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In-Class Reading

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Title: In-Class Reading


1
Part Two In-Class Reading
In-Class Reading
How I Discovered Words
Background Information
Global Reading
Detailed Reading
Post Reading
2
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Background Information
1. Language
The English Language
Dialects and Accents
British English and American English
2. Helen Keller
3
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Background Information
The English Language
Language" normally refers to human speech,
spoken or written. It forms the basis of human
communication. About 95 of the world's
population speak one of the 100 most widely used
languages.
4
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
English has more second-language speakers
than native-speakers as a result of the imperial
expansion of Britain.
Partly due to the British and American pop
culture, English is fast becoming the universal
foreign language of Europeans.
5
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
6
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
A dialect usually has its own distinctive
grammatical (grammar, syntax), lexical
(vocabulary) and phonetic (accent) features. In
many cases, it is impossible for people speaking
different dialects to understand each other.
English has many dialects which reflect social
changes and settlement patterns that have
occurred over many centuries.
7
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
An accent is the distinctive manner of
pronunciation and intonation typical of a given
region or a social group. There are many
different accents in England, Wales, Scotland,
Ireland, Canada, and the United States.
8
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Received Pronunciation (RP) or BBC English is
the accent of the southeast of England. It has
been associated with power and high social class
since the fourteenth century. Attitudes in
Britain have changed and regional accents are now
more acceptable. A RP accent is still important
and will help people to get jobs and a position
in society which might be denied to them if they
speak in a different way.
9
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
They are both varieties of the same language.
However, they differ to some extent in
pronunciation, vocabulary, spelling and grammar.
In American speech, sounds are given greater
length than in English.
American spelling often seems simpler than the
British version.
10
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
There are even some differences in grammatical
usage. The American can say "I have gotten" and
"different than". On the other hand, the British
insist on "I have got" and "different from".
However, in the worldwide use of English as
an academic language these differences are
incidental and insignificant.
11
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Background Information
2. Helen Keller
Helen Keller ( June 27, 1880 to June 1,
1968), one of Americas best known women, was
famous for her self-sacrificing work to improve
the conditions of the blind, the deaf and the
mute. She has overcome considerable physical
handicaps, served as an inspiration for other
afflicted people.
12
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
When 19 months old, she was stricken with an
acute illness that left her deaf and blind. An
extremely intelligent and sensitive child, by the
age of seven, had invented over 60 different
signs by which she could talk to her family.
13
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Because of this restricted communication her
frustration and anger grew and were not relieved
until Annie Sullivan, a 20-year-old graduate of
the Perkins School for the Blind, came to be her
teacher.
14
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
With her help Helen learned the manual
alphabet, and the Tadoma method of reading lips
and write by means of a specially constructed
typewriter. In 1890 Keller learned to speak after
only one month of study.
With Annie as her interpreter, in 1888 she
attended Perkins Institute for the Blind and in
1894 the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in
New York.
15
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
Helen became a remarkable writer and scholar, she
wrote The Story of My Life
16
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
She toured the country and abroad, giving
lectures. Many books were written about her and
several plays and films were made about her life.
She received many honours from foreign
universities and monarchs. In 1932 she became a
vice-president of the Royal National Institute
for the Blind in the United Kingdom.
17
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Background
Information
After her death in 1968 an organization was
set up in her name to combat blindness in the
developing world. Today that agency, Helen Keller
International, is one of the biggest
organizations working with blind people overseas.
18
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Global Reading
Organization Analysis
Questions and Answers
Discussion
19
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Organization Analysis
Introduction The most important day in her
life.
Part I
(para.1)
Her feelings before her teacher arrived/her
education began.
Part II
(para.2-3)
(para.4)
The first encounter with the teacher.
Part III
How she discovered words.
(para.5-9)
Part IV
20
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Organization Analysis
Part IV (para.5-9)
How she discovered words.
Para.5
Her initial success in learning she learned the
spelling of a few words.
Para.6
The difficulties encountered in learning the
meanings of words and her reaction.
Para.7-8
Her new sight everything had a name and each
name gave birth to a new thought.
Her feelings and her new outlook on life before
she fell asleep that night after her trip to the
well-house.
Para. 9
21
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
1. I am filled with wonder when I consider the
immeasurable contrast between the two lives
which it connects. (ll. 2-3)
A. What does the two lives refer to?
The two lives she led before and after the
teacher came.
