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PART 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD

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PART 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD I. STEPS PROBLEM - always in the form of a QUESTION GATHER INFORMATION 3. HYPOTHESIS EDUCATED GUESS 4. EXPERIMENT test hypothesis – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PART 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD


1
  • PART 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • I. STEPS
  • PROBLEM - always in the form of a QUESTION
  • GATHER INFORMATION
  • 3. HYPOTHESIS EDUCATED GUESS
  • 4. EXPERIMENT test hypothesis
  • 5. OBSERVATIONS - analyze data, charts, graphs
  • 6. CONCLUSION - is your hypothesis right or
    wrong?
  • 7. Repeat

2
  • II. Example A student set up the experiment
    shown to learn about plant growth. The student
    added a different amount of water to 4 identical
    containers, each containing 4 seeds in 100 cubic
    centimeters of soil. All of the containers were
    placed in the same sunny location. The height of
    the plants were measured and recorded for 5
    weeks.

3
  • State a hypothesis for this experiment.
  • I believe that the plants getting the most water
    will grow the most because plants need water for
    photosynthesis.

4
  • b. Independent variable
  • WATER
  • c. Dependent variable
  • HEIGHT

5
  • d. Control Group
  • Seeds that do not receive water

6
  • e. Identify 3 factors that must remain constant.
  • Amount of soil, amount of sunlight, location,
    of seeds, types of seeds
  • f. What can be done to make the experiment more
    valid?
  • Repeat, increase sample size, use only one
    variable

7
  • PART 2. MEASUREMENT
  • I. LENGTH meter
  • What is the length of the tadpole at the right?
  • In centimeters
  • 3.1 cm
  • In millimeters
  • 31 mm

8
  • II. MASS
  • the amount of matter in an object
  • What instrument is being used to measure the
    mass?
  • TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE

9
  • 2. What is the mass of the object?
  • 175.0 gm

10
  • III. VOLUME
  • The amount of space an object takes up

11
  • Calculate the volume of the block below. Show all
    work in the work space below.
  • V l x w x h
  • V 2.4 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.3 cm
  • V 53.4 cm3

12
  • IV. DENSITY
  • Use the mass and volume of the blockin Sections
    II and III to calculate its density. Show all
    work.
  • m 175 gm, v 53.4 cm3
  • D m
  • v
  • D 175 gm
  • 53.4 cm3
  • D 3.3 gm/cm3

13
  • 2. a. Will this object float in water?
  • NO
  • b. Why or why not?
  • It wont float in water because it is more dense
    than water (1 gm/mL)
  • c. You cut the block in half. What is the density
    of each half?
  • D 3.3 gm/cm3

14
  • 2. What is the name of the instrument
    below?
  • GRADUATED CYLINDER
  • 3. What is the volume of rock below?
  • 16 mL 14 mL
  • V 2.0 mL

15
  • IV. REVIEW QUESTIONS
  • What is the temperature shown in the thermometer
    at the right?
  • 25C

16
  • 2. Convert the following measurements
  • 2.45 cm ?km
  • 0.0000245 km
  • b. 5.46 L ?mL
  • 5460.0 mL

17
PART 3. MICROSCOPE I. PARTS FUNCTIONS
  • 1. eyepiece/ocular lens lens that you look
    through
  • 2. body tube connects objective eyepiece
  • 3. stage holds the slide
  • 4. coarse adjustment knob focusing under low
    power.
  • 5. mirror/light source provides light
  • 6. fine adjustment knob focusing for high power
  • 7. base structure that supports microscope
  • 8. objective lens lenses that magnify
  • 9. diaphragm controls amount of light
  • 10. arm supports body tube

18
  • II. LABEL THE PARTS OF THE MICROSCOPE BELOW.

A. Eyepiece / ocular lens
A
B. Body tube
C. Objective lens
H
B
D. Stage
I
E. Diaphragm
C
J
F. Mirror / light
D
G. Base
E
H. Coarse adjustment knob
F
G
K
I. Fine adjustment knob
J. Arm
K. Nosepiece
19
  • III. USING THE MICROSCOPE
  • 1. What would happen if you used the coarse
    adjustment under high power?
  • The lens and the slide may break!

20
  • 2. When you observe a specimen using a
    microscope, how does the specimen appear?
  • Upside down and backwards
  • 3. When you move the slide in any direction, how
    does the specimen on the slide appear to move?
  • In the opposite direction
  • 4. Which objective lens allows you to observe
    LARGER field of view?
  • Low power

21
  • 5. Calculate the total magnification
  • Eyepiece 15x, Objective 5x
  • Total Mag 75x

22
  • 6. What is the student in the picture at the
    right preparing?
  • Wet mount
  • 7. Why should the student make sure the cover
    slip is lowered at an angle?
  • To prevent air bubbles from forming

23
  • IV. MEASURING WITH THE MICROSCOPE
  • What is the diameter of the field of view shown
    below? (mm um)
  • 3.6 mm
  • 3600 um

24
  • 2. What is the length of one of the cells shown
    below? (mm um)
  • 1.5/3
  • 0.5 mm
  • 500 um

25
  • 3. Determine the lengths of the objects in the
    microscopes field of view below? (mm um)
  • a. 0.8 mm
  • 800 um

26
  • PART 4. CHEMISTRY
  • 1. Label the parts of the atom below, and
    complete the chart.

electron
neutron
proton
27
SUBATOMIC PARTICLE LOCATION CHARGE
Electron Outside nucleus (electron cloud) Negative
Neutron Nucleus No charge
Proton Nucleus positive
28
  • 2. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS
  • a. ELEMENT
  • Simple substance that cannot be broken down into
    something more simple
  • b. COMPOUND
  • 2 or more elements chemically combined
  • c. MIXTURE
  • 2 or more elements/compounds physically combined
  • Can easily be separated

29
  • 3. Identify each substance as an element or
    compound
  • a. CO2
  • Compound
  • b. Na
  • Element
  • c. CH4
  • Compound
  • d. H
  • element

30
  • 7. In the table below, for each solution identify
    the solute and the solvent.

