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William Lacy SWING

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Title: William Lacy SWING


1
William Lacy SWING
Special Representative for the Democratic
Republic of the Congo MONUC
Briefing to the Parliamentary Joint Standing
Committee on Defence Parliamentary Portfolio
Committee on Defence Cape Town, 23 June 2006
2
ISSUE COST AND SUSTAINABILITY
UN MISSION
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MESSAGE ACHIEVE TIMELY RESULTS TO REMAIN CREDIBLE
3
MONUC OFFICES
GBADOLITE
ARU/MAHAGI
ITURI BDE
EASTERN DIV.
BUNIA
KISANGANI
REGIONAL OFFICE Kampala, Uganda
BENI/BUTEMBO
LOG BASE
MBANDAKA
LUBERO
LOG BASE Entebbe, Uganda
GOMA
KIVU BDE N
KIVU BDE NS
BUKAVU
LOG BASE
REGIONAL OFFICE Kigali, Rwanda
KINDU
UVIRA
HQ MILITARY
HQ KINSHASA
KANANGA
MATADI
LOG BASE Kigoma, Tanzania
MBUJI-MAYI
HQ Kinshasa
17 Field Offices
5 Military HQs
4 Logistics bases
REGIONAL OFFICE Pretoria, South Africa
3 Regional Offices
LUBUMBASHI
MESSAGE CONTINUE TO DECENTRALISE
4
Why the DRC Matters
  • One of worlds largest on-going tragedies
  • Potential political center of gravity for
    central Africa
  • Latent African economic powerhouse
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MESSAGE IF CONGO SUCCEEDS, ALL AFRICA PROFITS
5
Introduction
THREE KEY POINTS
  1. MONUC Most sweeping changes since
    1999
  2. DRC Unprecedented international
    commitment
  3. Issues Most favorable constellation

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MESSAGE CONGO IS AT CROSS ROADS
6
Unprecedented International Commitment
  • 5 international peace agreements
  • (Lusaka, Sun City, Pretoria, etc)
  • 30 UNSC resolutions
  • 7 UNSC Missions to DRC.
  • USD 4 billion (1999-2006) for MONUC
  • 33 peacekeepers killed in action

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MESSAGE DRC TRANSITION HAS INTL LEGAL FRAMEWORK
FINANCES STRUCTURE
7
An African process Mbeki Masire Obasanjo
Sassou N. Konare
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MESSAGE REGIONAL SUPPORT ESSENTIAL
8
Core Goals
I. Elections with Stability II. Peace and
Security / SSR III. Address Wars Legacy IV.
Mission Support Reform
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9
I. Elections with stability
Elections and the region
Sudan (1) VAR (1) Rcongo Uganda DRC (2) Rwanda
(1) Burundi (1) Angola (4) Zambia Tanzania
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MESSAGE 10 UN PKOs in 7 COUNTRIES SINCE 1960
10
Constitution Essential Legislation
In Government (1)
In Parliament (2)
Promulgated (14)
  • Law on Voter Registration
  • Law on Political Parties
  • Law on the IEC
  • Law on the TRC
  • Law on the High Media Auth.
  • Law on the National HR Ob.
  • Law on the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Com.
  • Law on Nationality
  • Law on Army Defense
  • 2005 Budget
  • Constitution
  • Referendum Law
  • Law on Amnesty
  • Electoral law
  • Law on financing of
  • political parties
  • Law on Magistrates
  • Law on the Conseil
  • Superieur de la Magistrature

Joint Commission Constitution Essential
Legislation Chaired by SRSG and National
Assembly President Secretariat MONUC
MESSAGE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR ELECTIONS SET
11
Elections
I. Elections with stability
Challenges for the Elections
  • Largest country (2,344,885 sq km)
  • Largest electorate (25.6 million)
  • First free and fair elections in 40 years
  • Last census 1984 no ID cards
  • 53,000 Polling stations, 300,000 poll workers
  • Europe without roads

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MESSAGE LARGEST ELECTIONS UN HAS ASSISTED
12
Elections
I. Elections with stability
Challenges for the Elections (2)
  • Stringent deadlines
  • Funding and equipment
  • Intl technical support
  • Civic education
  • Tense political environment
  • Security situation
  • Supreme Court of Justice credibility
  • Transport of cash for payments

