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CS3205, HCI in Software Development (formerly Usability Engineering)


CS3205, HCI in Software Development (formerly Usability Engineering) Course Introduction Spring 2011 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CS3205, HCI in Software Development (formerly Usability Engineering)

CS3205, HCI in Software Development(formerly
Usability Engineering)
  • Course Introduction
  • Spring 2011

There must be a problem because
Whats the Course About?
  • In one sentence
  • Human-computer interaction (HCI) and
    user-centered design in the context of SW
  • Note the target audience
  • Students who may be involved in SW development
  • HCI is important to others HW designers and
    engineers, Web designers, psychologists, etc.
  • But CS3205 targets SW development

What is HCI?
  • More soon
  • Human-Computer interface
  • Where people meet or come together with
    machines or computer-based systems
  • Physical interface (e.g. buttons, screens, menus,
  • Logical interface
  • The model a system presents a user
  • Set of tasks available and how theyre organized

From the SIGCHI Website
  • HCI is
  • An inter-disciplinary discipline (engineering,
    CS, psychology, graphic design, ergonomics, etc.)
  • Concerned with design, evaluation, and
  • Addresses peoples needs, capabilities,

SIGCHI curriculum definition site
  • Human-computer interaction is a discipline
    concerned with the design, evaluation and
    implementation of interactive computing systems
    for human use and with the study of major
    phenomena surrounding them.

What is an interface?
  • ?

What is the User Interface?
  • Is it the screen layout?
  • Is it the documentation?
  • Is it the interaction devices and techniques?
  • Is it what the application does?
  • Is it the help system?
  • Is it the code?

Evolution of HCI interfaces
  • 50s - Interface at the hardware level for
    engineers - switch panels
  • 60-70s - interface at the programming level -
  • 70-90s - Interface at the terminal level -
    command languages
  • 80s - Interface at the interaction dialogue level
    - GUIs, multimedia
  • 90s - Interface at the work setting - networked
    systems, groupware
  • 00s - Interface becomes pervasive
  • RF tags, Bluetooth technology, mobile devices,
    consumer electronics, interactive screens,
    embedded technology, information appliances
  • Late 00s computing becomes more ubiquitous
  • Internet use becomes the norm
  • Web applications become richer. The Cloud.
  • Mobile devices like smartphones tablets become

User Execute Tasks, Interpret Information or
  • HCI is at the interface between a human and a
    computer performing a task
  • Task - write document, calculate budget, filter
    email, register for course, find best route, ...
  • Task might be work, play, learning,
    communicating, etc etc
  • Essential user activities
  • Express task (execution)
  • Interpret results (evaluation)
  • Not just on the desktop! (How many computers in
    your family home, including the garage?)

HCI Wide Range of Concerns
  • Make an interactive system be useful for a task,
    and support that task effectively
  • Easy to use, easy to learn, avoid errors
  • Must understand users, understand users tasks
  • Create a usable logical interface
  • A users conceptual model of the system
  • Overall design of how we interact
  • Physical and low-level design
  • Physical interface buttons, keys, screens
  • SW interface menus, screens, colors
  • Evaluating usability
  • During development, after completion

High-level Terms
  • HCI, CHI
  • Usability
  • User-centered Design
  • An approach to design (SW, Web, other) that
    involves the user a great deal, in many phases
  • Interaction Design (ID)
  • Something different than HCI? Maybe.
  • Our current textbook is an ID text

  • A definition from ISO standard 9241
  • The extent to which a product can be used by
    specified users to achieve specified goals with
    effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a
    specified context of use.
  • Effectiveness
  • accuracy and completeness in achieving goals
  • Efficiency
  • resources expended
  • Satisfaction
  • comfort, acceptability (happiness, pleasure)

  • Effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction
  • Are all of these equally important?
  • All the time?