B. What does it refer to?
The day when her teacher came to her.
C. What is the immeasurable contrast ?
Before the teacher came, she lived in a still,
dark world in which there was no strong sentiment
or tenderness. From that day on, she began to
learn language and gain a new insight into life.
22
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
2. On the afternoon of that eventful day, I stood
on the porch, dumb, expectant. (l. 5)
Why did Helen consider March.3 an eventful day?
Because the day marked a turning point in her
life. On that day, the teacher came to her to
reveal all things to her, including love.
23
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
3. when it seemed as if a tangible white
darkness shut you in, and the great ship,
tense and anxious, groped her way toward the
shore with plummet and sounding-ling (ll. 17-21)
A. White and dark are opposite in meaning. Then
what does white darkness mean?
Here being shut in the white darkness refers to
a feeling of being lost, like a ship at sea
almost incapable of finding her way in a white
fog without sunshine. Helen Keller compares
herself to ship lost in thick fog, and is unable
to find her way. Like the ship with her plummet
and sounding-line, she is reaching out and crying
wordlessly for light in the dark unknown world.
24
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
3. when it seemed as if a tangible white
darkness shut you in, and the great ship,
tense and anxious, groped her way toward the
shore with plummet and sounding-ling (ll. 17-21)
B. What does her refer to?
The ship.
4. I was like that ship before my education
began (ll. 22-23)
How did Helen feel before her education began?
She felt tense and anxious, waiting for something
to happen with beating heart.
25
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
5. and tried to make me understand that
d-o-l-l applied to both. (ll. 44-45)
What does both refer to?
Both the new doll and the big rag doll.
6. Miss Sullivan had tried to impress it upon me
that m-u-g is mug and that w-a-t-e-r is
water, but I persisted in confounding the
two. (ll.46-47)
What does two refer to?
The words and the real objects.
26
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
7. and somehow the mystery of language was
revealed to me. (ll. 63-64)
What is the mystery of language?
Words are the names of things./ Everything has a
name.
8. That living word awakened my soul, gave it
light, hope, joy, set it free! (ll. 65-66)
What does that living word mean?
It suddenly dawned on Helen that the word water
referred to the wonderful cool thing flowing over
her hand and the word itself became alive.
27
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Questions and Answers
9. words that were to make the world blossom
for me, like Aarons rod, with flowers.
(ll. 76-77)
Why did Helen compare the world to Aarons rod?
Because the world experienced a great change in
Helens mind after she discovered the mystery of
words, just as Aarons rod, which had been a
piece of dead wood, burst into flowers with Gods
love.
28
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Discussion
How I Discovered Words
Directions In the passage there are some words
describing Helen Kellers change of feelings in
the process of language learning. They can serve
as clues to how she discovered words.
Step One
Fill in the table below with information from the
passage.
29
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
When Her Feelings
dumb, expectant
Miss Sullivan spelled doll in her hand
she finally succeeded in making the letters for doll
impatient
keenly delighted
she knew she was going out into the warm sunshine pleasant/happy
excited, eager to learn
repentant and sad
she lay in her crib at the close of the day joyful and hopeful
she stood on the porch, waiting for the teacher
to come
interested
pleasant and proud
the teacher tried time and again to teach her the
connection between words and things
she felt the fragments of the broken doll at her
feet
she finally discovered the mystery of language in
the well-house
she tried vainly to put the broken doll together
30
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Retell Helen Kellers learning experience based
on the clues in the table.
Step Two
On the afternoon of the 3rd of March, 1887,
before the teacher came, Helen Keller felt dumb
and expectant, hoping for something that would
open up her world. The first thing here teacher
gave her was a doll and then she spelt the word
d-o-l-l on her hand. When Helen Keller finally
succeeded in making the letters for doll, she
felt pleasant and proud. But when her teacher
tried to help her understand the connection
between words and objects, she became impatient.
Helen Keller expressed her dislike by dashing the
doll on the floor. At that point, she felt keenly
delighted.
To be continued
31
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Global Reading
Discussion
When she realized that her teacher was taking
her out into the sunshine, Helen Keller was very
happy. In the well-house, she discovered that
w-a-t-e-r meant the wonderful cool something
that was running through her fingers. The mystery
of language was finally revealed to her. And she
became excited and was eager to learn. When she
returned to the house and tried vainly to put the
broken doll back together, she felt sad and
repentant. At the close of the day, when she was
lying in her crib, she felt joyful and hopeful.
