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Exploring the Oceans

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Chapter 13 Exploring the Oceans Preview Section 1 Earth s Oceans Section 2 The Ocean Floor Section 3 Life in the Ocean Section 4 Resources from the Ocean – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exploring the Oceans


1
Chapter 13
Exploring the Oceans
Preview
Section 1 Earths Oceans Section 2 The Ocean
Floor Section 3 Life in the Ocean Section 4
Resources from the Ocean Section 5 Ocean
Pollution
Concept Mapping
2
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Bellringer
Look at a photo of Earth taken from space.
Predict the percentage of Earths surface that is
covered by water. Write your prediction in your
science journal.
3
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Objectives
  • List the major divisions of the global ocean.
  • Describe the history of Earths oceans.
  • Identify the properties of ocean water.
  • Describe the interactions between the ocean and
    the atmosphere.

4
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Divisions of the Global Ocean
  • The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean.
  • The other oceans, listed from largest to
    smallest, are
  • the Atlantic Ocean
  • the Indian Ocean
  • the Arctic Ocean
  • the Southern Ocean

5
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
6
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
How Did the Oceans Form?
  • About 4.5 billion years ago, there were no
    oceans.
  • Sometime before 4 billion years ago, water vapor
    in the atmosphere condensed and fell as rain.
  • The rain filled the deeper levels of Earths
    surface and the first oceans began to form.

7
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
How Did the Oceans Form?, continued
  • The shape of the oceans has changed over time.

8
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Characteristics of Ocean Water
  • Dissolved Gases Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon
    dioxide are the main gases dissolved in ocean
    water.
  • Solids Sodium chloride, or table salt, is the
    most abundant dissolved solid in the ocean. Other
    solids are also found in ocean water.

9
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Characteristics of Ocean Water, continued
  • Salinity is a measure of the amount of dissolved
    solids in a given amount of liquid.
  • Changes in Salinity Climate and water movement
    affect salinity. Costal water in cool, humid
    places has a low salinity. Slow-moving bodies of
    water have higher salinity than other parts of
    the ocean do.

10
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
11
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Characteristics of Ocean Water, continued
  • Temperature Zones The temperature of ocean
    water decreases as depth increases.

12
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
Characteristics of Ocean Water, continued
  • Surface Temperature Changes Surface-zone
    temperatures vary with latitude and the time of
    year.
  • Surface temperatures range from 1ºC near the
    poles to about 24 ºC near the equator.
  • The surface zone is heated more in the summer.

13
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
The Ocean and the Water Cycle
  • The water cycle is the continuous movement of
    water from the ocean to the atmosphere to the
    land and back to the ocean.
  • The ocean is an important part of the water
    cycle because nearly all of Earths water is in
    the ocean.

14
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
15
Section 1 Earths Oceans
Chapter 13
A Global Thermostat
  • The ocean regulates atmospheric temperatures.
  • A Thermal Exchange The ocean absorbs and
    releases thermal energy much more slowly than dry
    land does.
  • The circulation of warm water causes some
    coastal lands to have warmer climates than they
    would have with the currents.

16
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
Bellringer
Pretend you have walked off the edge of North
America and into the depths of the Atlantic
Ocean. As you walk along the ocean floor toward
Europe, what do you see? Draw the ocean floor as
you imagined it.   Illustrate your answer in your
science journal.
17
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
Objectives
  • Describe technologies for studying the ocean
    floor.
  • Identify the two major regions of the ocean
    floor.
  • Classify subdivisions and features of the two
    major regions of the ocean floor.

18
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
Studying the Ocean Floor
  • Seeing by Sonar Scientists use sonar to
    determine the oceans depth.
  • Oceanography via Satellite Scientists use
    images from the satellite Seasat to study ocean
    currents.
  • Studying the Ocean with Geosat Scientists use
    the Geosat satellite to measure slight changes in
    the height of the oceans surface.

19
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
20
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
Revealing the Ocean Floor
  • Regions of the Ocean Floor The two regions of
    the ocean floor are the continental margin and
    the deep-ocean basin.
  • Underwater Real Estate The continental margin
    and the deep-ocean basin are subdivided into
    different areas and have different features, as
    shown on the next two slides.

21
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
22
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
23
Section 2 The Ocean Floor
Chapter 13
Exploring the Ocean with Underwater Vessels
  • Piloted Vessels Alvin and Deep Flight Alvin
    and Deep Flight are two research vessels that can
    reach some of the deepest parts of the ocean.
  • Robotic Vessels JASON II and Medea JASON II
    and Medea are a robotic team. JASON II explores
    the ocean floor. Medea is attached to JASON II
    with a tether and explores above the the sea
    floor.

24
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
Bellringer
Imagine you are a marine biologist who must
classify marine life into three groups. What
criteria would you use in your classification
system?   Record your response in your science
journal.
25
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
Objectives
  • Identify the three groups of marine life.
  • Describe the two main ocean environments.
  • Identify the ecological zones of the benthic and
    pelagic environments.

26
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
Three Groups of Marine Life
  • Organisms that float or drift freely near the
    oceans surface are called plankton.
  • Organisms that swim actively in the open ocean
    are called nekton.
  • Organisms that live on or in the ocean floor are
    called benthos.

27
Chapter 13
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
28
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment
  • The Benthic Environment is the region near the
    bottom of a pond, lake, or ocean.
  • The benthic environment is divided into
    ecological zones based on where different types
    of benthos live.

29
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment, continued
  • The Intertidal Zone is where the ocean meets the
    land.
  • The intertidal zone is exposed to air for part
    of the day. Organisms found in this zone include
    starfish, sea anemones, barnacles, crabs, and
    seaweed.

