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MANAGING DATA RESOURCES

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MANAGING DATA RESOURCES ~ pertemuan 7 ~ Oleh: Ir. Abdul Hayat, MTI MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR DATABASE SYSTEMS DATABASE TRENDS Data Warehousing and Data Mining ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MANAGING DATA RESOURCES


1
MANAGING DATA RESOURCES
  • pertemuan 7
  • Oleh Ir. Abdul Hayat, MTI

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Why do businesses have trouble finding the
    information they need in their information
    systems?
  • How does a database management system help
    businesses improve the organization of their
    information?
  • How do the principal types of database models
    affect the way businesses can access and use
    information?
  • What are the managerial and organizational
    requirements of a data-base environment?
  • What new tools and technologies can make
    databases more accessible and useful?

3
MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES
  • Organizational obstacles to a database
    environment
  • Integrating data and ensuring quality

4
ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  • File Organization Terms and Concepts
  • Bit Smallest unit of data binary digit (0,1)
  • Byte Group of bits that represents a single
    character
  • Field Group of words or a complete number
  • Record Group of related fields
  • File Group of records of same type
  • Database Group of related files
  • Entity Person, place, thing, event about which
    information is maintained
  • Attribute Description of a particular entity
  • Key field Identifier field used to retrieve,
    update, sort a record

5
ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  • Data Hierarchy in a Computer System

6
ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  • Entities and Attributes

7
ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  • Problems with the Traditional File Environment
  • Data redundancy
  • Program-Data dependence
  • Lack of flexibility
  • Poor security
  • Lack of data-sharing and availability

8
ORGANIZING DATA IN A TRADITIONAL FILE ENVIRONMENT
  • Traditional File Processing

9
THE DATABASE APPROACH TO DATA MANAGEMENT
  • Database Management System (DBMS)
  • The contemporary database environment
  • Components of DBMS
  • Sample Data Dictionary report
  • Types of databases
  • Relational DBMS
  • Relational Data Model
  • Basic Operations in a Relational Database
  • Hierarchical and Network DBMS

10
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)
  • Creates and maintains databases
  • Eliminates requirement for data definition
    statements
  • Acts as interface between application programs
    and physical data files
  • Separates logical and physical views of data

11
THE CONTEMPORARY DATABASE ENVIRONMENT
12
COMPONENTS OF DBMS
  • Data definition language
  • Specifies content and structure of database and
    defines each data element
  • Data manipulation language
  • Manipulates data in a database
  • Data dictionary
  • Stores definitions of data elements, and data
    characteristics

13
SAMPLE DATA DICTIONARY REPORT
14
TYPES OF DATABASES
  • Relational DBMS
  • Hierarchical and Network DBMS
  • Object-Oriented Databases

15
RELATIONAL DBMS
  • Represents data as two-dimensional tables called
    relations
  • Relates data across tables based on common data
    element
  • Examples DB2, Oracle, MS SQL Server

16
RELATIONAL DATA MODEL
17
BASIC OPERATIONS IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE (1)
  • Select
  • Creates subset of rows that meet specific
    criteria
  • Join
  • Combines relational tables to provide users with
    information
  • Project
  • Enables users to create new tables containing
    only relevant information

18
BASIC OPERATIONS IN A RELATIONAL DATABASE (2)
19
HIERARCHICAL AND NETWORK DBMS
  • Hierarchical DBMS
  • Organizes data in a tree-like structure
  • Supports one-to-many parent-child relationships
  • Prevalent in large legacy systems
  • Network DBMS
  • Depicts data logically as many-to-many
    relationships

20
HIERARCHICAL DBMS
21
NETWORK DBMS
22
DISADVANTAGES OF HIERARCHICAL AND NETWORK DBMS
  • Outdated
  • Less flexible compared to RDBMS
  • Lack support for ad-hoc and English language-like
    queries

23
OBJECT-ORIENTED DATABASE
  • Object-oriented DBMS
  • Stores data and procedures as objects that can be
    retrieved and shared automatically
  • Object-relational DBMS
  • Provides capabilities of both object-oriented and
    relational DBMS

24
BASIC SQL COMMAND
  • SELECT Specifies columns
  • FROM Identifies tables or views
  • WHERE Specifies conditions

25
RESULTS OF SELECT STATEMENT
26
RESULTS OF CONDITIONAL SELECTION
27
PROJECTION FROM JOINING PART AND SUPPLIER TABLES
28
DESIGNING DATABASES
  • Conceptual design Abstract model of database
    from a business perspective
  • Physical design Detailed description of business
    information needs
  • Entity-relationship diagram Methodology for
    documenting databases illustrating relationships
    between database entities
  • Normalization Process of creating small stable
    data structures from complex groups of data

29
ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM
30
NORMALIZATION
31
DISTRIBUTING DATABASES
  • Centralized database
  • Used by single central processor or multiple
    processors in client/server network
  • Distributed database
  • Stored in more than one physical location
  • Partitioned database
  • Duplicated database

32
DISTRIBUTED DATABASES
33
KEY ELEMENTS IN A DATABASE ENVIRONMENT
  • Data Administration
  • Data Planning and Modeling Methodology
  • Database Technology and Management
  • Users

34
MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS FOR DATABASE SYSTEMS
35
DATABASE TRENDS
  • Data Warehousing and Data Mining
  • Database and the web

36
DATA WAREHOUSE
  • Supports reporting and query tools
  • Stores current and historical data
  • Consolidates data for management analysis and
    decision making

37
COMPONENTS OF DATA WAREHOUSE
38
TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE OF DATA WAREHOUSE
Warehouse Manager
Operational Data source 1
Reporting, query, application development, and
EIS tools
Query Manager
Load Manager
Metadata
Operational Data source 2
Highly summarized data
OLAP tools
Lightly summarized data
Detailed data
Warehouse Manager
Operational Data source N
Data mining tools
End-user access tools
Operational Data store (ODS)
Archive/backup data
39
DATA MART
  • Subset of data warehouse
  • Contains summarized or highly focused portion of
    data for a specified function or group of users

40
TYPICAL ARCHITECTURE OF DATA MART
Reporting, query, application development, and
EIS tools
(First Tier)
Data Marts
OLAP tools
Summarized data (Relational Database)
Data mining tools
Summarized data (Multi-dimensional Database)
(Third Tier)
(Second Tier)
41
DATA ACCESS AND ANALYSIS
  • Queries and reports
  • Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
  • Data Mining

42
ON-LINE ANALYTICAL PROCESSING
  • Multidimensional data analysis
  • Supports manipulation and analysis of large
    volumes of data from multiple dimensions/perspecti
    ves

43
MULTIDIMENSIONAL DATA MODEL
44
DATA MINING
  • Tools for analyzing large pools of data
  • Find hidden patterns and infer rules to predict
    trends

45
BENEFITS OF DATA WAREHOUSE
  • Improved and easy accessibility to information
  • Ability to model and remodel the data

46
DATABASE AND THE WEB
  • Hypermedia database
  • Database server
  • Application server
  • Link internal databases to the web

47
HYPERMEDIA DATABASE
  • Organizes data as network of nodes
  • Links nodes in pattern specified by user
  • Supports text, graphic, sound, video and
    executable programs

48
DATABASE AND APPLICATION SERVER
  • Database server
  • Computer in a client/server environment runs a
    DBMS to process SQL statements and perform
    database management tasks
  • Application server
  • Software handling all application operations

49
LINK INTERNAL DATABASES TO THE WEB
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