32
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Detailed Reading
Passage Reading
Understanding Sentences
Word Study
33
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
How I Discovered Words
Helen Keller
The most important day I remember in all my
life is the one on which my teacher, Anne
Mansfield Sullivan, came to me. I am filled with
wonder when I consider the immeasurable contrast
between the two lives which it connects. It was
the third of March, 1887, three months before I
was seven years old.
To be continued
34
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
On the afternoon of that eventful day, 1I
stood on the porch, dumb, expectant. I guessed
vaguely from my mother's signs and from the
hurrying to and fro in the house that something
unusual was about to happen, so I went to the
door and waited on the steps. The afternoon sun
penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered
the porch, and fell on my upturned face. My
fingers lingered almost unconsciously on the
familiar leaves and blossoms which had just come
forth to greet the sweet southern spring. I did
not know what the future held of marvel or
surprise for me. 2Anger and bitterness had preyed
upon me continually for weeks and a deep languor
had succeeded this passionate struggle.
To be continued
35
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
3Have you ever been at sea in a dense fog,
when it seemed as if a tangible white darkness
shut you in, and the great ship, tense and
anxious, groped her way toward the shore with
plummet and sounding-line, and you waited with
beating heart for something to happen? 4I was
like that ship before my education began, only I
was without compass or sounding-line, and had no
way of knowing how near the harbor was. "Light!
Give me light!" was the wordless cry of my soul,
and the light of love shone on me in that very
hour.
To be continued
36
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
I felt approaching footsteps. I stretched out
my hand as I supposed to my mother. Someone took
it, and I was caught up and held close in the
arms of her who had come to reveal all things to
me, and, more than all things else, to love me.
To be continued
37
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
The morning after my teacher came she led me
into her room and gave me a doll. The little
blind children at the Perkins Institution had
sent it and Laura Bridgman had dressed it but I
did not know this until afterward. When I had
played with it a little while, Miss Sullivan
slowly spelled into my hand the word "d-o-l-l". I
was at once interested in this finger play and
tried to imitate it. When I finally succeeded in
making the letters correctly I was flushed with
childish pleasure and pride.
To be continued
38
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Running downstairs to my mother I held up my hand
and made the letters for doll. I did not know
that I was spelling a word or even that words
existed I was simply making my fingers go in
monkey-like imitation. In the days that followed
I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a
great many words, among them, pin, hat, cup and a
few verbs like sit, stand and walk. 5But my
teacher had been with me several weeks before I
understood that everything has a name.
To be continued
39
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
One day, while I was playing with my new
doll, Miss Sullivan put my big rag doll into my
lap, also spelled "d-o-l-l" and tried to make me
understand that "d-o-l-l" applied to both.
Earlier in the day we had had a tussle over the
words "m-u-g" and "w-a-t-e-r". Miss Sullivan had
tried to impress it upon me that "m-u-g" is mug
and that "w-a-t-e-r" is water, but I persisted in
confounding the two. 6In despair she had dropped
the subject for the time, only to renew it at the
first opportunity. I became impatient at her
repeated attempts and, seizing the new doll, I
dashed it upon the floor.
To be continued
40
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
I was keenly delighted when I felt the fragments
of the broken doll at my feet. Neither sorrow nor
regret followed my passionate outburst. I had not
loved the doll. In the still, dark world in which
I lived there was no strong sentiment or
tenderness. I felt my teacher sweep the fragments
to one side of the hearth, and I had a sense of
satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was
removed. She brought me my hat, and I knew I was
going out into the warm sunshine. This thought,
if a wordless sensation may be called a thought,
made me hop and skip with pleasure.
41
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
We walked down the path to the well-house,
attracted by the fragrance of the honeysuckle
with which it was covered. Someone was drawing
water and my teacher placed my hand under the
spout. As the cool stream gushed over one hand
she spelled into the other the word water, first
slowly, then rapidly. 7I stood still, my whole
attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers.
To be continued
42
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Suddenly, I felt a misty consciousness as of
something forgotten-a thrill of returning
thought and somehow the mystery of language was
revealed to me. I knew then that "w-a-t-e-r"
meant the wonderful cool something that was
flowing over my hand. That living word awakened
my soul, gave it light, hope, joy, set it free!
