Social Psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Social Psychology PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 6f6fe9-ODhjM


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Social Psychology


Title: Social Psychology Author: JohnM Last modified by: John Created Date: 12/13/2006 5:40:50 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:90
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 24
Provided by: JohnM187


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Social Psychology

Social Psychology
  • Lecture 4 People in Groups
  • (Chapter 8 Hogg Vaughan)

At the end of the lecture . . .
  • Compare and contrast social psychological
    accounts of the group
  • What is a group?
  • Why do people join groups?
  • The effect of the group on individual performance
  • Group cohesiveness and group socialisation
  • Norms
  • Group structure

What is a group?
  • Although groups vary enormously and can be
    defined in many different ways, some general
    distinctions can be made. One important
    distinction is between similarity-based
    categorical groups (common-identity groups), and
    interaction-based dynamic groups (common bond
  • Another distinction can be made between
    aggregates and groups An aggregate (e.g., people
    at a bus queue) becomes a human group (e.g., a
    team) to the extent that people identify with it,
    are interdependent with one another, have a
    common fate, and so forth.
  • However, all groups are social categories and
    they vary in entitativity that is, how much they
    appear to act like a distinct, coherent, and
    bounded entity.
  • Many social psychological definitions of groups
    exclude large-scale social categories they focus
    on interpersonal interaction, which, of course,
    cannot define a large category such as an entire

Why do people join groups?
  • There are many reasons for joining a group They
    provide protection, allow us to do things we
    cannot do alone, validate our attitudes, and
    provide social support and a sense of collective
    identity. Groups reduce uncertainty about who we
    are, how we should behave, and how others will
    treat us. Groups satisfy a basic need to belong,
    and, according to terror management theory, we
    affiliate with others to buffer ourselves against
    fear of our inevitable death.
  • The consequences of not joining groups or not
    being accepted by groups can be very dire. Not
    being a member of a group is a lonely existence,
    depriving us of social interaction, social and
    physical protection, the ability to achieve
    complex goals, a stable sense of who we are, and
    confidence in how we should behave. Indeed,
    social ostracism can be one of the worst

Groups are important The effect of the group on
individual performance
  • Sometimes, people perform tasks better, or worse,
    when they are in front of other people. According
    to the drive theory, the mere presence of others
    (audience effect) has a social facilitation
    effect in which we are psychologically driven to
    perform easy, well-learned tasks better, and
    difficult, poorly learned tasks worse in the
    presence of others.

Drive Effects Time taken for an easy and a
difficult typing task as a function of social
presence (Schmitt, Gilovich, Goore Joseph, 1986)
Easy task Typed their name on a
computer Difficult task typed in backwards
interspersed with digits Drive effect on both.
Having an incidental audience improved the
performance on the easy task, and impaired it on
the difficult task. Attentive audience had no
additional effect.
The effect of the group on individual performance
  • An alternative view is that it is not the mere
    presence of others that has this drive effect,
    but rather the fact that others evaluate us and
    we are apprehensive about this (evaluation
    apprehension model).

Evaluation apprehension Time taken to dress in
familiar and unfamiliar clothes as a function of
social presence (Markus, 1978).
Easy task Own clothing Difficult task
Unfamiliar clothing Evaluation apprehension
happened with the easy task, the attentive
audience reduced the time to get dressed. Drive
effect on the difficult task with both audiences
increasing the time.
The effect of the group on individual performance
  • Yet another explanation is that other people are
    distracting, causing a conflict between attending
    to the task and attending to the audience, and
    this produces the drive effect (distraction-confli
    ct theory).

The effect of the group on individual performance
  • Generally, the degree of performance when in a
    group is also influenced by the nature of the
    task Is the task divisible into subroutines is
    the objective quantity or quality and so forth
    (task taxonomy).
  • Nevertheless, there is a general tendency for
    people in groups to perform worse than when they
    are alone (process loss).

Ingham, Levinger, Graves Peckham (1974)
Ringelmann (1913)
Group cohesiveness
  • Cohesiveness is a key feature of groups. Cohesive
    groups have greater esprit de corps, greater
    solidarity, and often work more smoothly together
    as integrated wholes.
  • Although cohesiveness is often associated with
    liking among members, a useful distinction lies
    between liking based on interpersonal
    relationships (personal attraction) and liking
    based on common group membership (social
    attraction). Cohesiveness is directly associated
    with the latter and only indirectly with the
    former, to the extent that groups provide a
    context for friendships to form.

Festinger, Schachter and Backs (1950) theory of
group cohesiveness
General framework of the social
cohesion/interpersonal interdependence model Hogg
Group socialisation
  • Tuckman (1965)
  • Groups change over time - they have a life
    trajectory. Members get to know one another
    (forming) they argue over what the group
    represents (storming) consensus and a common
    identity emerges (norming) the group works
    smoothly and effortlessly (performing) and
    finally, the group dissolves because it has
    fulfilled its goals, or members lose interest and
    leave (adjourning).

Phases of group socialisation (Moreland Levine,
A model of the process of group socialisation
(Moreland Levine ,1982)
  • Norms define and prescribe how one should behave
    (using ones perceptions, feelings, attitudes,
    and behaviours) as a member of a particular
    social group they provide a frame of reference
    for our behaviour.
  • Norms have a powerful, long-term, internalized
    effect on our behaviour, influencing what we do
    even when no one is watching. Because norms are
    often the hidden background of daily life, we may
    not be aware of them they need to be violated
    for us to suddenly discover they exist
  • Norms are a guide for action, so they are
    relatively enduring and only change to respond to
    changed circumstances. Norm violation is usually
    punished by the group in different ways,
    particularly if you are a marginal member of a
    group and the norms relate to defining features
    of the group. More central members are allowed
    some leeway to deviate from the groups norms.

Group structure
  • No groups are homogeneous all are structured to
    differing extents and in different ways. One of
    the clearest features of group structure is the
    use of roles.
  • Roles are much like norms but operate within the
    group. They specify subgroup activities (a
    division of labour within the group) and how
    subgroups interact to benefit the group as a
    whole. Roles scan be formal or informal and can
    vary in how specific or general they are. People
    tend to attribute role behaviour to the
    personality of the people in the role
  • All roles are not equal. Roles vary in status,
    some having more power, influence, and prestige.

Group structure
  • Groups are structured in terms of how easily
    subgroups or roles can communicate with one
    another. Communication networks vary in terms of
    how centralised they are. Centralised networks
    are efficient for simple tasks but can make
    fringe groups feel disenfranchised and
    marginalized decentralised networks are more
    inclusive and possibly more effective for complex

Communication networks that have been studied
What about your friendship group?
Group structure
  • Groups are also structured in terms of nested
    subgroups (e.g., the sales department in an
    organization) and crosscutting categories (e.g.,
    social psychologists within a psychology
  • Finally, groups also contain marginal members or
    groups who are rejected by the rest of the group
    and who may form a schism that tries to change
    the group through minority influence.

Revision Advice
  • Issues around performance and establishing and
    maintaining groups. It will help you to draw a
    spider diagram to ensure you are clear which
    theory applies to which
  • Most theories having differing views and you
    acknowledge this. Show awareness of the various

At the end of the lecture . . .
  • Compare and contrast social psychological
    accounts of the group
  • What is a group?
  • Why do people join groups?
  • The effect of the group on individual performance
  • Group cohesiveness and group socialisation
  • Norms
  • Group structure