SOLUTION SOLUTE SOLVENT
a. SELZER WATER Carbon dioxide Water
b. TEA Tea Water
c. SALT WATER Salt Water
31
  • Base your answers to questions 8 through 11 on
    the graph below and on your knowledge of science.
    The graph shows the solubility curves for
    potassium bromide and copper sulfate.
  • 8. How many grams of the copper sulfate will
    dissolve in 100 grams of water at 30C?
  • 25gm
  • 9. How many grams of the potassium bromide will
    dissolve in 100 grams of water at 60C?
  • 85gm

32
  • Base your answers to questions 8 through 11 on
    the graph below and on your knowledge of science.
    The graph shows the solubility curves for
    potassium bromide and copper sulfate.
  • 10. Describe the relationship between temperature
    and the amount of copper sulfate from 0C to
    90C.
  • As temp increases, solubility increases
  • 11. Describe 1 way to increase the rate of
    dissolving for a solution.
  • Heat it up, stir it

33
  • 12. Identify each property below as a physical or
    chemical property.
  • a. Burning
  • chemical
  • b. color
  • physical
  • c. phase (solid, liquid, gas)
  • physical

34
  • 13. Identify each change below as a physical or
    chemical change.
  • a. Ripping paper
  • physical
  • b. burning paper
  • chemical
  • c. melting
  • physical
  • d. baking a cake
  • chemical

35
  • 14. Fill in the chart below describing phases of
    matter

PHASE OF MATTER POSITION OF PARTICLES SPEED
a. SOLID Tightly packed vibrating
b. LIQUID Sliding past each other A little faster
c. GAS Very far apart Very fast
36
  • 15. For each phase change below, identify how the
    material is changing, and whether heat is being
    absorbed or released.
  • a. melting
  • S ? L, heat absorbed
  • b. freezing
  • L ? S, heat released
  • c. evaporation
  • L ? G, heat absorbed
  • d. condensation
  • G ? L, Heat released

37
16. Use the heating curve below to answer the
following questions.
  • a. What is the melting point of this substance?
  • 70C
  • b. At what temp does the substance start
    evaporating?
  • 140C
  • c. What is the boiling point of this substance?
  • 140C

38
  • d. Between what letters are all phase changes
    occurring?
  • BC, DE
  • e. What is happening to the molecules of this
    substance as time increases?
  • Move faster and farther apart.

39
  • 17. Identify 4 properties of metals
  • Have luster
  • Ductile
  • Malleable
  • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  • 18. Identify 3 properties of nonmetals
  • brittle
  • Dull (not shiny)
  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity

40
  • 19. Identify the parts of the periodic table
    being described below
  • a. Rows
  • periods
  • b. Elements to left of zig zag line
  • metals
  • c. Columns
  • Groups/families
  • e. Group18
  • Noble gases
  • f. On zig zag line
  • Semi-metals/metalloids
  • g Elements to right of zig zag line
  • nonmetals

41
  • 20. Atomic number
  • of protons
  • 21. Mass number
  • of protons of neutrons
  • Atomic mass rounded to nearest whole

42
  • 12. The diagram below represents n element from
    the period table.
  • Atomic
  • 14
  • Atomic Mass
  • 28.0855
  • Mass
  • 28
  • of protons in each atom of this element
  • 14
  • of neutrons
  • 28-14 14

43
  • PART 5. CELLS
  • I. CELL THEORY
  • 1. Who developed the cell theory?
  • a. Hooke looked at cork under a
    microscope, name what he saw cells
  • b. Schleiden all plants are made of cells
  • c. Schwann all animals are made of cells
  • d. Virchow all cells come from other cells

44
  • 2. a. List the parts of the CELL THEORY below.
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure for all
    living things.
  • Cells are the basic unit of function for all
    living things.
  • All cells come from pre-existing cells
  • Exception
  • Viruses are not made of cells.

45
II. CELL ORGANELLES
  • 7. Ribosomes produce proteins
  • 8. Golgi bodies packages and ships
  • 1. Cell Wall outer wall made of cellulose,
    protects, gives plant cell shape
  • 2. Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis,
    contain chlorophyll (absorbs light)
  • 1. Lysosomes contain enzymes that break
    down/digest materials
  • 2. Centrioles aid in cell division
  • Cell membrane semi-permeable
  • 2. Nucleus control center
  • a. Nuclear membrane surrounds nucleus
  • b. Nucleolus produces ribosomes
  • c. Chromosomes genetic material
  • 3. Cytoplasm jelly-like materials, holds all
    organelles
  • 4. Mitchondria produces energy (by respiration)
  • 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum tunnels in the
    cytoplasm (transport)
  • 6. Vacuoles storage

46
  • V. LABEL THE CELLS ORGANELLES BELOW

A. Nuclear membrane
B. Centrioles
C. Cell membrane
D. Ribosomes
E. Cytoplasm
F. Lysosome
47
G. Vacuole
H. Golgi bodies
I. Mitochondria
J. Chromosomes
K. Nucleus
L. Nucleolus
M. ER
48
A. ER
B. Vacuole
C. Cell wall
D. Cell membrane
E. Chloroplasts
F. Ribosome
49
G. Chromosomes
H. Nucleus
I. Nuclear membrane
J. Nucleolus
K. Mitochondria
L. Cytoplasm
M. Golgi bodies
50
  • V. TRANSPORT
  • PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  • high ? low, WITH CONCENTRATION GRADIENT, NO
    ENERGY REQUIRED
  • 2 TYPES
  • Diffusion osmosis (water)

51
  • b. What happens to a cell if its placed in salt
    water?
  • Water leaves the cell (osmosis) ? cell shrivels
    up
  • b. What happens if it is placed in pure water?
  • Water enters the cell (osmosis) ? swells

52
  • 2. ACTIVE TRANSPORT low to high concentration,
    AGAINST THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT, ENERGY IS
    REQUIRED

