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Arab Governments: The Quest for Security

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Arab Governments: The Quest for Security – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 15 September 2018
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Title: Arab Governments: The Quest for Security


1
Arab GovernmentsThe Quest for Security
2
LecturerLieutenant Colonel Mike Meyer
  • Undergrad. Degree Latin American History
  • MastersNat. Sec. Affairs (Mid-East) and Arabic
  • Middle East and Political Military Affairs
    Specialist
  • Intelligence OfficerAviation and Political
    Affairs
  • Analyst and Briefer for Commander, USCENTCOM
  • Political Advisor to Commander, USCENTAF
  • Air Attaché, U.S. Embassy, Damascus, Syria
  • AF Recruiting Squadron Commander, Maxwell AFB

Bagram Air Base Afghanistan
Reminders of the Regime Baghdad, Iraq
Tomb of Salah Al-Din Damascus, Syria
At the Pyramids Giza, Egypt
With A Syrian Contact Damascus, Syria
3
Agenda
  • Common Characteristics of Security-Conscious Arab
    States
  • What Means Do Arab States
  • Employ to Ensure Security?
  • What are the Implications for
  • the Region?

4
No Truly Free Arab Countries
  • 0 of 22 Arab Governments are Truly Freely Elected
  • UN Human Development Report, 2002, Identifies 3
    Deficit Areas
  • Freedom, Knowledge, and Womens Participation
  • Assumption of Power and Governance Based on
    Patronage and Loyalty
  • Contradicts Trend of Democratization in Other
    Parts of Developing World During the Past Few
    DecadesL. America, Africa, Far East, E. Europe
  • Syria Freedom House--7/7 Political Rights 7/7
    Civil Rights
  • Pres. Bashar Al-Asad Confirmed by Referendum Son
    of Hafiz Al-Asad
  • Constitution Changed Overnight in Wake of
    Fathers Death
  • Parliament is Merely a Rubber Stamp
  • Egypt 6/7 Political and Civil Rights
  • President Mubarak in Power Since 1981
  • No True Opposition Allowed

5
  • Saudi Arabia 7/7 Pol. and 7/7 Civ. Rights
  • Saud Family has Ruled Monarchy since 1932
  • No Parliament and 90-member, appointed
    Consultative Council
  • No Political Parties Allowed
  • Qatar 6/7 Pol. and 6/7 Civ. Rights
  • Current Ruler Overthrew Father in 1995
  • Prime Minister from Same Family
  • No Parliament and 35-member, appointed Cons.
    Council
  • Jordan 6/7 Pol. and 5/7 Civ. Rights
  • Monarchy with Succession From Father to Son
  • 2 Chambers of Parliament, One of which is Elected
  • Political Parties are Allowed with Limited
    Participation
  • Few Bright SpotsLimited Political
    Liberalization
  • Morocco, Bahrain, and Kuwait
  • Jury Still Out on Iraq, but Progress is Being
    MadeOnly Because the Coalition Overthrew Saddam
    and is Present. Key will be Whether Populace
    will Put Up with Turbulence Associated w/ Lack of
    Security as Democratic Processes are
    Institutionalized

6
Common Characteristics of Security Conscious Arab
States
  • With Exception of Lebanon and the Palestinian
    Territories,
  • Arab States Remarkably Stable For Three
    Decades
  • King Hussein, Jordan, More than 40 Years
  • Hafiz Al-Asad, Syria, 30 Years
  • Hosni Mubarak, Egypt, 23 Years
  • Saddam Hussein, Iraq, Almost 25 Years
  • Authoritarian Governments Dominate the Arab World
  • Many Leaders Live in Fear
  • Rulers Fear Political Reform as a Catalyst for
    Instability
  • Arab Countries are Often Essentially Police
    States with Relatively Large Security Services
    and MilitariesArmed Forces are Not Servants of
    the People, But Served by the People (Corruption)
  • Despite Rich Cultural Composition and Histories,
  • Civil Society is Often Stifled or Closely
    Monitored
  • Large Portions or Majority of Population Often
    Cut Out
  • or ImpoverishedNo Vehicles for Upward
    Mobility

7
What Means Do Arab States Employ to Ensure
Security?
  • Co-opting and Promoting Particular (and often
    Minority) Ethnic Groups,
  • as well as Attaining the Loyalty of Key
    Tribes
  • SyriaAlawis from the Coastal Mountains
  • IraqSunnis from the Sunni Triangle/Tikritis
  • JordanBedouin Families from East Bank
  • Controlled Demonstrations and Protests
  • Pressure Valves
  • Promotion of Military SocietiesMost Arab
    Leaders Either Rose Up through the Military or
    Closely Identify Themselves with the Military
  • Numerous and Overlapping Intelligence
    AgenciesMore Eyes the Better!
  • Dual Militaries with Simultaneous External
    Defense and Internal Protection Missions. In
    Fact, 1 Mission is Actually Regime Protection

8
Implications for the Region
  • Economic
  • Unless Oil/Natural Gas Revenues High, Development
    is Stifled As Bright
  • Young People Emigrate or Are Forced to
    Settle for Jobs Beneath Capabilities
  • Welfare States Like Saudi Arabia are Threatened
    by a Lack of Opportunity
  • Defense Budgets are Disproportionately High,
    Taking Money From Civilian Industry
  • Military/Security
  • Sycophants, Often from Particular Ethnic Groups,
    Advance Before Capable Leaders
  • Unit Morale is Negatively Affected as Personnel
    are Watched
  • Centralized Control Slows Speed at which
    Operations are Executed
  • Jealousies Hurt Cooperation Between Individual
    Services
  • Leaders Chase High-Profile Military Items vs.
    Most Practical Ones
  • Social/Political
  • Political Cronies and Loyalist Leaches Attain
    High-Level Positions
  • Due to a Lack of Legal Outlets for Frustration,
    Extremism on the Rise
  • Militant Islam on the Rise
  • More and More Band-Aid Fixes Needed to Hold
    Together Societies
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