There were barriers still, it is true, but
barriers that could in time be swept away.
To be continued
43
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
I left the well-house eager to learn.
Everything had a name, and each name gave birth
to a new thought. As we returned to the house
every object which I touched seemed to quiver
with life. That was because I saw everything with
the strange, new sight that had come to me. On
entering the door I remembered the doll I had
broken. I felt my way to the hearth and picked up
the pieces. I tried vainly to put them together.
Then my eyes filled with tears for I realized
what I had done, and for the first time I felt
repentance and sorrow.
To be continued
44
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
I learned a great many new words that day. I
do not remember what they all were but I do know
that mother, father, sister, teacher were among
themwords that were to make the world blossom
for me, "like Aaron's rod, with flowers". It
would have been difficult to find a happier child
than I was as I lay in my crib at the close of
that eventful day and lived over the joys it had
brought me, and for the first time longed for a
new day to come.
(1,059 words)
45
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
1. I stood on the porch, dumb, expectant. (l.5)
When I stood on the porch, I was silent and
expecting much to happen with excitement.
Paraphrase
Translation
????????????,????????
To be continued
46
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
1. I stood on the porch, dumb, expectant.
The two adjective words dumb and expectant are
the subject compliment, they modify the subject
of the sentence.
Comment
  • She sat dumbfounded by what she
  • had heard.
  • 2) She left the room angry and frustrated.
  • 3) During his lifetime, he patented 1,093
    inventions, yet he departed the world penniless.

Example
Back to the text
47
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
  • Anger and bitterness had preyed upon me
    continually
  • for weeks and a deep languor had succeeded
    this passionate struggle.

For weeks I had been troubled continually by
anger and bitterness. And following this painful
struggle, I felt very tired and in low spirits.
Paraphrase
Translation
?????,?????????????????????????????????
To be continued
48
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
1) Prey on/upon ???,?? His debt has preyed
on him for years. 2) succeed vt. come next after
(sb./sth.) and take his/ its place ????/??
?? Who succeeded Churchill as Prime
Minister? vi. to sth. gain the right to (a
title, property, etc.) when sb. died
When the King died, his eldest son succeeded
to the throne.
Comment
Back to the text
49
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
3. Have you ever been at sea in a dense fog, when
it seemed as if a tangible white darkness shut
you in, and the great ship, tense and anxious,
groped her way toward the shore with plummet and
sounding-line, and you waited with beating heart
for something to happen.
???????????????,??????????????????,???????????,???
????????,?????????,?????????????????,?????????
Translation
shut sb/sth in prevent sb /sth from getting out
of a place e.g. We are shut in by the hills here.
Comment
Back to the text
50
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
4. I was like that ship before my education
began, only I was without compass or
sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near
the harbor was.
I seemed to be that great ship in a thick fog,
tense and nervous, and waited for something to
happen. But I had no guide to help me and could
not know where the shore was.
Paraphrase
Translation
??????????????,?????????????????,?????????????
To be continued
51
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
4. I was like that ship before my education
began, only I was without compass or
sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near
the harbor was.
The word only here means but. Notice Only
that means except for, but for the
fact that ????
Comment
I will go with you ,only give me some money. I
should like to lend you some money ,only that I
have no money with me.
Example
Back to the text
52
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
5. But my teacher had been with me several weeks
before I understood that everything has a name.
I didnt understand that everything has a name
until after I had been with my teacher for
several weeks.
Paraphrase
???????????????,?????????????????????
Translation
Comment
Before ??(??)(??)?
It may be many years before we meet again.
Example
Back to the text
53
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
6. In despair, she had dropped the subject for
the time, only to renew it at the first
opportunity.
In despair, she stopped talking about the subject
for the time being, but she would pick up again
as soon as chance came.
Paraphrase
?????????????,??????????????
Translation
1) Only to do sth. (used to indicate that sth.
that happens immediately afterwards,esp.
sth. that causes surprise,disappointment,relief,re
lief,etc.)
Comment
To be continued
54
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
e.g. I arrived at the shop only to find I had
left all my money at home. 2) renew take
up or begin sth. againresume The two parties
renewed the negotiation after a good rest. 3) At
the first /earliest opportunityas soon as
possible ????? e.g. Try to practice your oral
English at the earliest opportunity.
Comment
Back to the text
55
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Understanding Sentences
7. I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon
the motions of the fingers.