53
  • Label each diagram as diffusion, osmosis, or
    active transport.
  • Active transport
  • 2. Diffusion
  • (passive transport)
  • 3. Osmosis

H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
H2O
54
  • VII. RESPIRATION glucose broken down to produce
    ENERGY (ATP), IN THE MITOCHONDRIA
  • TYPES
  • AEROBIC RESPIRATION uses oxygen, produces 36
    ATP
  • a. Label the equation below.
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6CO2 6H2O 36ATP
  • glucose oxygen carbon water energy
  • dioxide

55
  • 2. ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION fermentation, does
    not require oxygen, produces only 2 ATP
  • a. ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION (yeast)
  • C6H12O6 ? alcohol CO2 2ATP
  • b. LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION (muscles)
  • C6H12O6 ? lactic acid CO2 2ATP

56
  • VIII. LIVING THINGS
  • UNICELLULAR ORGANISM
  • A living thing made up of only once cell
  • b. MULTICELLUAR ORGANISM
  • A living thing made up of 2 or more cells

57
  • c. 5 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION IN A MULTICELLULAR
    ORGANISM
  • CELLS ? TISSUES ? ORGANS ? ORGAN SYSTEM ?
    ORGANISM
  • d. HOMEOSTASIS
  • Maintaining a stable, internal environment

58
  • PART 6. CLASSIFICATION
  • CLASSIFICATION grouping organisms according to
    similar characteristics
  • 1. PROKARYOTIC CELL
  • Cell that does not contain a nucleus
  • (Bacteria)
  • 2. EUKARYOTIC CELL
  • Cell that has a nucleus
  • Make up multicellular organisms

59
  • II. 7 LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION
  • KINGDOM ? PHYLUM ? CLASS ?
  • (largest, most diverse)
  • ORDER ? FAMILY ? GENUS ? SPECIES

  • (smallest, most
    similar)
  • Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Stools

60
  • III. BINOMIAL NOMENTCALTURE
  • Genus species
  • Example Homo sapiens ?
  • Homo Genus,
  • sapiens species

61
IV. 6 KINGDOMS 1. Fill in the missing parts of
the chart.
KINGDOM CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES
1. Eubacteria -unicellular -prokaryotic -heterotrophic or autotrophic Bacteria found everywhere
2. Archae-bacteria unicellular -prokaryotic -heterotrophic or autotrophic Bacteria found in extreme environments (thermal vents)
3. PROTISTS -unicellular -eukaryotic -heterotrophic or autotrophic Animal like ameba, paramecium Plant like algae, euglena
62
KINGDOM CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES
4. FUNGI -heterotrophic -mostly multicellular Mushroom, yeast, mold, mildew
5. PLANT -multicellular -autotrophic Trees, grass, flowers
6. ANIMAL -multicellular -heterotrophic Jellyfish, humans, cats, dogs, fish, grasshoppers, bears
63
  • HUMAN BODY SYSTEMS
  • PART 7. SKELTAL SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTIONS
  • movement
  • protection support
  • makes blood cells
  • 4. shape
  • 5. stores materials (calcium phosphorus)

64
  • PARTS
  • 1. BONES 206 in body
  • bone marrow produces blood cells
  • 2. CARTILAGE
  • a. flexible connective tissue
  • b. protection support
  • c. ends of bones
  • d. cushioning (bw vertebrae)
  • e. make up body parts (nose, ears)

65
  • 3. TENDONS connective tissue which connects
    MUSCLES TO BONES
  • 4. LIGAMENTS connective tissue which connects
    BONE TO BONE

66
  • PART 8. MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION
  • LOCOMOTION (movement) by contracting and relaxing
    of the muscles

67
  • II. TYPES OF MUSCLES
  • Fill in the missing parts of the chart below.

MUSCLE VOLUNTARY/INVOL STRIATED/NON LOCATION
1. SKELETAL MUSCLE voluntary STRIATED attached to bones
2. Smooth Muscle INVOLUNTARY NONSTRIATED digestive system, blood vessels..
3. CARDIAC MUSCLE Involuntary striated HEART
68
  • 4. How do skeletal muscles WORK IN PAIRS.
  • One contracts while the other relaxes.

69
  • PART 9. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION NUTRITION
  • 1. INGESTION taking in of food
  • 2. DIGESTION the breakdown of food
  • 3. EGESTION the removal of undigested
    wastes

70
  • II. NUTRIENTS substances needed by the human
    body
  • CARBOHYDRATES
  • sugars starches
  • provide ENERGY
  • 2. PROTEINS
  • amino acids
  • build repair
  • 3. LIPIDS
  • Energy, protection, insulation

71
  • 4. VITAMINS - normal functioning
  • 5. MINERALS - normal functioning
  • 6. WATER - makes up body, transport, chemical
    reactions

72
  • III. 2 TYPES OF DIGESTION
  • MECHANICAL DIGESTION
  • physical breakdown
  • 2. CHEMICAL DIGESTION
  • breaking down using ENZYMES

73
IV. PARTS OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • 1. MOUTH
  • a. mechanical digestion begins (teeth)
  • b. chemical digestion begins enzymes in
    saliva, (starches ? sugar)
  • 2. EPIGLOTTIS closes over trachea to prevent
    choking
  • 3. ESOPHAGUS pushes food to stomach
    (PERISTALSIS)
  • 4. STOMACH
  • a. mechanical digestion - churning food
  • b. chemical digestion of proteins
  • c. mix of food chyme
  • 5. SMALL INTESTINE most digestion occurs,
    digestion ends
  • a. INTESTINAL JUICES many enzymes
  • b. HELPER ORGANS
  • -LIVER makes bile, EMULSIFICATION of fat
  • -GALL BLADDER stores bile
  • -PANCREAS pancreatic juice - many enzymes
  • c. ABSORBS NUTRIENTS
  • -VILLI folds that absorb nutrients into
    bloodstream.
  • 6. LARGE INTESTINE water absorbed from feces,
    bacteria which make vitamins
  • 7. RECTUM stores waste (feces)
  • 8. ANUS where wastes leave the body

74
  • V. LABEL THE DIAGRAM BELOW.