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What is User-Centered Design?
  • An approach to UI development and system
  • Focuses on understanding
  • Users, and
  • Their goals and tasks, and
  • The environment (physical, organizational,
  • Pay attention to these throughout development

ISO on User-centered Design
  • ISO 13407 describes human-centered design
    processes for interactive systems
  • Principles of human-centered design
  • Active involvement of users
  • Appropriate allocation of function between user
    and system
  • Iteration of design solutions
  • Multidisciplinary design teams

ISO on User-centered Design (2)
  • Essential activities in human-centered design
  • Understand and specify the context of use
  • Specify the user and organizational requirements
  • Produce design solutions (prototypes)
  • Evaluate designs with users against requirements

Are You Experienced? (in UC Design, I mean)
  • Think about a significantly complex software
    project youve been involved in
  • Work, research, CS3240, etc.
  • Did it seem like an example of user-centered
  • How did it, or how did it not?

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What is interaction design?
  • Designing interactive products to support people
    in their everyday and working lives
  • Sharp, Rogers and Preece (2002)
  • The design of spaces for human communication and
  • Winograd (1997)

Goals of interaction design
  • Develop usable products
  • Usability means easy to learn, effective to use
    and provide an enjoyable experience
  • Involve users in the design process

Unclear about what ID is?
  • Not surprising!
  • Well read
  • What is Interaction Design and What Does It Mean
    to Information Designers? by Craig Marion
  • http//www.chesco.com/cmarion/PCD/WhatIsInteracti
  • and
  • From Computing Machinery to Interaction Design by
    Terry Winograd
  • http//hci.stanford.edu/7Ewinograd/acm97.html

From HCI to Interaction Design
  • Human-computer interaction (HCI) isconcerned
    with the design, evaluation and implementation of
    interactive computing systems for human use and
    with the study of major phenomena surrounding
    them (ACM SIGCHI, 1992, p.6)
  • Interaction design (ID) is the design of
    spaces for human communication and interaction
    (Winograd, 1997)
  • One distinction more application areas, more
    technologies and more issues to consider when
    designing interfaces

Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields
Academic disciplines (e.g. computer
science, psychology)
Design practices (e.g. graphic design)
Interaction Design
Interdisciplinary fields (e.g HCI, CSCW)
Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields
  • Academic disciplines contributing to ID
  • Psychology
  • Social Sciences
  • Computing Sciences
  • Engineering
  • Ergonomics
  • Informatics

Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields
  • Design practices contributing to ID
  • Graphic design
  • Product design
  • Artist-design
  • Industrial design
  • Film industry

Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields
  • Interdisciplinary fields that do interaction
  • HCI
  • Human Factors
  • Cognitive Engineering
  • Cognitive Ergonomics
  • Computer Supported Co-operative Work
  • Information Systems

What do professionals do in the HCI or ID
  • interaction designers - ??
  • usability engineers - ??
  • web designers (we know this one!)
  • information architects - ??
  • user experience designers - ??

What do professionals do in the HCI or ID
  • interaction designers - people involved in the
    design of all the interactive aspects of a
  • usability engineers - people who focus on
    evaluating products, using usability methods and
  • web designers - people who develop and create the
    visual design of websites, such as layouts
  • information architects - people who come up with
    ideas of how to plan and structure interactive
  • user experience designers - people who do all the
    above but who may also carry out field studies to
    inform the design of products

Reminder What is involved in the process of
UC/ID design
  • Identify needs and establish requirements
  • Functionality, goals, tasks
  • Develop alternative designs
  • Build interactive prototypes that can be
    communicated and assessed
  • test, refine, iterate
  • Evaluate what is being built throughout the
    process(This is what youll do this semester!)

