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Demographic Transition

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Demographic Transition SOC 370: Social Change Dr. Kimberly Martin What is Demography? Demographics = the study of population characteristics Demographics studies ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Demographic Transition


1
Demographic Transition
  • SOC 370 Social Change
  • Dr. Kimberly Martin

2
What is Demography?
  • Demographics the study of population
    characteristics
  • Demographics studies factors like
  • Size
  • Birth rates
  • Morbidity rates
  • Mortality rates
  • Geographical distribution
  • Marriage patterns
  • Migration patterns

3
World Population 10,000 BC 2000 AD
4
Demography and Development
  • There is a very clear demographic pattern that
    accompanies economic development from traditional
    (peripheral) societies to industrialized (core)
    societies
  • Four stages
  • Pre-Modern Traditional societies with stable
    populations
  • Modernizing Beginning industrial and
    urbanization societies see a sharp population
    increase
  • Modern Industrialized societies have sharp
    population increases that level off after they
    have achieved full industrialization
  • Post-Modern post industrial societies
    population size is stable

5
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6
Stage One Profile Angola
7
Demographic Pyramids Four Stages of DTR
Each pyramid is a snapshot of what a population
looks like at a specific moment in time
8
The Value of Children
  • As the value of children declines, people
    generally have fewer children.
  • As the cost of raising a successful child goes
    up, people generally have fewer children.
  • The better educated women are, the fewer children
    they generally have.

9
Factors Affecting Fertility Rates
  • Pronatalist policies and antinatalist policies
    from government
  • Existing age-sex structure
  • Availability of family planning services
  • Social and religious beliefs - especially in
    relation to contraception and abortion
  • Female literacy levels
  • Economic prosperity (although in theory when the
    economy is doing well families can afford to have
    more children in practice the higher the economic
    prosperity the lower the birth rate).
  • Poverty levels children can be seen as an
    economic resource in developing countries as they
    can earn money.
  • Infant Mortality Rate a family may have more
    children if a country's IMR is high as it is
    likely some of those children will die.
  • Urbanization
  • Typical age of marriage
  • Pension availability
  • Conflict

10
Study Guide
  • Demographics
  • Demographic transition
  • Demographic Profile
  • Value of children
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