A. Mouth
B. Esophagus
C. Liver
D. Gall Bladder
E. Small Intestine
F. Rectum
G. Appendix
H. Large Intestine
I. Small Intestine
J. Pancreas
K. Stomach
L. Salivary Glands
75
  • PART 10. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION TRANSPORT
  • II. PARTS
  • 1. HEART pumps blood
  • a. ATRIA upper chambers
  • b. VENTRICLES lower chambers
  • c. VALVES prevent backflow of blood
  • d. SEPTUM separates left right sides
    (prevents mixing of oxygenated deoxygenated
    blood)

76
  • 2. BLOOD VESSELS
  • a. ARTERIES thickest, carry blood AWAY from the
    heart
  • -AORTA largest artery
  • -PULSE
  • -GREATEST BLOOD PRESSURE
  • b. VEINS carry blood to the heart
  • -VALVES
  • -VENA CAVA largest
  • c. CAPILLARIES thinnest, oxygen carbon
    dioxide are exchanged between blood cells,
    connect arteries veins

77
  • 3. BLOOD - connective tissue
  • a. PLASMA liquid part which carries
    materials
  • b. RED BLOOD CELLS contain hemoglobin, carry
    oxygen
  • c. WHITE BLOOD CELLS fight disease
  • d. PLATELETS blood clotting (make fibrin)

78
  • 4. Label the right and left sides of the heart,
    label which sides pumps oxygenated deoxygenated
    blood, and label all parts of the heart.

A. Aorta
LEFT - OXYGENATED
RIGHT - DEOXYGENATED
B. Left Atrium
C. Valve
D. Left Ventricle
E. Septum
F. Lower Vena Cava
G. Right Ventricle
H. Right Atrium
I. Upper Vena Cava
79
A. Red Blood Cell
B. Platelet
C. White blood Cell
D. Plasma
80
  • PART 11. IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • FUNCTION defends the body against disease
  • Pathogen disease causing organism
  • II. PARTS
  • 1st Line of Defense physical barriers (skin,
    saliva, tears, gastric juice)
  • 2nd Line Inflammatory Response
  • 3rd Line Antibodies proteins produced by WBCs
    -attach to pathogens, slow them down so
    phagocytes can destroy them.

81
  • III. TYPES
  • 1. ACTIVE IMMUNITY immune system produces own
    antibodies, permanent
  • a. by acquiring the disease (chicken pox)
  • b. by receiving a vaccination (weak or
    dead antigens injected into the body)
  • 2. PASSIVE IMMUNITY receive antibodies from
    another organism, temporary

82
  • IV. Diseases
  • a. Infectious Disease
  • Caused by pathogen, can be spread
  • b. Noninfectious Disease
  • Not caused by pathogen, cannot be spread

83
  • a. ALLERGIES reaction that occurs when the body
    is sensitive to certain substances
  • 1. Allergen substance body is sensitive to
  • 2. Body produces HISTAMINES (cause symptoms)

84
  • b. AIDS
  • Caused by HIV virus
  • Kills T- cells ? destroys immune system

85
PART 12. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM I. FUNCTION Gas
Exchange II. PARTS
  • 5. TRACHEA windpipe made of rings of cartilage
  • 6. BRONCHI 2 tubes that branch off trachea
  • 7. ALVEOLI air sacs surrounded by capillaries
    where oxygen carbon dioxide are exchanged by
    diffusion
  • 8. DIAPHRAGM sheet of muscle under lungs
  • 1. NASAL CAVITY
  • a. mucus moistens air, traps materials
  • b. cilia filters air
  • c. blood vessels warm air
  • 2. PHARYNX - throat
  • 3. LARYNX vocal cords (voice box)

86
  • III. LABEL THE DIAGRAM BELOW

A. Nasal cavity
B. Mouth
A
C. Larynx
B
F
D. Bronchi
C
E. Diaphragm
G
F. Pharynx
G. Trachea
D
H
H. Bronchi
I. Bronchial tube
I
J. Alveoli
J
E
87
  • IV. BREATHING
  • 1. INHALATION (breathing in)
  • a. diaphragm contracts (down)
  • b. air pressure decreases
  • 2. EXHALATION (breathing out)
  • a. diaphragm relaxes (up)
  • b. air pressure increases

  • 3. Breathing rate increases when amount of carbon
    dioxide in the blood increases.

88
  • 4. Label the BELL JAR below

A. Trachea
A
B. Bronchi
B
C
C. Alveoli
D
D. Diaphragm
89
PART 13. EXCRETORY SYSTEM I. FUNCTION EXCRETION
removal of cellular (metabolic wastes) II. PARTS
  • 4. URINARY SYSTEM
  • a. KIDNEYS nephrons that filter the blood
    maintain water balance ? produces URINE (water,
    urea, salt)
  • b. URETERS carry urine from kidneys to the
    bladder
  • c. URINARY BLADDER stores urine
  • d. URETHRA carries urine out of the body
  • LIVER Produces UREA, DETOXIFICATION
  • 2. LUNGS excrete CO2 H20
  • 3. SKIN
  • a. excretes perspiration (water, urea, salt)
  • b. maintains body temperature

90
  • III. Label the parts of the urinary system.

A. Kidney
A
B. Ureter
B
C. Urinary bladder
D. Urethra
C
D
91
  • PART 14. NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION
  • 1. REGULATION
  • a. processes sends out messages
  • b. control coordination
  • c. helps to maintain homeostasis

92
  • II. PARTS
  • What is a NEURON?
  • NERVE CELL
  • 2. IMPULSE message sent by neurons
  • a. STIMULUS change in the environment that
    starts an impulse
  • 3. RECEPTOR sense organs, pick up stimuli
    (ears, eyes, nose, skin, tongue)
  • 4. EFFECTOR parts of the body that responds to
    a stimulus (MUSCLES GLANDS)

93
  • 5. PARTS OF A NEURON
  • a. dendrites branches at start of neuron that
    pick up impulses
  • b. cell body (cyton) contains nucleus
  • c. axon long single fiber that carries impulse
    to end of neuron (surrounded by myelin)
  • d. terminal branches branches at end of neuron
  • 6. What is a SYNAPSE?
  • SPACE BETWEEN EACH NEURON
  • 7. NEUROTRANSMITTER substances released into a
    synapse that carries impulse to next cell

94
  • 8. Label parts of the neuron below.

