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Ethics in Qualitative Research

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Ethics in Qualitative Research Dr. Wael Aldaya 02/04/2014 IUG Workshop aims To raise the awareness of the ethical issues that can arise in quantitative and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics in Qualitative Research


1
Ethics in Qualitative Research
IUG
Presented by Dr. Wael Aldaya
2
Workshop aims
IUG
  • To raise the awareness of the ethical issues that
    can arise in quantitative and qualitative
    research.
  • To encourage researchers as well as the
    universities to consider the ethical issues.
  • To enable researcher to deploy ethical theories,
    guidelines and principles to solving ethical
    dilemmas in business field.

3
Road Map
IUG
  • Research ethics.
  • Ethical Philosophies.
  • Potential for Ethical Issues in Qualitative
    Research.
  • Ethical Philosophies concerns.

4
Research ethics
IUG
  • Research ethics relates to questions about how we
    formulate and clarify our research topic, design
    our research and gain access, collect data,
    process and store our data, analyse data and
    write up our research findings in a moral and
    responsible way.
  • A code of ethics provide you with a statement of
    principles and procedures for the conduct of your
    research.

5
Research ethics- In context
IUG
  • In the context of ethics, the researcher has to
    ask the following questions
  • What moral principles guide your research?
  • How do ethical issues enter into your selection
    of a research problem?
  • How do ethical issues affect how you conduct
    your researchthe design of your study, your
    sampling procedure, etc.?
  • What responsibility do you have toward your
    research subjects

6
II. Ethical Philosophies-Theories
IUG
  • Four philosophical approaches are applied in
    research
  • Deontological According to Skinner et al,.
    (1988), deontological philosophies focus on the
    factors or means used to arrive at an ethical
    decision. It also means that you should not harm
    participants in any way, no matter what the
    potential benefit.
  • Teleological This approach emphasizes the
    consequences that result from an action. Thus,
    the potential harm from the research is
    outweighed by the potential benefit of the
    research.

7
Ethical Theories, cont,,,
IUG
  • Utilitarian ethics the theory that claims that
    the only legitimate principle upon which to judge
    an action as ethical is that it has beneficial
    consequences, namely, that it reduces harms and
    promotes the greatest happiness of the greatest
    number e.g John S Mill.
  • Virtue ethics the theory that ethical conduct
    should be directed by ideals of the virtues
    higher than conformity to standards set by duty
    and law.

8
III. Potential for Ethical Issuesin Qualitative
Research
IUG
  • Related to the stage of research
  • Research Design (RD)
  • Research Problem Statement (RPS)
  • Formulating the research questions (RQ)
  • Preparing Literature Review (LR)
  • Collecting data data collection processes
  • Writing Up (W-up)
  • Discuss the results and reporting

9
Ethical issues- RD
IUG
  • Can the research be done properly with the
    resources that are available?
  • Is there sufficient time for the design of the
    research, collection of data and analysis of
    results?
  • Will the available resources cover the costs of
    the research (e.g. travel, printing, etc.)?
  • Will it be possible and practical to gain access
    to necessary data (people, events, documents)?

10
Research Design-cont,,,
IUG
  • Researchers should be committed to discovering
    and reporting things as faithfully and as
    honestly as possible, without allowing their
    investigations to be influenced by considerations
    other than what is the truth of the matter.

11
Ethical issues- RPS
IUG
  • The researcher identifies a significant problem
    or issue to study and presents a rational for its
    importance.
  • It is important to identify a problem that will
    benefit individuals being studied or
    institutions.
  • Deception occurs when participants understand one
    purpose for a study but the researcher has a
    different purpose in mid.
  • It is also important for researchers to specify
    the sponsorship of their study.

12
Ethical issues- -RQ
IUG
  • Ethical issues may intervene in forming up your
    RQ
  • The ideological position of the researcher
  • The political economic context in which the
    research is taken up
  • The various stakeholders agenda including the
    funding agencies, the researchers, the government
    as a player, the global situation.

13
Ethical issues- LR
IUG
  • Ignoring the key authors
  • Ignoring the key articles or journals
  • Ignoring the key theories
  • Obtaining a secondary citation for ones own
    publication
  • The text is not cited by the mentioned reference
  • Change the meaning of the text that you cited
  • Excessively using one single reference

14
Ethical issues- Data collection
IUG
  • Collecting data without appropriate controls.
  • No permission from the gatekeeper.
  • Omitting controls that others have pointed out.
  • Using inappropriate sample sizes.
  • Using inappropriate research community.
  • Selecting what to observe and ignores other
    factors.
  • Failing to see events or seeing non-existing
    ones.
  • Failing to preserve data for a sufficiently long
    time.
  • Using out dated data. You are in 2014 not 2004.

15
Ethical issues- Processing Data
IUG
  • Manipulate and making up data.
  • Using inappropriate statistical tests.
  • Violating the statistical assumptions.
  • Reporting only positive or significant results.
  • Ignoring the opposite results.

16
Ethical issues- W-up
IUG
  • Using other peoples words (plagiarism).
  • Cut and paste others work to form new ideas.
  • Ignoring the contradictory findings.
  • Not explaining why your findings differ from
    others.
  • Failing to submit oneself to review or obtaining
    permission from authors.
  • Changing the hypothesis.
  • Reporting the significant correlation.

