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Higher Education Information Management

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Title: Higher Education Information Management


1
Higher Education Information Management
  • Sudhanshu Bhushan

2
Steps in Information Management
  • (i) agency of collection
  • (ii) data capture format and coverage of data
  • (iii) process of collection
  • (iv) compilation of data
  • (v) tabulation of data
  • (vi) analysis and presentation of information
  • (vii) publication of information

3
MHRD
  • ES (1) C, Numerical Data of Institutions for
    Higher Education it covers enrolment on
    general, Professional and (other) higher
    education streams and also enrolment by type of
    institutions
  • ES (II) C, Financial Data of Institutions for
    Higher Education data includes recurring and
    non-recurring income and expenditure procured by
    institution of higher education managed by
    Universities, Local Bodies, Central/State
    Governments and Private(Unaided) bodies.
  • ES (III) C, Examination Results (Higher
    Education)- Data must include examination
    results of boys and girls appearing and passing
    out in General education, and Professional and
    other education, which includes both degrees and
    diplomas.
  • ES (IV) C, Numerical Data of Institution for
    Higher Education- it covers number of
    institutions in the State, enrolment by the type
    of institution, number of teachers, type of
    management in running the institution for SC and
    ST

4
University Grants Commission
  • Format A (University Teaching Departments) deals
    with information about the University/institutions
    on students enrolment (general education,
    professional courses and other educational
    courses), details of courses offered, gender-wise
    students enrolment in general and professional
    courses designation wise details of teaching
    staff, information about non-teaching staff,
    number of students passed and appeared in
    examination and income and expenditure (recurring
    and non-recurring) incurred.
  • Format B-AC (Affiliated Colleges) deals with
    courses offered by the Colleges, designation-wise
    and subject-wise teaching staff, subject-wise
    break up of students enrolment for both regular
    and self-financing courses, drop-out in students
    enrolment, course details and foreign students
    studying in Colleges.

5
  • Format- Library deals with library Statistics
    of the University Teaching Departments and
    University Colleges
  • Format- Exam deals with examination results of
    Universities
  • Format I/II Doctorate Degrees Awarded
  • Format Directory of professors
  • Format IS-Finance statistical information on
    financial parameters of the Institute of Higher
    Education
  • Format IS- Foreign students No of foreign
    students on rolls in UTD/UC/CC and affiliated
    Colleges (AC)
  • Format List of Colleges List of Colleges
    recognised by University, list of colleges
    disaffiliated by university and district-wise
    Colleges
  • Format- Vacant Positions in Universities/Instituti
    ons

6
Census
  • The Census definition of higher education
    embraces all types of education public as well
    as private, distant, certificate, diploma and
    degree. College education includes graduate and
    above. Vocational education includes all
    technical and professional courses degree,
    diploma and certificate. The relevant tables
    pertaining to population attending educational
    institutions by type are published in C Series
    Social and Cultural Statistics.

7
NSS
  • NSS provide data on higher education, at times
    directly through dedicated reports on education
    (42nd and 52nd rounds) and also through rounds on
    employment and unemployment 38th (1983), 43rd
    (1987-88), 50th (1993-94), 55th (1999-2000)
    rounds that provide educational profile and
    enrolment in higher education. The 55th and 61st
    rounds provide information both on educational
    attainment and current attendance. All the rounds
    are not strictly comparable.

8
Process of Collection of Data
  • MHRD - the ES forms are distributed to all
    State/UTs Directorate of Education.
  • State/UTs Directorate of Education collects
    information from recognised institutions of
    higher education through another format called CF
    -1 and CF -2
  • In the case of UGC the collection of data from
    higher education institutions is made directly
    through specified formats made available to these
    institutions.

9
Publication of Information
  • MHRD publishes very selective information on
    enrolment. Gender wise and aggregate, SC ST
    enrolment for all states refers to Ph D, MA, M
    Sc., M Com., BA, B Sc., B Com., Technical,
    Medical, Teachers Training College and other.
  • Information also pertains to number of teachers
    and PTR in higher education. Besides information
    on foreign students studying in India and Indian
    students studying in foreign countries are
    presented.
  • All the information from data capture format is
    not presented. The intake in higher education,
    year-wise enrolment at graduation and post
    graduation is not given. As a result the
    transition of students and internal efficiency is
    not known.

10
Publication of Information contd.
  • UGC publishes annual report and provides state
    level information on stage wise enrolment in
    university departments/university colleges and
    affiliated colleges. It also provides faculty
    wise enrolment at the aggregate level only. It
    gives information on the distribution of teaching
    staff by designation in university
    departments/university colleges and affiliated
    colleges. Further the number of doctorates
    awarded is recorded in the annual report of UGC.

11
Provisional Nature of SES Data
  • It is so because in most of the cases the data
    that is supposed to reach the Statistical
    Division of the Department of Higher education,
    MHRD do not reach on time and in some cases it
    does not reach at all.

12
Some Questions
  • what is the source of collecting information
    contained in SES? Is the MHRD compelled to use
    other sources of information? What those sources
    of information are? In any case non compliance of
    data is a serious issue that impedes gravely the
    higher education policy, planning and management.