F
D. Terminal Branches
A. Dendrites
B. Cell body / Cyton
E. Synapse
C. Axon
F. Schwann Cells
95
  • III. TYPES OF NEURONS
  • SENSORY NEURON receptors ? brain spinal cord
  • INTERNEURONS make up brain spinal cord
  • MOTOR NEURONS brain spinal cord ? effectors

96
  • IV. RELEX ARC (RSIME)
  • Receptor ? Sensory Neuron ? Interneuron ? Motor
    Neuron ? Effector

(Interneurons)
97
  • V. REFLEX
  • 1. Reflex involuntary response controlled by
    the spinal cord

98
  • VI. DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 1. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM brain spinal cord
  • 2. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM branching nerves
    that carry messages to all body parts

99
  • VII. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 1. BRAIN (3 parts) protected by cranium
  • a. Cerebrum largest
  • controls VOLUNTARY activities. the senses,
    thinking, memory, language
  • b. Cerebellum back
  • controls BALANCE
  • c. Medulla brain stem
  • controls all INVOLUNTARY activities (heart beat,
    breathing, digestion)
  • 2. SPINAL CORD protected by vertebrae

100
  • d. Label the parts of the central nervous system
    below.

A. Cerebrum
B. Cerebellum
C. Medulla
D. Spinal Cord
101
  • PART 15. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION
  • 1. REGULATION - produces hormones that control
    body functions
  • 2. HORMONE -chemical messengers that travel
    through the BLOODSTREAM

102
  • How are the nervous endocrine systems similar?
  • Both send messages.
  • Both regulate the body/ maintain homeostasis
  • b. How are they different?
  • The endocrine system uses hormones that travel in
    the blood to send messages while the nervous
    system uses impulses that pass over neurons.
  • Nervous system is faster than the endocrine
    system.

103
II. PARTS
  • 1. HYPOTHALAMUS part of the brain that controls
    the pituitary gland
  • 2. PITUITARY GLAND - in brain
  • secretes hormones that control other glands
  • secretes Growth hormone
  • 3. THYROID metabolism (thyroxine)
  • 4. PARATHYROIDS calcium levels (parathormone)
  • 6. ADRENAL GLANDS on top of each kidney
  • ADRENALINE released in times of stress
    (increases heart rate, breathing rate)
  • 7. ISLETS OF LANGERHANS- on pancreas
  • INSULIN decreases blood sugar level
  • GLUCAGON increases blood sugar level
  • 8. OVARIES female gonads
  • ESTROGEN secondary sec characteristics
  • 9. TESTES male gonads
  • TESTOSTERONE - secondary sex characteristics

104
  • III. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
  • 1. How endocrine glands work
  • 2. A hormone causes a gland to produce or stop
    producing another hormone

105
  • IV. LABEL THE DIAGRAM BELOW

A. Pituitary Gland
B. Thyroid
C. Parathyroid
D. Thymus
E. Adrenal Glands
F. Islets of Langerhans
G. Ovaries
H. Testes
106
  • PART 16. REPRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT
  • I. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  • 1. 1 parent
  • 2. offspring identical to parent
  • 3. MITOSIS 1 cell ? 2 cells

107
  • II. MITOSIS cell division
  • 1. 1 cell ? 2 cells that have the SAME OF
    CHROMOSOMES as parent cell
  • 2. asexual reproduction
  • 3. production of ALL body cells EXCEPT sex cells
  • 4. Growth and repair

108
  • III. STEPS OF MITOSIS
  • 1. INTERPHASE chromosomes replicate
  • 2. PROPHASE nuclear membrane disappears and
    spindle fibers form
  • 3. METAPHASE chromosomes line up in middle of
    cell
  • 4. ANAPHASE chromosomes separate and move away
    from each other
  • 5. TELOPHASE nuclear membrane starts to reform
  • cytokinesis cell membrane pinches in

109
  • PLANT CELL MITOSIS
  • 1. no centrioles
  • 2. CYTOKINESIS cell plate forms instead of cell
    membrane pinching in

110
IV. Label the steps of mitosis below.
A. Interphase
B. Prophase
C. Metaphase
D. Anaphase
E. Telophase
111
  • IV. TYPES OF ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  • 1. FISSION equal division (bacteria, ameba and
    paramecium)
  • 2. BUDDING unequal division (Yeast)

112
  • 3. SPORULATION spores develop into new organism
    (mold, mushrooms)
  • 4. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION used by plants (NO
    SEEDS)
  • -runners (strawberries), buds/tubers (potatoes),
    grafting (roses), bulbs (onions)

113
  • V. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
  • 1. 2 parents, each give sex cell
  • 2. Offspring NOT identical to parents
  • 3. FERTILIZATION SPERM EGG ? ZYGOTE
  • 4. ZYGOTE DEVELOPS INTO EMBRYO (1st 8 weeks) ?
    FETUS

114
  • VI. MEIOSIS cell division
  • 1. 2 divisions (1 ? 2 ? 4)
  • 2. for sexual reproduction
  • 3. 4 new daughter cells with ½ the number of
    chromosomes as parent cell
  • 4. TO PRODUCE SEX CELLS ONLY (in ovaries testes)

MALES 4 SPERM CELLS FEMALE 1 EGG 3 POLAR
BODIES
115
  • 5. What type of organisms carry out external
    fertilization?
  • Aquatic (fish, frogs)
  • 6. Why do these organisms release many sex cells
    at one time?
  • To increase chance of fertilization
  • 7. What type of organisms carry out internal
    fertilization?
  • Terrestrial (live on land)

116
  • VII. Metamorphosis
  • a. Complete 4 stages (egg ?larva ? pupa ?
    adult), butterfly
  • b. Incomplete 3 stages egg ? nymph, adult

117
  • PART 17. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • I. FUNCTION
  • 1. REPRODUCTION -the process through which living
    things produce new individuals of the same kind

118
  • II. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • SPERM CELLS male sex cells
  • 1. TESTES -produce sperm cells and testosterone
  • 2. SCROTUM -external organ that surrounds testes
  • 3. SPERM DUCTS/VAS DEFERENS -tubes that carry
    sperm to the penis
  • 4. GLANDS -adds liquid to sperm (semen)
  • 5. PENIS deposits sperm into female
  • 6. URETHRA tube in the penis which transports
    urine semen

119
  • 7. Label the diagram of the male reproductive
    system.