Rules about Developing for Users
  • Rule 1 All users are not like you.
  • Rule 2 All users are not alike.
  • Consider
  • Physical cognitive abilities special needs
  • Personality culture
  • Knowledge skills
  • Motivation

Class Activity
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • Pairs write down differences
  • Pairs merge results
  • Instructor calls on pairs to share answers
  • Question
  • Think about a hard-to-use software product (or
    computer-based system).
  • In what way does it have poor usability?
  • General problems
  • Specific examples

Bad Interfaces, Spring 2011
  • SMOK
  • Hard to learn. Cant always right- or left-click
  • Scroll disabled depending on Zoom level
  • Canvas wont resize.
  • Looks cluttered.
  • Lines dont move with objects when you move them.
  • IBCM (web-based version)
  • Freezes if stuck in a loop. Must restart browser
    (not in Chrome)

  • Voice mail or audio-based systems
  • Not visual. Slower to navigate.
  • UVa registrar listen to long set of options. Not
    able to skip if you know what to do
  • Not clear / visible what commands are
  • Voice recognition helps, but pronouncing
    international names is hard for many
  • Facebook app for Blackberry
  • Scroll down through notifications, but must
    scroll all the way back to top
  • Look at photos from the beginnning (always)
  • To scroll up in message, must go to the bottom
    and then scroll up
  • Etc. etc. etc.

  • World of Warcraft
  • Abilities on action bars that cover bottom and
    right side of screen. Must scroll quickly
  • Health info in two different places
  • Must look in many places to be efficient
  • No effective key mapping
  • Emacs
  • Hard to learn key-strokes
  • Relies on key-strokes, not visual
  • Interaction between undo and redo

  • Word 2008 (Mac)
  • Unstable, location/use of toolbars
  • Adobe CS Suite
  • Undo in photoshop is just a toggle
  • Others more like undo/redo
  • Unstable
  • Blender (3D animation modeling)
  • Steep learning curving
  • Not like any others. Learning others doesnt
    help. Tries to be different.
  • Too many options, windows, hotkeys

  • SIS
  • One window at a time. Info distribted across
    multipe winodws
  • Nested scrollable windows
  • Time out is irritating
  • Too many clicks to do simple tasks
  • To search, must choose dept from drop-down and
    there are a LOT of departments
  • Cant enroll in class from search windown
  • Cant go on waitlist from search window
  • To change, sometimes must drop
  • Edit may work. Bad name. Swap not what you want.

  • SIS (page 2 of ?)
  • Left-hand side useless info. Better if it showed
    where you are in interface, supported quicker
  • Transcript request fails (if downloads, doesnt
    make it clear it)
  • Missing ability to see how one of multi sections
    fits your schedule

  • iMovie
  • 2006 version than later versions
  • More intuitive
  • More restrictive

Bad Interfaces, Spr 08
  • SMOK
  • Zooming hard, not intuitive
  • Do it too much, overlap, too much scrolling
  • Sometimes right-click, other times do something
  • Some commands buried
  • Default when adding component bad, things
  • Things you need to find not labeled well
  • Too much zooming, search to find things
  • Add tings and file is lost
  • Components/things easily deleted by mistake
  • Failed to always load file correctly
  • Demands advance planning, otherwise hard to
    change things later
  • Hard to distinguish arrows between components
    where there are many

  • Copy and paste from Word puts stuff in just one
  • Hard to change details in graphs
  • Wizard great, but hard to see how to customize
  • 2D graphs
  • Print formatting
  • Steep learning curve
  • Hard for beginners needing advanced features
  • Click on cell, selects all, and you may delete it
    when you mean to edit it
  • Formulas hard to follow which cells are
  • Floating point accuracy

Fake iPod
  • Different buttons are used to select at different
  • Mistake takes you back to beginning instead of
    back one
  • Cant define order of songs when playing

  • Type in year/semester use odd format
  • Could default to logical semester
  • Doesnt have all info in it to be good
  • Need COD which isnt there
  • Waitlist isnt well integrated
  • Availability closed at certain times (?)
  • Cant press enter to login in, must click
  • Also, tab order isnt logical
  • Must return back to main menu always, even when
    theres a logical other window you want to do
  • Cant use Backspace/Back to go back
  • Close window causes it to chide you
  • Audit have this request/wait/return option
  • Seems unfriendly, unresponsive
  • Timer period too short since you have to use gt1
  • Refresh -- F5 logs you out

