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Exploring Life Chapter 1

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Exploring Life Chapter 1 Advanced Placement Biology Liberty Senior High School Mr. Knowles Grouping Species: The Basic Idea Diversity is a hallmark of life. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exploring Life Chapter 1


1
Exploring LifeChapter 1
  • Advanced Placement Biology
  • Liberty Senior High School
  • Mr. Knowles

2
Life
  • Defies a simple, one-line definition.
  • Lends itself to mysticism.

3
What is biology?
4
Biology
  • Bios Greek for life
  • Logos Greek for study or thought
  • Biology - the study of living things

5
  • Concept 1.1 Biologists explore life from the
    microscopic to the global scale.
  • The study of life
  • Extends from the microscope scale of molecules
    and cells to the global scale of the entire
    living planet.

6
What does it mean to be alive?
  • What characteristics define life?
  • What are the criteria for something to be alive?

7
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8
What does it mean to be living?
  • Some Characteristics
  • 1. Order- have a hierarchical organization (Fig
    1.3).

9
A Hierarchy of Biological Organization
  • The hierarchy of life
  • Extends through many levels of biological
    organization

10
  • From the biosphere to organisms

1.a. biome
2. Ecosystems
3. Communities
4. Populations
5. Organisms
11
  • From cells to atoms.

12
Order Beyond the Organism
  • Population- a group of individuals of same
    species occupying a given area at the same time.
  • Community- a number of interacting populations in
    a common environment.

13
Order in Biology
  • Ecosystem- organisms (biotic) interacting with
    their nonliving (abiotic) environment.
  • Biomes- major groupings of plants, animals, and
    microorganisms that occur over a wide geography
    and have distinct characteristics (ex. deserts,
    tropical rainforests)

14
The Emergent Properties of Systems
  • Biological systems are much more than the sum of
    their parts.
  • Due to increasing complexity
  • New properties emerge with each step upward in
    the hierarchy of biological order

15
The Power and Limitations of Reductionism
  • Reductionism-
  • Involves reducing complex systems to simpler
    components that are more manageable to study.

16
  • The study of DNA structure, an example of
    reductionism
  • Has led to further study of heredity, such as the
    Human Genome Project

Figure 1.9
17
A Closer Look at Ecosystems
  • Each organism
  • Interacts with its environment.
  • Both organism and environment
  • Are affected by the interactions between them.

18
Ecosystem Dynamics
  • The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major
    processes
  • Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired
    by plants eventually return to the soil
  • The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to
    consumers

19
Energy Conversion
  • Activities of life
  • Require organisms to perform work, which depends
    on an energy source.
  • The exchange of energy between an organism and
    its surroundings involves the transformation from
    one form of energy to another.

20
  • Energy flows through an ecosystem
  • Usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat

21
What does it mean to be living?
  • 2. Responsiveness or Sensitivity- have a response
    to stimuli.
  • Chemotactic
  • Phototactic
  • Thigmotropic
  • Gravitropic

22
Is fire alive?
23
A Closer Look at Cells
  • The cell
  • Is the lowest level of organization that can
    perform all activities required for life

24
The Cells Heritable Information
  • Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the
    substance of genes
  • Which program the cells production of proteins
    and transmit information from parents to offspring

25
  • The molecular structure of DNA
  • Accounts for it information-rich nature.

26
What does it mean to be living?
  • 3. Growth, Development, and Reproduction- all use
    hereditary molecules to pass genetic information
    to offspring.

27
Two Main Forms of Cells
  • All cells share certain characteristics
  • They are all enclosed by a membrane
  • They all use DNA as genetic information
  • There are two main forms of cells
  • Eukaryotic
  • Prokaryotic

28
  • Prokaryotic cells
  • Lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles
    found in eukaryotic cells.

29
What does it mean to be living?
  • 4. Regulation- have regulatory mechanisms to
    coordinate functions (transportation of
    nutrients, wastes, etc.) maintain homeostasis.

30
Feedback Regulation in Biological Systems
  • A kind of supply-and-demand economy
  • Applies to some of the dynamics of biological
    systems.
  • The output, or product, of a process regulates
    that very process -feedback regulation.

31
  • In negative feedback
  • An accumulation of an end product slows the
    process that produces that product.

32
  • In positive feedback
  • The end product speeds up production.

33
Question Are viruses alive?
34
Grouping Species The Basic Idea
  • Diversity is a hallmark of life.
  • Taxonomy
  • is the branch of biology that names and
    classifies species according to a system of
    broader and broader groups

35
  • Classifying life

36
The Three Domains of Life
  • At the highest level, life is classified into
    three domains
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya
  • Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
  • Consist of prokaryotes
  • Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes
  • Includes the various protist kingdoms and the
    kingdoms Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia

37
  • Lifes three domains

38
Unity in the Diversity of Life
  • As diverse as life is
  • There is also evidence of remarkable unity

39
  • Concept 1.4 Evolution accounts for lifes unity
    and diversity
  • The history of life
  • Is a saga of a changing Earth billions of years
    old

40
Theodosius Dobzhansky
  • Nothing in biology makes sense except in the
    light of evolution.
  • The American Biology Teacher (1973)

41
  • The evolutionary view of life
  • Came into sharp focus in 1859 when Charles Darwin
    published On the Origin of Species by Means of
    Natural Selection

42
  • The Origin of Species articulated two main
    points
  • Descent with modification
  • Natural selection

43
Natural Selection
  • Darwin proposed natural selection
  • As the mechanism for evolutionary adaptation of
    populations to their environments

44
  • Natural selection is the evolutionary process
    that occurs
  • When a populations heritable variations are
    exposed to environmental factors that favor the
    reproductive success of some individuals over
    others.

45
Darwin, 1835, Galapagos
46
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47
  • Darwin proposed that natural selection
  • Could enable an ancestral species to split into
    two or more descendant species, resulting in a
    tree of life

48
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49
  • Concept 1.5 Biologists use various forms of
    inquiry to explore life
  • At the heart of science is inquiry
  • A search for information and explanation, often
    focusing on specific questions
  • Biology blends two main processes of scientific
    inquiry
  • Discovery science
  • Hypothesis-based science

50
Discovery Science
  • Discovery Science
  • Describes natural structures and processes as
    accurately as possible through careful
    observation and analysis of data.

51
Types of Data
  • Data
  • Are recorded observations.
  • Can be quantitative or qualitative.

52
Induction in Discovery Science
  • In inductive reasoning
  • Scientists derive generalizations based on a
    large number of specific observations. Ex. Cell
    Theory- All organisms are made of cells
    specific observations? one generalization

53
Hypothesis-Based Science
  • In science, inquiry that asks specific questions
  • Usually involves the proposing and testing of
    hypothetical explanations, or hypotheses.

54
Deduction The Ifthen Logic of
Hypothesis-Based Science
  • In deductive reasoning
  • The logic flows from the general to the specific.
    Ex. If all organisms are made of cells and
    humans are organisms, then humans are composed of
    cells.
  • Makes a deductive prediction general to the
    specific

55
The Scientific Method- Away of Looking at Life!
Click for the Method
56
A Biological Example of a Theory
  • How can living things change over time?

57
Why do male and female lions look different?
58
  • Concept 1.6 A set of themes connects the
    concepts of biology
  • Underlying themes
  • Provide a framework for understanding biology

59
  • Eleven themes that unify biology

60
Common Themes in Biology
  • Science as a Process
  • Evolution
  • Energy Transfer
  • Continuity and Change
  • Relationship of Structure and Function
  • Regulation
  • Interdependence in Nature
  • Science, Technology, and Society

61
How many moths do you see?
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