I stood there and did not move, and I
concentrated my attention on the movement of her
fingers.
Paraphrase
?????????,???????????????????
Translation
The main clause I stood still is followed by an
absolute construction. ??????????
Comment
Back to the text
56
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
apply v.
Inflected forms application applicant
1. to request something, esp. officially and in
writing ??
  • I applied to four universities and was accepted
    by
  • all of them.
  • 2) Fletcher applied for the post of Eliots
    secretary.

2. to bring or put into use or operation ??,??
1) Apply as much force as is necessary. 2)
Scientific discoveries are often applied to
industrial processes.
To be continued
57
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
3. to put or spread on a surface ?,?
Apply the paint evenly to both sides of the door.
4. to (cause to) have an effect be directly
related ??,???
1) This rule does not apply in your particular
case. 2) The questions on this part of the form
only apply to married men.
Back to the text
58
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
barrier n.
  1. a type of fence or gate that prevents people from
    moving in a particular direction ??,???

1) The football fans burst through the barriers
and ran onto the pith. 2) Show you ticket at the
barrier before you board the train.
2. something non-physical that keeps people apart
or prevent activity, movement, etc. ??
1) social/ethnic/language barriers 2) Lack of
confidence is the biggest barrier to investment
in the region.
To be continued
59
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
Collocation -create/break through a barrier
??/???? -form a barrier against ?????
-remove foreign trade barriers ?????????
Back to the text
60
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
confound v
  • to confuse and surprise people by being
    unexpected
  • ?????
  • He gave a marvelous performance that
    completely confounded his critics.
  • (fml) confuse people by being unclear and
    difficult
  • ?(??)???
  • Her question completely confounded me.
  • His strange behavior confounded his parent.

Back to the text
61
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
drop n. v.
n. 1. a very small amount of liquid that falls in
a round shape ??,? 1)Big drops of rain
rolled down the window. 2)I like my whisky
with just a drop of soda. 2. a fall in amount,
quality, etc. (???)?? 1)a big drop in the
temperature ???? 2) a drop in interest rates
?????
To be continued
62
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
3. a distance or fall straight down ??,???? a
long drop to the bottom of the cliff a drop
of nine metres
Expressions
at the drop of a hat suddenly and needing almost
no excuse ??,?? a drop in the ocean/bucket a
very small amount, esp. when compared with a
larger amount which is needed or wanted ????,????
To be continued
63
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
v.
1. to (let) fall, esp. unintentionally, or
unexpectedly (?) ?? I dropped the box
on my foot. 2. to (cause to) fall to a lower
level or amount ??,?? House prices have
dropped sharply in the recession. 3. stop seeing,
talking, doing, or considering give up
??(?,??,?????)?? 1) Plans for a new stadium
were dropped due to lack of funding.
2) Just drop it. Im tired of arguing.
????!????????
To be continued
64
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
4. to exclude or stop using ?????,??? 1) I
have been dropped from the team for
Saturdays game. 2) This article wont appeal
to our readers. Lets drop it.
Expressions drop a hint/suggestion/remark to
say something informally and without emphasizing
it ?????/????/???? drop dead to die suddenly
??,??
To be continued
65
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
to visit someone informally without arranging a
particular time ????,????
drop in/ over/ round/by
to lessen in amount, value, etc. ????,??
drop away/off
to stop attending or taking part ??????
drop out
Back to the text
66
Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Detailed Reading
Word Study
grope v.
1. to try to find something that you cannot see
by feeling with your hands ??
1) Ginny groped for her glasses on the bedside
table. 2) He groped around in the dark.
3) I groped my way along the wall to the door.
2. try to find the right words to say or the
right solution to a problem but without any
real idea of how to do this ????
Accusations of misconduct left Keeler groping for
a response. ????????????????????
Back to the text
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impress v.
Inflected forms impression impressive
1. to influence deeply, esp. with a feeling of
admiration ???????
1) The teachers were most impressed/very
impressed by your performance in the exam. 2)
What impressed us most about the book was its
vivid language.
2. to make the importance of something clear to
someone ???????????? My father impressed
on me the value of hard work.
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Word Study
3. to press something into something else, or to
make a mark as a result of this pressure ??
be impressed in/on a pattern impressed on
the clay pots before baking
Expressions make an impression on
????? have/get the impression (that)?? I get the
distinct impression that were not wanted here.