A
A. Urinary bladder
B
B. Vas Deferens
C. Glands
C
D. Gland
D
H
E. Testes
F. Urethra
E
G. Penis
F
G
H. Vas Deferens
120
  • III. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • EGGS female sex cells
  • 1. OVARIES - makes eggs and estrogen
  • 2. FALLOPIAN TUBES - (oviduct) tubes in which an
    egg travels through from ovaries to the uterus
  • FERTILIZATION OCCURS HERE
  • 3. UTERUS - muscular organ where zygote attaches
    and develops into a baby
  • 4. CERVIX - lower end of the uterus
  • 5. VAGINA birth canal, where sperm is deposited

121
  • 6. Label the diagram of the female reproductive
    system.

A. Oviduct / Fallopian Tube
A
B. Egg (Ovulation)
B
C. Ovary
C
D. Uterus
F
D
E. Vagina
E
F. Cervix
122
  • IV. MENSTRUAL CYCLE (28 days)
  • 1. STEPS
  • a. Egg develops in ovary
  • b. OVULATION egg released from ovary
  • c. Lining of uterus thickens with blood
  • d. NO FERTILIZATION ? MENSTRUATION (uterus lining
    sheds, egg leaves body)

123
  • V. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
  • FERTILIZATION EGG SPERM ? ZYGOTE (fertilized
    egg)
  • ZYGOTE ? EMBRYO (8 weeks) ? FETUS (after 8 weeks)
  • (BY CELL DIVISION)

124
  • 3. Label the diagrams.

C
A
B
E
F
D
A. Fertilization
D. cleavage
B. Zygote
E. blastula
C. mitosis
F. gastrula
125
  • 4. STRUCTURES FORMED
  • a. AMNIOTIC SAC surrounds fetus contains
    amniotic fluid that protects baby
  • b. PLACENTA network of blood vessels where
    nutrients wastes are exchanged between the
    mothers blood babys blood by diffusion
  • c. UMBILICAL CORD blood vessels that connect
    the fetus to the placenta
  • Carry nutrients and wastes to and from the
    placenta

126
  • d. Label the diagram below.

A. Amniotic Sac
B. Uterus
F
C. Cervix
D. Umbilical Cord
E. Placenta
B
E
F. fetus
C
127
VI. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS (FLOWERS) 1.
PARTS OF A FLOWER
  • a. PETALS colored leaves, attract insects for
    pollination
  • b. SEPALS green leaves, protection
  • c. STAMEN male reproductive organ
  • ANTHER produces pollen (sperm)
  • FILAMENT stem holds up anther
  • d. PISTIL female reproductive organ
  • STIGMA sticky part that catches pollen
  • STYLE long tube that brings pollen to ovary
  • OVARY where eggs are produced and stored
  • OVULES in ovary, contain eggs

128
  • 2. Label the diagram of the flower below.

1. anther
2. filament
10
4. stigma
5. style
11
6. ovary
8. petal
9. sepal
10. stamen
11. pistil
129
  • VIII. HOW DO FLOWERS REPRODUCE?
  • 1. POLLINATION - pollen lands on stigma
  • a. self-pollination pollen from one flower
    lands on stigma of the same flower (IDENTICAL)
  • b. cross pollination pollen from one flower
    lands on stigma of other flower

130
  • 2. FERTILIZATION
  • 1. pollen lands on stigma
  • 2. pollen tube grows down
  • through the style and
  • carries pollen to ovary
  • 3. sperm fertilizes egg in ovule
  • 4. ovule ? SEED (embryo)
  • 5. ovary ? FRUIT

131
  • 3. SEEDS
  • Embryo
  • Seed coat (protects embryo)
  • Stored food for embryo

132
  • 4. GERMINATION growth of plant embryo inside
    seed (sprouting)
  • a. For germination to occur there must be enough
    water, enough oxygen right temperature

133
  • PART 18. GENETICS
  • GREGOR MENDEL crossed pea plants to study
    heredity passing on of traits)
  • II. CHROMOSOMES in nucleus
  • 1. consist of genes which contain genetic
    information (DNA)
  • 2. sex chromosomes determine sex of an organism
  • a. EGGS X SPERM X or Y b. FEMALE
    XX MALE XY
  • 3. MUTATION change in a gene that may cause a
    new trait (good or bad)
  • 4. GENES 2 genes (ALLELES) for every trait (1
    from each parent)
  • 5. DOMINANT GENE/TRAIT stronger gene CAPITAL
    LETTER (T)
  • 6. RECESSIVE GENE/TRAIT weaker gene lower
    case (t)
  • 7. PHENOTYPE physical appearance (what
    offspring look like)
  • 8. GENOTYPE genetic makeup

134
T tall plant, t short plant
GENES PHENOTYPE GENOTYPE
TT Tall Homozygous OR pure dominant
tt Short Homozygous OR pure recessive
Tt Tall Heterozygous OR hybrid
135
  • III. PUNNETT SQUARES
  • 1. Cross a pure dominant tall plant with a hybrid
    plant.