17
Ethical issues- W-up, cont,,,
IUG
  • Academic Fraud
  • Academic fraud involves the intentional
    misrepresentation of what has been done which is
    worse than plagiarism.
  • Making up data and or result as he/she may have
    difficulty accessing the correct people to
    survey.
  • Purposefully putting forward conclusions that are
    not accurate. You already have the conclusion.

18
Ethical issues- W-up, cont,,,
IUG
  • Misrepresenting the Results
  • Misrepresenting (fabricate) the results, is
    especially important for students undertaking
    their project for a client.
  • On occasion, some students (not you, of course)
    may purposefully misrepresent their work to
    impress their business client.
  • Academic supervisors, on the other hand, will
    frequently identify these exaggerations and mark
    the work down accordingly.

19
IV. Ethical Philosophies concerns
IUG
  • There are six broad ethical areas that need to be
    considered in your research
  • voluntary participation
  • Informed consent
  • confidentiality and anonymity
  • the potential for harm
  • Communicating the results
  • more specific ethical issues

20
Voluntary Participation
IUG
  • The principle of voluntary participation requires
    that people not be coerced into participating in
    research.
  • Closely related to the notion of voluntary
    participation is the requirement of informed
    consent.

21
Informed Consent
IUG
  • Informed consent means that the participants
    have
  • Adequate understandable Information about the
    research.
  • fully informed about the procedures and risks
    involved in research.
  • Are free to participate or not without any
    coercion power.
  • Ethical standards also require that researchers
    not put participants in a situation where they
    might be at risk of harm .

22
Informed Consent, cont,,,
IUG
  • Must give their consent to participate.
  • Have a free power to take their decision at any
    time of the involvement (Frankfort and Naichimas,
    1996).
  • Discussion of confidentiality and Anonymity are
    part of the informed consent process.

23
Potential for Harm
IUG
  • Potential harm includes Psychological harm,
    Financial harm and Social harm.
  • Ideally, your research should have minimal, if
    any, potential for any harm to occur.
  • The question is not whether you believe harm
    could occur, but whether participants or
    potential participants believe that harm could
    occur.

24
Anonymity
IUG
  • Anonymity requires that you do not know who the
    participants are. (Oliver, 2003)
  • Advantages of applying anonymity
  • Encourages objectivity throughout the research
    process
  • Anonymity makes it easier to explore issues which
    might be slightly unpopular (sensitive).
  • Using fictional names which protects
    participants.
  • Random phone surveying.

25
Confidentiality
IUG
  • Researchers are assured that identifying
    information will not be made available to anyone
    who is not directly involved in the study.
  • Therefore, participant identity will not be
    revealed in any way in the resulting report which
    aims to protect the privacy of respondent.
  • It should be an explicit statement about the
    people who will have access to the data provided
    by a particular respondent.
  • The respondent should be informed about the plans
    for retaining the data

26
Confidentiality public company
IUG
  • Organizations, just as much as individuals, may
    be participants in research projects.
  • For public company, there should generally be an
    expectation that researchers should receive as
    much help and assistance as possible,
    commensurate with the protection of named
    individuals.
  • In the case of private companies they may have
    both moral and legal rights to keep details
    inaccessible.

27
Differences in the research context
IUG
  • Cultural differences
  • The differences, both between participants
    themselves, and between participants and the
    researcher, may involve dimensions such as values
    and attitudes, social customs, religious beliefs,
    ethnicity, gender, language, employment patterns
    and education.

28
Differences in the research context
IUG
  • Gender
  • Females in some roles in education may prefer
    certain types of inquiry methods to others.
  • Males, on the other hand, may be satisfied to
    provide data in a more focused, less reflective
    form.

29
The social ecology
IUG
  • The social ecology of a setting refers to the
    sense of equilibrium which evolves between the
    different social actors in that setting.
  • It is desirable that the researcher disturbs the
    social ecology as little as possible.
  • The less the research field is disturbed by the
    research process the better.

30
Thanks for listening
IUG
  • For further details you may contact the
    researcher on the following e-mail
  • wdaya_at_iugaza.edu.ps
  • dayawael_at_gmail.com

31
Workshop References
IUG
  • Paul Oliver, (2003) The Students Guide to
    Research Ethics, Open University Press
  • Also useful are
  • Michael Davis, (1999) Ethics for the University,
    Routledge
  • Hillary Coombes, (2001) Research Using IT,
    Palgrave
  • Resnik, D. (1986) The Ethics of Science, Routledge

32
Additional Texts
IUG
  • Elliot, D. (ed.) ( 1997) Research Ethics A
    Reader, University Press of New England
  • Penslar, R. (ed.) (1997) Research Ethics Cases
    and Materials, Open University Press
  • Punch, M. (1986) The Politics and Ethics of
    Fieldwork, Sage, London
  • Homan, R (1991) The Ethics of Social Research,
    Longmans
  • May, T (1997) Social Research Issues, Methods
    and Process, Open U P (Ch 3 Values and Ethics in
    the Research Process)
  • House, E and K R (1999) Values in Evaluation and
    Social Research, Sage
  • Bebau, M J (1995) Moral Reasoning in Scientific
    Research. Cases for Teaching and Assessment,
    Indiana University
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