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13
I. Elections with stability
Electoral process
Some achievements so far
  • 25.6 million voters registered
  • New Constitution adopted at a referendum
  • 33 presidential 9,632 parliamentary, 10,000
  • provincial assembly candidates
  • Process at point of no return

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14
I. Elections with stability
Candidates statistics (1)
Some statistics
  • 33 Presidential candidates
  • 9,632 candidates for 500 seats in Parliament in
    169 districts
  • 17 candidates per seat on average
  • 56 per seat in Kinshasa, 12 in Equateur and
    Maniema

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15
I. Elections with stability
Candidates statistics (2)
  • Have registered as candidates
  • 80 of current MPs
  • 70 of Government members
  • 60 of incumbent Governors and D/Gov.

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16
I. Elections with stability
Candidates statistics (3)
  • Candidates of 218 parties for 500 seats
  • Alliance présidentielle 1,100
  • CODECO 600
  • MLC 435
  • RCD 425
  • UNADEC 400
  • Forces du renouveau (RCD-KML) 430
  • PALU 200
  • Démocratie Chrétienne 200

17
I. Elections with stability
Electoral process UN role
  • Electoral assistance (MONUC, UNDP)
  • Electoral funds management, incl. procurement
    (UNDP)
  • Logistics to and beyond 166 local sites (MONUC)
  • Security in Eastern DRC (MONUC)
  • Public information (MONUC/Okapi)

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MESSAGE UNS ROLE ESSENTIAL TO DRC ELECTIONS
ISSUE 1 MORE STAFF AIRCRAFT NEEDED
18
I. Elections with stability
Electoral Security
Concerns
FARDC/PNC No equipment, weak support MONUC
Force Limited, focused on East (13/15
batts) DDRRR 10,000 foreign combatants
DDR 150,000 Congolese combatants
  Congolese National Police
  Presidential Guard
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ISSUE INTL SUPPORT FOR FARDC AND PNC
19
I. Elections with stability
DDR Integration
  • 150,000 (est.) combatants in FARDC
  • 123,159 processed
  • 79,659 demobilized, of which 17,000 children
  • 38,293 re-integrated in the FARDC
  • 80,000 weapons collected
  • 75,000 remaining most difficult
  • PERSISTENT DELAYS, BLOCKAGES
  • MONUCS ROLE (1) Secure orientation centres
    with FARDC/CNP
  • (2) Disarm and control armament with SMI,
    CONADER (3) Dispose of defective
    arms/munitions.

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20
MONUC Police FPUs
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ISSUE RETAIN FPUs AFTER ELECTIONS
21
Duties of the 6 MONUC FPU
1. Support MONUC Police Activities
  • Protect UN officials and police in the discharge
    of their duties
  • Support MONUC Police tactically and operationally

2. Crowd Control and Public Security
  • Rapid response and public order capacity
  • Manage crowd / riot situations
  • Fill potential security vacuum during subsequent
    UN military withdrawal
  • other mandated duties

22
Duties of the 6 MONUC FPU
3. Assistance to the National Police (PNC)
  • Give PNC rapid crowd control and public order
    capacity
  • Assist and train PNC to develop this capacity

4. Assistance to Humanitarian Agencies and other
Organizations the UN supports
  • Assist the humanitarian agencies and other
    organizations acknowledged by the United Nations

23
Public Information
I. Elections with stability
Supporting MONUCs mandate
  • Listeners 30 million
  • Cov. pop. 80 FM, 100 SW,
  • on satellite, on internet
  • 7 days a week, 24-hours a day in five
    languages.
  • The only national radio
  • Crucial to elections with stability

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MESSAGE PRESERVE OKAPIS PROFESSIONAL, IMPARTIAL
VOICE
24
Until December 2006
I. Elections with stability
Finances
BUDGET
Description Budget (USD)
INDEPENDENT ELECTORAL COMM. (CEI) 40,000,000
BUREAU NATIONAL DES OPERATIONS 14,504,941
APEC TECHNICAL UNIT 15,896,596
REGISTRATION 98,273,952
REFERENDUM 25,814,505
COMBINED POLLS 110,073,080
LOGISTICS 103,503,151
SECURITY 50,700,000
Total 458,846,225
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MESSAGE STRONG INTL SUPPORT FOR ELECTIONS
25
I. Elections with stability
Comparative Costs
  • Country Cost (USD) Population
    Polls Cost/capita/Poll Remarks
  • DRC 422 M 60 M 5 1.4
    Log.Sec. incl.
  • Liberia 17.5 M 3 M 1 5.8
  • Afghanistan 170 M 30 M 1
    5.7
  • Haiti 41 M 8.4 M 4
    1.2