Examples of non-usable systems
  • Krogers self-checkout
  • Use of the scale is confusing, not enough room
    for stuff
  • Slow scanners, not as efficient as youd hope
  • Slow to scan/place/wait, so takes longer
  • Default fix is get cashier, no other
  • Poor error recovery
  • Why cant I swipe student ID? Didnt check if
    you were a student once
  • Ableton-Live or similar recording/audio software
  • doesnt look like standard Windows program, so
    hard to find GUI controls
  • might look cool but makes it less efficient

  • Games that used keyboard commands only and used
    card-board cut-out
  • Chem151 HW checker program
  • Cant backtrack in the steps you have to do
  • Crashes a lot
  • Didnt accept numeric answers missing x.0
  • No feedback on why
  • UVas Webmail
  • Ugly to look at, not pleasing
  • hard to keep mail organized in folders
  • Must explicitly copy and move
  • Slow
  • Useless spam filter
  • Must log into webmail/toolkit even when youve
    logged into a machine
  • Filters out mail headers / not clear you can
    control this
  • Indents messages in a thread, but if too deep you
    dont see enough of the message

  • Mathcad
  • hard to learn at first
  • hard to keep track of variable / whole thing
    fails because of one small error / not good at
    explaining source of errors
  • use of arrow-keys vs. space-bar to move things in
    an equation
  • expected arrow keys to work
  • 4 different versions of the equals-sign / hard
    to distinguish on the screen
  • new version cant read files from other versions
  • hard to remember after not using it for a while
    (lots of tricks needed, hard to remember)

  • ISIS
  • pops up a window, pop-up blocker problems
  • cant use browsers back button
  • gives course instructor number instead of name
  • must enter schedule-number instead of clicking on
    course ID and number
  • Must use semester as a code, and if you get this
    wrong its confusing whats wrong
  • Interface has pictures/images for links, not the
    conventional under-lined links
  • not integrated into COD, so must copy info over
    from COD to ISIS
  • Kicks you off too quickly
  • Too often overloaded, too many users
  • Unavailability at certain hours / dont know when
    its unavailable / status not visible easily
  • Links on main page are too similar
  • SSN number use

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(No Transcript)
Spring 06 Examples of non-usable systems
  • Eclipse
  • Hard learning curve, bad for beginners
  • Too many windows, confusing layout, too much
    going on (advanced options)
  • Mathcad
  • Interface not intuitive
  • Not monkey-proof (lets you make mistakes that
    crash it, make it unstable)
  • Saving didnt always work well
  • Mouse scrolling caused program to crash

  • Main UVa website
  • Cluttered, too much stuff
  • Random, not organized
  • Things you need small, hard to find must search
  • User-base
  • Grad school application sites
  • Multiple systems, not standard
  • Important info not clear, not consistent
  • Geometers Sketchpad
  • Hard to figure out how to use (sit down, cant
    figure out what to do). Need to read instruction
    book. Bad help

  • AOL IM
  • Flashing movies, ads
  • Opens up another window
  • Unwanted info, windows, distracting
  • Adds buddies to your buddy list (cant remove)
  • vi
  • Not intuitive, need instructions
  • Simple function but needlessly complex

  • ISIS
  • Have to type in year, semester (no drop downs).
    Cryptic input, better output
  • Must enter course number
  • Hit back, closes windows, must log-in again
  • Boots you off for no reason. Doesnt handle
    heavy loads well.
  • Must disable popup blocker.
  • Not available at night. Data not current.
  • Doesnt integrate with COD well.
  • Inputs dont match outputs.
  • Wont let you drop below 15 credits. Get stuck.

End of lecture 1
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