T
T
Phenotype 100 tall
TT
TT
T
Genotype 50 pure dominant 50 hybrid
Tt
Tt
t
136
  • 2. B Brown eyes, b blue eyes
  • Cross a blue eyed person with a hybrid brown eyed
    person. Give the phenotypes genotypes of their
    offspring.

b
b
Phenotype 50 brown eyes 50 blue eyes
Bb
Bb
B
bb
bb
Genotype 50 pure recessive 50 hybrid
b
137
  • 3. G green, g yellow
  • Cross a yellow plant with a pure dominant plant.
    Give the phenotypes genotypes for all
    offspring.

g
g
Phenotype 100 green
Gg
Gg
G
Genotype 100 hybrid
Gg
Gg
G
138
  • IV. PEDIGREE CHARTS - trace a genetic trait in a
    family
  • 1. Example

139
  • 2. The pedigree chart below traces the appearance
    of earlobes through 3 generations of a family.
  • Based on the chart, attached earlobes
    is a
  • a. dominant trait
  • b. recessive trait
  • c. mutated trait
  • d. trait common in
    females

140
  • V. APPLIED GENETICS
  • Selective Breeding crossing organisms with
    desirable traits to produce offspring with those
    traits
  • Hybridization (different)
  • Inbreeding (same/similar)

141
  • 2. Genetic Engineering
  • Recombinant DNA made ? simple organism carried
    out function controlled by complex organisms cut
    DNA
  • (Example Insulin producing bacteria)
  • 3. Cloning producing organism (CLONE) that is
    genetically identical to parent

142
  • PART 19. PLANTS
  • A. PARTS OF PLANTS
  • 1. ROOTS
  • a. Functions - absorb water dissolved
    minerals, anchor plant, store food
  • b. root hairs increase surface area for water
    absorption

143
  • 2. STEM
  • a. supports plant, hold up leaves
  • b. contains VASCULAR TISSUE
  • -XYLEM carries water up the plant
  • -PHLOEM carries food everywhere

144
  • 3. LEAVES where PHOTOSYNTHESIS occurs
  • a. chloroplasts contain chlorophyll (green
    pigment which absorbs light)
  • b. Equation
  • 6CO2 6H2O ? C6H12O6 6O2
  • (carbon (water) (glucose) (oxygen)
  • dioxide)
  • c. SUNLIGHT energy source
  • d. OXYGEN waste product that is released into
    the air (oxygen we breathe)
  • B. TROPISM how a plant responds to a stimulus
  • POSITIVE toward stimulus (Example light)
    NEGATIVE away from stimulus

145
  • PART 20. ECOLOGY
  • I. ECOSYSTEMS
  • ECOSYSTEM
  • all the living nonliving things in an
    environment
  • a. BIOTIC FACTORS living things
  • b. ABIOTIC FACTORS nonliving things

146
  • 2. COMMUNITY all of the different LIVING things
    in an ecosystem
  • 3. POPULATION organisms of the same SPECIES
    living in a community

147
  • 4. NICHE
  • a. the role an organism plays
  • b. what it needs, what it eats, where it lives,
    how it behaves

148
  • 5. HABITAT where an organism lives

149
  • II. LIVING THINGS IN AN ECOSYSTEM
  • 1. PRODUCERS
  • autotrophs (plants),
  • get energy from the SUN
  • CONTAIN THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF ENERGY IN THE
    ECOSYSTEM

150
  • 2. CONSUMERS heterotrophs
  • a. HERBIVORES eat producers (plants)
  • b. CARNIVORES eat other animals
  • c. OMNIVORES eat both plants and animals
  • d. SCAVENGERS eat dead organisms

151
  • 3. DECOMPOSERS
  • a. break down dead organisms into small
    materials place them back into the environment
    to be used again
  • b. BACTERIA, MUSHROOMS

152
  • 4. PREDATOR living thing that hunts and kills
    other living things as food
  • 5. PREY organisms killed by predators

153
  • III. FOOD CHAIN - shows how much ENERGY is
    transferred
  • 1.
  • PRODUCER ? PRIMARY CONSUMER ? SECONDARY CONS
  • (herbivore or omnivore)
    (carnivore or omnivore)

154
  • 2. Label the parts of the food chain below.

b.
d.
e.
a.
c.
Primary consumer
Secondaryconsumer
Tertiary consumer
producer
carnivore
(herbivore)
3. Where is the most energy found in this food
chain?
Plants
155
  • IV. FOOD WEB overlapping food chains
  • 1. Identify the following organisms in the food
    web.

a. Producers
Grasses, bean plants
b. Herbivores
Rabbits, caterpillars
c. Carnivores
Frogs, trout, snakes, hawks, foxes
d. decomposers
bacteria
156
  • V. ENERGY PYRAMID
  • Use the energy pyramid at the right to answer the
    questions below.
  • a. Which level contains the greatest amount of
    energy?
  • GREEN PLANTS
  • b. What happens to the amount of energy as it
    moves up the pyramid?
  • IT DECREASES
  • c. Which organism is an herbivore?
  • MICE

157
  • VI. SYMBIOSIS
  • 1. Relationship between 2 organisms where one
    lives on, in, or near the other

158
  • 2. 3 types
  • a. COMMENSALISM 1 benefits, other not
    harmed/unaffected (, -)
  • -mites on eyebrows
  • b. MUTUALISM both benefit (, )
  • -bacteria in our intestines
  • c. PARASITISM PARASITE benefits, HOST is harmed
    (, -)
  • -fleas on dogs

159
  • VII. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
  • 1. When one community replaces another until a
    stable community exists
  • 2. CLIMAX COMMUNITY stable community, end of
    succession

Climax community
Pioneer organisms
160
  • PART 21. EVOLUTION
  • I. EVOLUTION change in a species over time

161
  • II. EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
  • FOSSILS remains of living things
  • a. Law of Superposition younger layers of
    sedimentary rock lay on top of older ones

162
  • b. In the diagram below, which fossil
  • IS THE OLDEST A
  • IS THE YOUNGEST C
  • MOST COMPLEX C
  • MOST SIMPLE A

163
  • 2. ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE
  • a. Homologous structures structures that
    evolved from similar body parts
  • (similar structure BUT different function)
  • b. Examples human arm, whale flipper, dog leg,
    bat wing

164
  • 3. EMBRYOLOGICAL EVIDENCE
  • a. young embryos of different organisms are
    similar
  • 4. CHEMICAL EVIDENCE
  • a. materials that make up
    organisms are similar
    (proteins, DNA)

165
  • ALL OF THIS EVIDENCE SUPPORTS THE THEORY OF
    EVOLUTION AND SUGGESTS THAT PERHAPS ALL ORGANISMS
    EVOLVED FROM COMMON ANCESTORS.