26
I. Elections with stability
Geographical challenge
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MESSAGE UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
27
A continent-sized country
213 times larger than Kosovo 86 times larger
than Burundi 24 times larger than Liberia or,
the same size as Portugal, Spain, Italy,
France, Switzerland, Belgium Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Austria,
Poland combined
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MESSAGE UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
28
I. Elections with stability
Geographical challenge
Cambodia Liberia Democratic Republic of the
Congo Sierra Leone Haiti Côte dIvoire
Afghanistan Sierra Leone
AREAS 2,345,410 sq km (DRC) 1,180,820 sq km
(Afghanistan Cote dIvoire Haiti Liberia
Sierra Leone)
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MESSAGE UNPRECEDENTED UN PK SCALE
29
FORCE COMMANDERS SCHEME OF MANOEUVRE FORCE HQ
KINSHASA DIVISIONAL HQ KISANGANI

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MESSAGE TROOP LEVELS INADEQUATE, DIV HQ VITAL
30
DEPLOYMENT IN ITURI - 77 220 km2
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MESSAGE HETEROGENEOUS BRIGADE INADVISABLE
31
REINFORCEMENT IN THE KIVUS NORTH
KIVU BRIGADE
-
-
-
-
7,300 troops at 13 locations in an area 5 times
larger than Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
and Burundi combined.
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32
REINFORCEMENT IN THE KIVUS SOUTH
KIVU BRIGADE
7,300 troops at 13 locations in an area 5 times
larger than Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
and Burundi combined.
C
2/ III
A
2/ III
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33
REINFORCEMENT IN THE KIVUS NORTH
AND SOUTH KIVU BRIGADES
7,300 troops at 13 locations in an area 5 times
larger than Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast
and Burundi combined.
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34
II. Peace and Security
Foreign Armed Groups
  • Rwandan FDLR 7,000 - 8,000
  • Ugandan ADF/NALU 1,500 2,000 LRA
  • Burundian FNL lt500?
  • Threat to local population and regional
    relations
  • Local business/political interests
  • Increasing FARDC / MONUC military pressure

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MESSAGE FAGs MENACE DRC PEOPLE, REGIONAL
RELATIONS, BUT NOT DRC ELECTIONS OR NEIGHBOURS
35
DDRRR Strategy
  • 1. Political pressure
  • Security Council/Tripartite sanctions Neighbors
    and Governments to support peace process
  • Denial of safe havens/rear bases
  • 2. Military Measures
  • Area Domination Missions
  • Joint FARDC-MONUC operations
  • Establishment of arms-free zones (cordon and
    search operations)
  • Dismantlement of illegal checkpoints/road tax
    blockades
  • 3. Justice
  • Arrest of Gedeon andIndia Queen
  • Arrest of General Jerome Kakuavu and Kisembo from
    the Ituri militias
  • Arrest of General Widi , FARDC commander of the
    6e military region
  • ICC extraditions e.g. Thomas Lubanga
  • Arrest of FDLR Leader Murwanashyaka
  • Uganda arrest of MRC leaders
  • Extradition treaties

36
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR Building military pressure
  • Objectives
  • Protect the population
  • Dominate foreign group-held areas

Means Area domination, show of force, deterrence
( Iron Fist ,  Falcon Sweep , Thunder
Storm , etc. )
Constraints MONUC Inadequate
mapping FARDC Poor log ops support
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37
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR statistics
12 June 2006 12 June 2006 12 June 2006 12 June 2006
REPATRIATED Ex-cbts Civilians Total
Rwandan 4, 537 4,316 8,853
Ugandan 415 292 707
Burundese 3,656 124 3,780
Total 8,608 4,732 13,340
       
KILLED Ex-cbts Civilians Total
Rwandan 43 0 43
Ugandan 99 0 99
Burundese 8 0 8
Total 150 0 150
Shows reduction in number of foreign combatants
and dependents on DRC territory, whether by
repatriation or death.
38
II. Peace and Security
DDRRR statistics
Cumulative repatriations
MESSAGE VOLUNTARY DDRRR AT STANDSTILL, POL
MILITARY LEGAL PRESSURE REQUIRED
39
II. Peace and Security
Ituri Armed Groups
OPPORTUNITIES
  • 10,000 FARDC and 5,000 Blue Helmets in Ituri
  • Build-up in FARDC-MONUC ops
  • Ending impunity T. Lubanga extradited / 7-8 in
    Kampala detention, several in
  • DRC jails
  •  India Queen 

