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Experimental Psychology PSY 433


Experimental Psychology PSY 433 Chapter 9 Conditioning and Learning (Cont.) ... Choice of design may affect the actual outcome of the research. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Experimental Psychology PSY 433

Experimental PsychologyPSY 433
  • Chapter 9
  • Conditioning and Learning (Cont.)

Maze Times (Both Labs)
Maze Errors (Both Labs)
ANOVA (Repeated Measures)
Tests of Within-Subjects Effects Measure
MEASURE_1 Source Type III Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Time Sphericity
Assumed 21082.344 14 1505.882 9.128 .000 Greenho
use-Geisser 21082.344 1.236 17062.838 9.128 .004
Huynh-Feldt 21082.344 1.284 16420.288 9.128 .00
4 Lower-bound 21082.344 1.000 21082.344 9.128 .
008 Error(Time) Sphericity Assumed 39263.785 238
164.974 Greenhouse-Geisser 39263.785 21.005 186
9.285 Huynh-Feldt 39263.785 21.827 1798.892 L
ower-bound 39263.785 17.000 2309.634
More Talented Animals
  • Sweet Sundance Gong Show act
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vYO7lAHsn84Q
  • Cirque de Sewer Gong Show act
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vSGxuEKcE_94

Choosing an Experimental Design
  • Between vs within subjects designs offer
    different tradeoffs, but there are more than
    practical considerations at stake.
  • Choice of design may affect the actual outcome of
    the research.
  • Sometimes using a between-subjects and a
    within-subjects design produces different
  • Carryover effects may exist without the
    experimenters knowledge.

Order Effects
  • Order effects (practice effects) experiencing
    one level affects behavior in another level
  • Effects of practice, boredom, fatigue
  • Example Does content (biology text vs. novel)
    affect proofreading speed? Order is Biology-Novel
  • Order effects are controlled in within-subjects
    designs by randomizing or counterbalancing the
    presentation orders.

Order Effects in Proofreading
Differential Carryover Effects
  • Carryover effects, differential/asymmetrical
    transfer effects occur when experiencing one
    level affects performance on the next.
  • The effect of the first level on the second level
    differs depending on which comes first.
  • Effect of B following A ? effect of A following B
  • Confound occurs when one level consistently
    precedes the other.

Differential Carryover Effects in Problem Solving
Classical Conditioning Example
  • Grice and Hunter (1964) - human conditioning
  • UCS is air puff UR is blinking
  • Vary CS intensity (loud or soft tone)
  • Done between-subjects or within-subjects
  • 500 ms CS 500 ms ISI US
  • Varying CS intensity in BS design has no effect
    on CR
  • Varying CS intensity in WS design has large

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Contrast Between Stimuli
  • In a WS design, subjects can compare two levels
    of a stimulus in the same experiment and may
    respond to the two stimuli differently.
  • This effect occurs despite the randomization and
    counterbalancing that were used to control for
    differential order effects
  • First, choose a random order (LSSLSLLLS)
  • Then counterbalance the random order ½ got it,
    ½ got the reverse (SLLSLSSSL)

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Instrumental Conditioning Example
  • Bower (1961) 3 groups of rats trained to run
    down an alley (maze) for food.
  • Two IVs kind of reward color of maze.
  • Reward
  • Constant 8 got 8 pellets per maze run
  • Constant 1 -- got 1 pellet per maze run
  • Contrast got 1 pellet in one colored maze, 8 in
    the other colored maze (black/white)
  • All 3 groups ½ got black ½ got white maze.

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ABBA Counterbalancing
  • Define 2 conditions A and B or S and L
  • In Bowers case, 1 pellet (S) 8 pellet (L)
  • Present in order ABBA (SLLS)
  • If order effects are linear, they will then be
    distributed evenly across conditions.
  • If nonlinear, do not use ABBA, or give practice
    trials first.
  • Bower used both ABBA and BAAB.
  • Use Balanced Latin Square with gt2 groups.

Small-n Designs
  • Behavior often cannot be studied in large groups
    (large-n designs)
  • Small-n frequently used in therapeutic situations
  • Reversal designs ABA or ABAB
  • A baseline recording of behaviors
  • B introduction of treatment
  • IV is essentially treatment / no treatment.

Example Crying Behavior

Removing the positive reinforcement (attention)
extinguishes crying behavior.
FIG Kanto7e 9-8, Hart data
Multiple Baseline Designs
  • Observe different behaviors, before and after
  • Can be done two ways
  • Observe multiple behaviors in one individual --
    like a within-subject design
  • Observe a single behavior in different
    individuals between-subjects
  • Treatments are introduced at different times.

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Example Siblings Compared
  • 3 pairs of autistic vs normal siblings
  • Baseline -- observed target behaviors (counting,
    letter ID, etc)
  • Treatment -- trained normal sib to reinforce
    behaviors of autistic sib
  • DV -- number of correct performances of behaviors.

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Changing Criterion Design
  • Instead of comparing different people or
    different behaviors, progress in shaping behavior
    over time is measured.
  • The target behavior needed for reinforcement is
    changed as a behavior is acquired.
  • Range-bound changing criterion instead of a
    target, a range for reinforcement is established.
  • Distributed-criterion design targets are spread
    across several behaviors.
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