166
  • III. CHARLES DARWIN
  • 1. CHARLES DARWIN
  • a. Galapagos Islands
  • b. NATURAL SELECTION

167
  • 2. NATURAL SELECTION
  • those organisms best adapted to their environment
    will survive reproduce

168
  • 3. ADAPTATION a change that helps an organism
    better adapt to an environment ? survive

169
  • 4. BASED ON 5 MAIN POINTS
  • OVERPRODUCTION organisms produce too many
    offspring ? competition ? natural selection\
  • b. COMPETETION limited resources ? organisms
    compete ? natural selection

170
  • c. VARIATION differences between organisms ?
    best adapted will survive reproduce

171
  • Example Polar bears with thicker fur will
    survive reproduce

172
  • d. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST those best adapted
    will survive reproduce

173
  • e. SPECIATION over time favorable adaptations
    survive unfavorable disappear ? new species

174
  • Part 22.
  • 1. Identify the steps of scientific method.
  • 2. Describe the 2 types of variables.
  • 3. Why do investigations require a control?
  • 4. Explain the cell theory.
  • 5. Distinguish between eukaryotes and
    prokaryotes.
  • 6. Describe the function of the cell nucleus.
  • 7. Identify the main functions of the cell
    membrane and the cell wall.
  • 8. Describe what happens during diffusion.
  • 9. Identify the organization levels in
    multicellular organisms.

175
  • 10. Compare and contrast the structure of a plant
    cell with that of an animal cell.
  • 11. What are the contributions of the early cell
    scientists?
  • 12. Compare and contrast active and passive
    transport.
  • 13. Assume that MITOSIS begins with eight
    chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. When
    telophase ends, how many chromosomes will be
    present in each new nucleus?
  • 14. Contrast the chromosome number of body cells
    and gametes.

176
  • 15. Contrast meiosis and mitosis.
  • 16. What happens to the number of chromosomes per
    cell during meiosis?
  • 17. Explain how sex is determined.
  • 18. Summarize nondisjunction and the problems it
    causes.
  • 19. A person who has type AB blood is sometimes
    referred to as a universal recipient. Why?
  • 20. Summarize the relationship between genes and
    DNA.
  • 21. Describe the overall structure of the DNA
    molecule.

177
  • 22. Summarize the events of DNA replication.
  • 23. Before undergoing meiosis, a cell has 28
    chromosomes .How many are present in each of the
    four daughter cellsafter meiosis?
  • 24. What kinds of cells are produced in the
    process of
  • meiosis?
  • 25. Small ears in guinea pigs are dominant over
    large ears. A homozygous dominant male (EE) is
    crossed with a heterozygous (Ee) female. What is
    the chance that large-eared offspring will be
    produced?
  • 26. Which Kingdom includes only prokaryotic
    organisms?
  • 27. In what cell structure does aerobic cellular
    respiration take place?

178
  • 28. When oxygen is present, cellular respiration
    in your body cells produces a total of ______
    ATP.
  • 29. Respiration without oxygen is called ___
    respiration.
  • 30. In what cell structure does photosynthesis
    take place?
  • 31. Which type of cells in a plant normally have
    the most chloroplasts?
  • 32. How is genetic information from parents
    transferred to their offspring?
  • 33. If one strand of DNA is AAATTTCCCGGG, what is
    the complementary strand?
  • 34. What is a mutation?

179
  • 35. When mutations occur in sex cells, are they
    passed on to offspring? What about mutations that
    occur in somatic cells?
  • 36. Ttall, tshort. Cross a parent that is
    homozygous dominant with another parent that is
    heterozygous. Give the genotype and phenotype of
    the offspring.
  • 37. What is the difference between dominant and
    recessive genes.
  • 38. What part of the cell is the site of protein
    synthesis?
  • 39. What part of the cell contains the genetic
    material of the cell?
  • 40. What part of the cell is site of cellular
    respiration?

180
  • 41. What part of the cell packages and sorts
    materials?
  • 42. What part of the cell stores materials?
  • 43. What part of the cell contains digestive
    enzymes for digestion?
  • 44. A and B alleles are dominant, and O is
    recessive. John, who has blood type O, marries
    Sue, who has blood type AB. What blood types will
    their offspring potentially have?
  • 45. What is the primary function of
    photosynthesis?
  • 46. If black is dominant (B) and white is
    recessive (b), what are the phenotypes and
    genotypes of a cross between two heterozygous
    parents?

181
  • 47. Why is a person with AIDS unable to combat
    infections?
  • 48. a. 11.2cm ___ mm b. 2.7 mm _____ km
    c. 9.2 cm ___ mm
  • 49. Water freezes at _____ degrees centigrade
    (Celsius).
  • 50. Water boils at _____ degrees centigrade
    (Celsius).
  • 51. What is meant by the word phenotype?
  • 52. Describe the process of cytokinesis in plant
    cells.
  • 53. Identify and explain the three types of
    symbiosis.
  • 54. What is an ecosystem?

182
  • 55. What is the difference between a community
    and a population?
  • 56. Which land biome contains the greatest
    variety of living things?
  • 57. Which land biome consists of trees that lose
    their leaves during the fall?
  • 58. Which land biome consists of coniferous
    trees?
  • 59. The tundra is made up of permafrost? What is
    permafrost?
  • 60. What is evolution?
  • 61. What is natural selection?
  • 63. Explain the Law of Superposition.
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