LIMITATIONS
  • MAIN PROBLEM illegal weapons illegal exports
    syndrome
  • DCR payments ending 30 June
  • Elections reduced operational tempo
  • Weak FARDC ops log capacity

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40
MARCH 2005 AREAS OF OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
MARCH 2005 AREAS OF OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
ARU
Ndrele
Marobo
Mahagi
Kwandruma
Marobo
Gina
Kafe
Fataki
Tche
Mahag
Tchomia
Mambasa
Kaseny
Mongwalu
Marobo
Aveba
Mambasa
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41
Aru
AUGUST 2005 AREAS OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
Mongwalu
Mahagi
Kasenyi
Fataki
Kwandruma
Tche
Gina
Mambasa
Marabo
Kafe
Bunia
Aveba
Tchomia
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42
MAY 2006 AREAS OF ITURI ARMED GROUPS
Aru
Fataki
Mongwalu
Mahagi
Gina
Tche
Kwandruma
Tchomia
Mambasa
Marabo
Bunia
Kasenyi
Kafe
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43
Essential Tasks Army integration
NYALEKE
KISANGANI
RUMANGABO
KITONA
LUBERIZI
KAMINA
Army brassage center
MESSAGE QUALITY MORE IMPORTANT THAN NUMBER
Army/DDR Orientation centre
44
II. Peace and Security
New Army (FARDC) Status
TG Objective 3 waves x 6 Integrated Brigades by
Elections
Brigades Training Deployment Donor
1st Jan-Jun 04 Ituri Belgium
2nd Jan-May 05 North Kivu (Rutshuru) Angola
3rd Feb-Jun 05 South Kivu (Bukavu) Belgium-RSA
4 th Apr-Aug 05 Ituri (border areas) DRC
5th Jul-Sep 05 Re-deployment DRC
6th Jul-Sep 05 Ituri (mining areas) DRC
1st WAVE
- 7th , 8th and 9th ready and waiting
deployment - 10th, 11th and 12th to be ready
shortly
2nd WAVE
3rd WAVE
MAY ? 06 - SIX BDES
45
FARDC Short-term requirements
II. Peace and Security
  • 9 integrated Brigades
  • 3 Bdes Ituri
  • 3 Bdes North Kivu
  • 3 Bdes South Kivu
  • Logistics food, water, medical, transport
  • TG to provide arms and ammunition, optical,
    accommodation and medical support
  • DONORS NEEDED clothing, individual equipment,
    communications equipment, vehicles, nautical
    assets

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MESSAGE URGENT INTL SUPPORT REQUIRED
46
Regional relations
II. Peace and Security
  • FRAMEWORKS
  • Joint Verification Mechanisms
  • DRC/Rwanda
  • DRC/Uganda
  • Tripartite Commission
  • ACHIEVEMENTS
  • Joint Verification Missions
  • Intelligence Fusion Cell

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ISSUE JVC DORMANT
47
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
  • 4 million deaths in 6 years
  • 380,000 assisted DRC refugees
  • 1.6 million IDPs almost ½ children
  • 1,200 preventable deaths / day
  • 1 tsunami every 7 months
  • 40,000/month flee their homes

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48
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
  • 71 of pop. food insecure,
  • 8 access clean water
  • 43 of children no access to
  • vaccinations 1 in 5 die lt 5 years.
  • 43 go to school (mostly boys)
  • 2.6 million HIV-infected
  • 900,000 expected in 2006
  • 168/177 in UNDP Human Development
  • Index

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UN Response ACTION PLAN 2006/7
49
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Humanitarian Challenge
  • MONUCs action
  • Humanitarian Affairs Section
  • Protection of civilians
  • Humanitarian access
  • Humanitarian personnel and cargo
  • Facilitation of return and resettlement
  • Emergency medical transportation

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50
III. Addressing the legacy of war
Refugees IDPs
INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS
CONGOLESE REFUGEES IN AFRICA
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51
IV. Mission Support Reform
SEA Impact
  • Damages Individuals and Communities
  • Defames UN and Member States
  • Jeopardizes Missions Credibility
  • Related Areas of Concern (Sexual Violence
    HIV/AIDS etc.)