13
Changing Definition and Methodology in
Calculating Ratios
  • It is remarkable to note that The Open and
    Distance Learning was not included in total
    higher education till SES 2003-04. In SES 2004-05
    it was included in others and finally included in
    total higher education enrolment. The others as
    a category show 3 million enrolments out of 11.7
    million enrolments in 2004-05. It shows now an
    inflated GER of 9.7 in 2004-05. M.B.A enrolment
    is not included at all on ground of lack of
    availability of data. Thus curious reasons lead
    to changes in the concept of higher education.
    Besides, the methodology in calculating ratios in
    the SES has also not been clearly specified and
    educational indicators also keep changing
    according to the need.

14
University Grants Commission
  • Although UGC claims to receive 60 70 data
    directly from Universities and Colleges every
    year on the aforesaid formats, the other problems
    arising out of manual reporting, namely, delay in
    collection, vulnerability and inaccuracy of data
    hold good in the case of UGC as well. There are
    some defaulting Universities/ Institutions that
    is reluctant to share information in spite of the
    fact that it is mandatory for Universities to
    furnish information. Thus non compliance of
    information holds good in case of UGC, too. It
    was reported that obsolete facilities and
    shortage of technically skilled computer
    maintenance operator is the cause of delay. The
    problem, therefore, is that UGC even though
    collects lot of data, it finds very difficult to
    provide all tabulated information annually. It
    finally publishes very narrow set of information.

15
Dilemmas of Unreliable Data on 11th Plan
  • On the basis of SES the enrolment in higher
    education worked out to 91.4 lakhs (86 lakhs in
    General and 5.3 lakhs in Technical) in 2001. The
    corresponding figure for NSS and Census worked
    out to 115.3 lakhs (88.5 lakhs in general and
    27.1 lakhs in technical/vocational) and 160.9
    lakhs (144.3 lakhs in general and 16.6 lakhs in
    technical, degree, diploma and certificate) in
    2001. Such variation in the size of enrolment
    from the three sources poses problems in
    enrolment projection.

16
  • The important point to note is that inadequate
    and non comparable data base creates difficulty
    in planning. There were various other issues as
    well. The non availability of information on
    enrolment in terms of management posed another
    problem of estimating the plan for expansion.

17
Features of an Efficient Data Management System
  • Online Data Management and Information System
  • Data Capture Format
  • simple
  • all the parameters to be included
  • . Codes, wherever possible, should be provided so
    that maximum number of tables may be generated
    with the given command.
  • As far as possible the institutions should be
    supplied the data capture format directly to fill
    the information. For example colleges should fill
    the DCF and the authentication of the data should
    be done by the university. After the data is
    authenticated and information is submitted to the
    central agency, the data should be secured and no
    alteration should be possible in the data.
  • DCF should define the terms used in the format
    clearly.
  • Training to Fill the DCF
  • To manage the data efficiently, it is necessary
    that DCF be filled without any ambiguity.
  • At the level of university the training should be
    provided to all the persons who are in charge of
    data in respective colleges or university
    departments.
  • Periodic workshops should be conducted to redress
    any problems encountered in the management of
    data.

18
The revamping of higher education management
system
  • shift from manual to online data management
    through electronic data capture format.
  • There shall be a nodal agency at the center which
    will be responsible to design the DCF and the
    format will be downloaded by the institution of
    higher education.
  • Nodal agency shall be responsible for providing
    any support to the university with respect to the
    data capture format. Nodal agency will receive
    the authenticated DCF from the university
  • and will be responsible for publication of report
    containing all the information - nation level,
    state level and university level reports will be
    generated.
  • As the universities shall be the main data
    collection center, it is necessary that
    universitys statistical wing is fully
    computerized.
  • The maladies of higher education information
    system can be best addressed if as nodal agency a
    National Information Centre for Higher Education
    can be created. It would not only help in
    integrating data from multiple sources but would
    also provide state policymakers and analysts
    timely and accurate data and information that are
    useful in making sound higher education policy
    decisions. The National Information Centre can be
    also useful to provide contextual information,
    for each measure there can be links for
    additional information. Such solution is already
    available in some developed countries like U.S.A.
    The Centre will be user-friendly but to avoid
    misuse of data and information its access should
    be restricted by membership. All institutions,
    state agencies of higher education and State and
    central level policy-makers should be eligible to
    become members. Such visions can be only made
    practicable when required funding is available to
    develop the infrastructure and maintain its
    sustainability and long-term operation.

19
International Standard Classification of
Education (ISCED 1997)
  • 4. Post Secondary Non Tertiary-6 months to two
    year duration
  • 5.First stage of Tertiary Education
  • 5A Theoretical, intended to provide qualification
    for entry into advanced research or profession
    with high skill requirement, year duration min.3
    years
  • 5B more practical/technical/occupation specific,
    year duration min.2 years
  • 6. Second stage of Tertiary Education (leading to
    advanced research qualification)

20
  • Thank
  • you

21
Output Indicators
  • Access Participation- gender, social, muslim,
    PH levels of tertiary education, course and
    faculty wise, management, district, state and
    university wise
  • Net Intake as proportion of Eligibles
  • Net Intake as proportion of population of
    entrance age
  • Entry Ratio as proportion of
  • Gross Enrolment Ratio
  • Gross Graduation Ratio
  • Gender parity
  • Pass percentage
  • Drop out
  • Transition rate
  • Mobility of foreign students
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