?????????????????? be under the impression
(that) ???,??? Im sorry, I was under the
impression that you were the manager.
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Word Study
linger v.
1. to stay somewhere a little longer, esp.
because one does not wish to leave delay
going ??,???? 1)They lingered over
coffee and missed the last bus.
2)She lingered outside the school after
everyone else had gone home.
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Word Study
2. to be slow to disappear ??????? 1)The event
is over, but the memory lingers on. 2)The
taste lingers in you mouth. 3) Her perfume
lingered even after she had gone.
3. to be close to dying for a long time, esp.
when suffering from a disease ????
Horribly wounded he lingered on to die two
years later.
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Word Study
penetrate v.
Inflected forms penetrating penetration
penetrative
  • to enter, pass, cut, or force a way (into or
  • through) ??,??
  • 1) The knife penetrated his stomach.
  • 2) The noise of the explosion penetrated the
  • thickest walls.
  • 3) They are hoping to penetrate the Japanese
  • market with their latest product.

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Word Study
2. to see into or through, to succeed in
understanding something ??,?? 1) My
eyes couldnt penetrate the gloom.
???????????? 2) He had a false beard on, but
we soon penetrated his disguise.
3) A child has difficulty penetrating such a
trick.
3. to come to be understood by someone ?????
I heard what you said, but it didnt penetrate.
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4. To get accepted into a group in order to find
out their secrets ???????? Russian
agents had penetrated most of their
intelligence services. ??????????????????????
Expressions - penetrating look/eyes/gaze ????? -
penetrative observation ?????
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Word Study
quiver v. n.
v. to tremble slightly, esp. because you feel
angry, excited, frightened or upset
(???????????????)??,?? 1) Her voice was
quivering with anger. 2) Suddenly the
childs mouth began to quiver, and he
burst into tears.
n. 1. a slight trembling I felt a quiver
of excitement run through me.
?????????????? 2. a container for carrying
arrows ??,??
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Word Study
synonyms?????
tremble, shake, shiver, quake, shudder
tremble means to shake slightly in a way that
you cannot control, esp. from
fear,fright or upset.
????????????????? ??????
You might tremble if you saw a huge bear
coming toward you.
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Word Study
synonyms?????
shake means to move up and down or from side
to side with repeated movements
(?)??, ????????????????,????
????????????????? She shook a
rug to get the dust out of it.
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Word Study
synonyms?????
shiver means to shake slightly, esp. because of
cold or fear. ??,????????????
??,?????? Put on a sweater
and stop shivering.
quake means to shake or tremble, esp. in a
violent way and usu. because of
fear. ????,(????)??,???
The explosion made the whole house quake.
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Word Study
synonyms?????
shudder means to shake uncontrollably for a
moment, esp. from fear, cold or
strong dislike.(??????????????
?????,??? He
touched Ralphs bare shoulder and
Ralph shuddered at the human contact.
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Word Study
renew v.
Inflected forms renewable renewal renewed
  • 1. to begin to do something again, after a period
    of rest (???????)????
  • The naval attack was renewed the next morning.
  • to replace something that is old or broken with
  • something new ??,??
  • The window frames will have to be renewed.

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Word Study
3. to give new life and freshness to make as
good as new again ??????,?? I came back
from my holiday with renewed strength.
4. to arrange for a contact, membership of a club
etc. to continue ?(?????????)??(??) In
the end they decided to renew the contract / car
insurance.
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Expressions
  • renew a friendship/acquaintance
  • ????/??
  • renew a book
  • ????
  • inner city/urban renewal
  • ??????/????
  • renewable energy/resources
  • ???????

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Word Study
reveal v.
1. to show or allow (something previously hidden)
to be seen ??,?? The curtains opened to
reveal a darkened stage. 2. to make known
(something previously secret or unknown)
??,??,?? The newspaper revealed a cover-up of
huge proportions. He revealed that he had
been in prison twice before.
Expression a very revealing dress ????????
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Word Study
subject n. v. adj.
n. 1. the thing you are talking about or
considering in a conversation,
discussion, book, film, etc.
(????????????)??,?? Our subject for
discussion is homelessness.
2. an area of knowledge that you study at a
school or university ???? English is one
of my favorite subjects. What subjects are you
studying?
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3. a person or animal that is used in a test or
experiment ???? 1) He was willing to be
the subject of a psychology experiment.