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52
IV. Mission Support Reform
Conduct and Discipline Team
Focal point for all conduct discipline matters
relating to all categories of mission personnel
  • Policy Development prevention/early detection,
    welfare, disciplinary measures, coordination
  • Training Advocacy pre-deployment, induction/in
    mission personnel, sensitization of local
    communities.
  • Database Management System record and track all
    allegations of misconduct by all categories of
    mission personnel



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53
IV. Mission Support Reform
Investigations
  • June to December 2004
  • OIOS 72 allegations 7 substantiated (GA
    Document)
  • OHRM 5 civilian allegations
  • December 2004 to September 2005
  • SEA Team, OASEA 131 allegations 46
    substantiated
  • (High Level Investigation Team, Office for
    Addressing Sexual Exploitation and Abuse)
  • September 2005 to May 2006

OIOS 174 allegations received, including
102 Category I SEA 12
Investigation reports received on SEA, 5
substantiated (Investigations of all Category I
misconduct)
ISSUE OIOS LIMITED INVESTIGATIVE CAPACITY,
PROCEDURES
54
IV. Mission Support Reform
Disciplinary Actions To Date
December 2004 May 2006 Total actions 181
  • CIVILIAN PERSONNEL
  • 20 actions taken or initiated
  • 7 Pending disciplinary action
  • 1 suspension with pay,
  • 1 suspension without pay,
  • 3 charged,
  • 2 under review
  • 13 actions taken, cases closed
  • 7 summarily dismissed (4 civilians, 3 UNVs)
  • 3 Reprimand (not disciplinary) (UNVs)
  • 2 Non renewal of contract (1 civilian, 1 UNV)
  • 1 Resignation
  • MILITARY PERSONNEL
  • 41 repatriated on disciplinary grounds
  • POLICE PERSONNEL
  • 120-member FPU withdrawn (including 10
    repatriations on disciplinary grounds)

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55
IV. Mission Support Reform
SEA
ISSUES
  • Follow up mechanism with TCCs
  • OIOS investigative capacity and procedures
  • Welfare Policy
  • Pre-deployment training
  • Victim support

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56
Post Elections juncture
MONUC
  • Future and Role depend on DRC Government and
  • Security Council
  • Staying the course Lessons learned from Haiti,
    Liberia
  • and Sierra Leone
  • From peacekeeping to peacebuilding

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57
Post Elections MONUC
Post transitional peace building
  • Help establish new institutions
  • DDRRR / DDR / SSR (Army Police)
  • Protection of civilians
  • Regional relations / stability
  • Rule of law / Justice Reconciliation

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MESSAGE BUILD SUSTAINMENT STRATEGY NOW
58
Post Elections Stability
REQUIREMENTS
  • Political INCLUSIVENESS
  • Better ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT
  • Administrative DECENTRALISATION
  • Cultural TOLERANCE

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59
Post Elections Stability
ISSUE POST ELECTORAL
  • Avoid winner-take-all victors
  • rejectionist losers
  • Interregnum governance (Jul-Dec)
  • Economic situation
  • no IMF/IBRD budget support
  • 699 M Humanitarian Action plan
  • under-funded

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60
Post Elections Stability
Example Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ)
Issue 1 Controversial decisions erode SCJs
credibility
  • Amnesty law
  • Turncoat Parliamentarians lose seats

Issue 2 SJC to adjudicate electoral disputes
Proposed solution
  • Appoint Eminent Persons Group as SCJ
    Counselors
  • (e.g. Tutu, Richard Goldstone, Professeur
    Masclet, Albie Sachs)

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61
Economic
Post-Electoral Concerns
  • IMF staff-monitored program only
  • World Bank no further budget support in 2006
  • Humanitarian action (681 million) under-funded

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62
Post Elections Hour-glass
A Post Electoral Expectations Gap
PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS
HIGH
HIGH
INTL SUPPORT
LOW
LOW
ELECTIONS
2000
2006
2007
63
Peacebuilding Blocks
Voter registration
Constitutional Referendum
Essential legislation
Electoral security
Extension of State authority
Refugee and IDP returns
DDRRR
Integrated National Army and DDR
Integrated National Police
ISSUE MOST TRANSITION TASKS REMAIN
64
MONUC
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