30
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment, continued
  • The Sublittoral Zone The sublittoral zone
    begins at the low-tide limit and extends to the
    continental shelf, which is about 200 m below sea
    level.
  • The temperature, water pressure, and amount of
    sunlight remain fairly constant in this zone.
    Coral is found in this zone.

31
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment, continued
  • The Bathyal Zone The bathyal zone extends from
    the continental shelf to the abyssal zone. The
    depth of this zone ranges from 200 m to 4,000 m
    below sea level.
  • Because of the lack of sunlight, few plants are
    found in this zone. Animals such as sea stars,
    sponges, and octopuses are found here.

32
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment, continued
  • The Abyssal Zone The abyssal zone is the
    largest ecological zone of the ocean and can
    reach 4,000 m in depth.
  • No plants live in this zone. The few animals
    that can be found include crabs, sponges, sea
    cucumbers, and worms.

33
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Benthic Environment, continued
  • The Hadal Zone The hadal zone consists of the
    floor of the ocean trenches and any organisms
    found there. The depth can reach from 6,000 m to
    7,000 m below sea level.
  • The only organisms that have been found in this
    zone include a type of sponge, a few species of
    worms, and a type of clam.

34
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Pelagic Environment
  • The zone near the oceans surface and at the
    middle depths is called the pelagic environment.
  • The pelagic environment is above the abyssal
    zone and beyond the littoral zone.
  • The two major zones of the pelagic environment
    are the neritic zone and the oceanic zone.

35
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Pelagic Environment, continued
  • The Neritic Zone The neritic zone is a warm,
    shallow zone that covers the continental shelf.
  • The neritic zone contains the largest
    concentration of marine life.
  • The neritic zone receives more sunlight than
    other ocean zones, allowing plankton to grow and
    serve as a food supply.

36
Section 3 Life in the Ocean
Chapter 13
The Pelagic Environment, continued
  • The Oceanic Zone The oceanic zone includes the
    volume of water that covers the entire sea floor
    except for the continental shelf.
  • The deeper parts of the oceanic zone have colder
    water temperatures and much greater pressure than
    the neritic zone.
  • Organisms are more spread out in the oceanic
    zone.

37
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Bellringer
Tabitha drove her car to the market to buy a tuna
steak for dinner. When she got home, she poured
herself a glass of water, fired up her gas grill,
and cooked the tuna. Identify four of Tabithas
items or activities that involve resources
obtained from the sea.   Record your response in
your science journal.
38
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Objectives
  • List two ways of harvesting the oceans living
    resources.
  • Identify three nonliving resources in the ocean.
  • Describe the oceans energy resources.

39
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Living Resources
  • Fishing the Ocean Fish are the larges group of
    organisms take from the ocean.
  • Farming the Ocean People have begun to raise
    ocean fish and other organisms in fish farms to
    help meet the demand for seafood.
  • Savory Seaweed Many types of seaweed are
    harvested from the ocean for use as food.

40
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Nonliving Resources
  • Oil and Natural Gas Oil and natural gas are
    used for energy and are found under layers of
    impermeable rock.
  • Searching for Oil Scientists use seismic
    equipment to find oil and natural gas under the
    ocean floor.

41
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Nonliving Resources, continued
  • Fresh Water and Desalination Fresh water can be
    collected for human use by removing the salt from
    ocean water.
  • Sea-Floor Minerals Scientists estimate that 15
    of the ocean floor is covered with mineral-rich
    nodules. However, mining them is costly and
    difficult.
  • Tidal Energy is energy generated from the
    movement of the tides.

42
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Tidal Energy
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
43
Section 4 Resources from the Ocean
Chapter 13
Nonliving Resources, continued
  • Wave Energy The constant motion of waves is a
    clean, renewable energy resource.
  • Researchers have found certain areas of the
    world where wave energy can generate enough
    electrical energy to make building power plants
    worthwhile.

44
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Bellringer
How does ocean pollution affect your life? What
are possible ways you contribute to
ocean pollution in your daily life?   Write your
answers in your science journal.
45
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Objectives
  • Explain the difference between point-source and
    nonpoint-source pollution
  • Identify three different types of point-source
    pollution.
  • Describe what is being done to control ocean
    pollution.

46
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Nonpoint-Source Pollution
  • Pollution that comes from many sources rather
    than from a single site is called nonpoint-source
    pollution.
  • Most ocean pollution is nonpoint-source
    pollution and can be difficult to regulate and
    control.

47
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Point-Source Pollution
  • Trash Dumping Dumping trash in the deeper parts
    of the ocean is a common practice in many
    countries.
  • Effects of Trash Dumping Trash thrown in the
    ocean can be harmful to ocean organisms.
  • Sludge Dumping Sludge is the solid waste
    removed from raw sewage. Sludge can pollute
    beaches and kill marine life.

48
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Point-Source Pollution, continued
  • Oil Spills If not handled properly, oil
    transports can cause oil spills.

49
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Point-Source Pollution, continued
  • Effects of Oil Spills Oil spills can harm or
    kill many plants and animals.
  • Preventing Oil Spills New technology is being
    used to safeguard against oil spills. Oil tankers
    are now being built with two hulls instead of one.

50
Section 5 Ocean Pollution
Chapter 13
Saving Our Ocean Resources
  • Nations Take Notice Many international
    agreements and laws restrict ocean pollution.
  • Citizens Taking Charge People have demanded
    that their governments work to solve ocean
    pollution and have begun organizing beach
    cleanups.
  • Action in the United States The U.S. has passed
    laws to control local pollution.

51
Exploring the Oceans
Chapter 13
Concept Mapping
Use the terms below to complete the concept map
on the next slide.
ecological zones benthos intertidal zone benthic zone nentic zone marine life oceans plankton oceanic zone

52
Exploring the Oceans
Chapter 13
53
Exploring the Oceans
Chapter 13
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