonly in certain ethnic groups and
    less often in others
  • Males are more genetically vulnerable

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Specific Teratogens
  • No way to predict risk on an individual basis
  • Research has shown possible effects of most
    common and damaging teratogens
  • AIDS and alcohol extremely damaging
  • pregnant women with AIDS transmit it to their
    newborns high doses of alcohol cause FAS
    alcohol drug use increase risk to developing

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Low Birthweight
  • Low Birthweight (LBW)
  • less than 5 1/2 lbs.
  • grows too slowly or weighs less than normal
  • more common than 10 years ago
  • second most common cause of neonatal death
  • Preterm
  • birth occurs 3 or more weeks before standard 38

Low Birthweight, cont.
  • Small for Gestational Age (SGA)
  • maternal illness
  • maternal behavior
  • cigarette smoking (25 of SGA births)
  • maternal malnutrition
  • poorly nourished before and during pregnancy
  • underweight, undereating, and smoking tend to
    occur together

Low Birthweight, cont.
  • Factors that affect normal prenatal growth
  • quality of medical care, education, social
    support, and cultural practices

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The Birth Process
  • Hormones in mothers brain signals process
  • Contractions begin strong and regular at 10
    minutes apart
  • average labor for first births is 8 hours

The Newborns First Minutes
  • AssessmentApgar scale
  • five factors, 2 points each
  • heart rate
  • breathing
  • color
  • muscle tone
  • reflexes
  • score of 7 or better normal
  • score under 7 needs help breathing
  • score under 4 needs urgent critical care

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  • Parents Reaction
  • preparation for birth, physical and emotional
    support, position and size of fetus, and
    practices of mothers culture
  • Medical Attention
  • birth in every developed nation has medical
  • 22 of births in U.S. are cesarean section
  • removal of fetus via incisions in mothers
    abdomen and uterus
  • is medical intervention always necessary?

Birth Complications
  • Cerebral Palsybrain damage causing difficulties
    in muscle control, possibly affecting speech or
    other body movements
  • Anoxialack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can
    cause brain damage or death

First Intensive Care . . . Then Home
  • At the Hospital
  • many hospitals provide regular massage and
    soothing stimulation ideally, parents share in
  • At Home
  • complications, e.g., minor medical crises
  • cognitive difficulties may emerge, but high-risk
    infants can develop normally

Mothers, Fathers and a Good Start
  • Strong family support (familia)
  • Fathers play a crucial role
  • may help wives abstain from drugs or alcohol
  • can reduce maternal stress
  • Parental alliancecommitment by both parents to
    cooperate in raising child
  • helps alleviate postpartum depression

Mothers, Fathers and a Good Start, cont.
  • Parent-infant bondstrong, loving connection that
    forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their
  • immediate contact not needed for this to occur
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