2) All subjects were tested for perfect
hearing before the experiment began. 4.
a noun or noun substitute which functions as the
topic of a sentence ?? What is the subject
of this sentence?
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v. (fml ) to bring under firm control not allow
to have free expression ?????,?????
Expression subject sb. / sth. to sth. (be
subjected to) to cause to experience or suffer
(??????)???,?????? 1) Barker subjected his victim
to a terrifying ordeal. 2) No one would willingly
subject himself to such indignities.
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adj.
1) not before noun likely to be affected by
sth., esp. sth. unpleasant
??(????)?????? He is subject to ill
health. ( often becomes ill) Those areas
are subject to strong winds. 2) dependent on
something else ???, ??? Your planning
application is subject to review by the local
council. 3) only before noun formal governed
by someone else not independent ??????,?????
a subject race
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Post Reading
Vocabulary
Filling in the Blanks
Translation
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Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Post Reading
Vocabulary
Section A
Directions In this exercise, you are given ten
words. Find the appropriate meaning for each word
according to the passage.
2) succeed(l.15) A. have a good result
B. come next C. reach a high
position
1) wonder(l.2) A. strangeness and
surprise B. thankfulness C. wonderful
feelings
v
v
4) apply(l.45) A. ask for
B. be related C. lay on
3) reveal(l.30) A. make known
B. explain clearly C. bring immediately
v
v
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Vocabulary
5) impress(l.46) A. produce a mark by pressure
B. make known by signs
C. establish firmly in
mind 6) persist(l.47) A. last a long time
B. continue to do
C. continue to exist 7)
drop(l.48) A. visit informally
B. let fall
C. stop doing
v
v
v
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Vocabulary
8) renew(l.48) A. replace
B. go over C. start again 9)
keenly(l.50) A. extremely
B. slightly C. sharply 10) vainly(l.72)
A. without success B. proudly
C. very hard
v
v
v
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Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Post Reading
Vocabulary
Section B
Directions Fill in each of the blanks with one
of the ten words given in Section A. Change the
form if necessary.
wonder succeed reveal apply impress
persist drop renew keenly vainly
1. The soldiers _______ the attack after stopping
for a little while. 2. The rules of safe driving
______ to everyone. 3. Its no use being sorry if
you _______ in doing it. 4. The cold winter was
_________ by a stormy spring.
renewed
apply
persist
succeeded
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Vocabulary
5. I cant just ____ everything to receive casual
visitors. 6. The details of the policy have not
been _______ yet. 7. The sight of the Great Wall
filled the visitors with ______. 8. It was on
Sunday that Davis felt his loneliness most
______. 9. He hunted ______ through his pockets
for a piece of paper. 10. Father _________ on me
the value of hard work.
drop
revealed
wonder
keenly
vainly
impressed
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Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Post Reading
Filling in the Blanks
Directions Fill in each of the blanks with an
appropriate word you can derive from the one
given in brackets.
1) It is known to all that children, unlike
adult, apply rules ___________ .
(conscious) 2) The ________ crowd in the streets
waited for the queen to pass. (expect) 3) The
birthday party and the movie have made this a(n)
________ night. (event) 4) China is a market of
___________ potential. (measure)
unconsciously
expectant
eventful
immeasurable
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Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Post Reading
Filling in the Blanks
5) Children learn by ________________ .
(imitate) 6) Language is something living and
_________ changing. (continue) 7) She treated
the poor girl with _________. (tender) 8) She was
getting very ________ at having to wait so
long. (patient)
imitation/imitating
continually
tenderness
impatient
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Part Two In-Class Reading gtgt Post Reading
Translation
Directions Translate the following sentences
into English, using the expressions in the
brackets.
1) ???????????????,???????? (to and fro)
Seeing all the people walking to and fro outside
the office, I became more worried.
2) ??????????????(in time)
In time he will see who is his true friend.
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Translation
3)????????????????(give birth to)
That scientists experiment gave birth to a new
drug.
4)???????????????(shut..in)
He had been shut in by illness during much of the
winter.
5) ???????????????(at the first opportunity)
They would practice spoken English at the first
opportunity.
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Translation
6) ???????????????????? (sweep away)
Everything she valued might be swept away
overnight.
7) ???????,???????????(the close of)
Towards the close of the term, all the students
are busy preparing for the finals.
8)??????,??????????(long for)
It is a very cold winder and we long for it to be
over.
End of In-class Reading
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