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Electricity and Magnetism

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Electricity and Magnetism Chapter 7 Section 1 Chapter 8 Sections 2 & 3 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Electricity and Magnetism


1
Electricity and Magnetism
  • Chapter 7 Section 1
  • Chapter 8 Sections 2 3

2
Chapter 7 Section 1
  • Electric Charge

3
Positive and Negative Charge
  • Atoms have particles ___________________,
  • neutrons, and ___________________
  • p _____ charge no no charge e- ______
    charge
  • Same of p and _______ atoms are
    electrically neutral

4
Transferring Charge
  • Some electrons are bound _____________ to some
    objects
  • e- bound to ______________ more than carpet
  • Shoe _______________ e- - charged
  • Carpet _____________ e- charged
  • Static Electricity accumulation of _________
    electric charge

5
Conservation of Charge
  • Def charge can be _________________ from object
    to object, but it cannot be _______________ or
    destroyed.

6
Charges Exert Forces
  • Clingy clothes from a dryer
  • Opposites _________
  • Force depends on _________________ and size of
    charge
  • Positive clothes like ________________ clothes
  • Like charges repel

7
Electric vs. Gravitational Force
  • ________________ force from p and e- in H atom
    is 1039 times stronger than ______________________
    ___ force
  • Most things gravity force is stronger than
    electrical

8
Conductors and Insulators
  • Conductor material where e- move
    ____________________
  • Metals best conductors _____________
  • ____________________ material where e- do NOT
    move easily
  • Plastics, wood, rubber, ______________

9
Charging Objects
  • Rubbing materials can ______________ e- - one is
    () the other is (-) ? charging by ______________

10
Charge by Induction
  • Def rearrangement of __________________ on
    neutral object by nearby charged object.

11
Lightning
  • Static ________________ transfer of charge
    because of a ________________ of static
    electricity
  • Clouds have __________________ of air and rain ?
    areas of and charge build
  • Lightning is _________________ between cloud and
    ground

12
Thunder
  • Lightning ___________ e- from atmosphere and
    produces heat increase __________________
  • Atoms expand ________________ and release sound
    waves
  • Earth is struck ____________ times every second

13
Grounding
  • _________________ effects from charge build up
  • If there is a ______________ to earth relieves
    build up
  • Grounded it will transfer any ________________
    charge to earth (big neutral object)

14
Electroscope
15
Chapter 8 Section 2
  • Electricity and Magnetism

16
Basics of Magnets
  • Magnetic ______________ exerts a force other
    magnetic objects
  • Magnetic ______________ where magnetic force is
    strongest
  • Field goes from North to _____________

17
Earths Magnetic Field
18
Compass
  • Compass needle is small _______________ lines
    up with earths magnetic field
  • From ___________________ magnetic pole to
  • _________________ magnetic pole

19
Electric Current and Magnetism
  • _______________ electric currents create magnetic
    field in direction of current
  • _________________ increases increase
  • ____________________ field

20
Electromagnets
  • Def ____________________ magnet made by wrapping
    a ______________ coil carrying a current around
    an ___________ core
  • Magnetic field in ______________ is
  • stronger than ________________ wire
  • _____________________ single wire wrapped in
    cylindrical coil

21
Electromagnets
  • _______________ _______________

22
Properties of Electromagnets
  • Temporary b/c when _______________
  • stops _________________ stops
  • Increase strength more ____________
  • in solenoid or more ______________
  • Useful b/c magnetic strength can be
    __________________ used for work motors and
    speakers

23
Making Sound
  • CD changing ______________ info ? changing
    ____________ current
  • Electromagnet is ______________ or repelled by
    permanent magnet
  • Moves speaker _____________ to make music

24
Rotating Electromagnets
  • ______________ current to change poles ?
    electromagnet ________________

25
Galvanometers
  • Def use electromagnet to measure
    ____________________ current
  • Used in ______________ in cars

26
Electric Motors
  • Def device that changes _________________
  • energy to ____________________ energy

27
Simple Electric Motor
  • 3 main parts wire ____________, permanent
  • ___________________ and battery
  • Also have brushes conducting _____________
    connected to battery and a commutator
    ___________ conducting metal ring

28
Spinning Motor
  • Commutator _______________ with coil as current
    runs through
  • Step 1 Step 2
  • brushes ____________in
    contact with commutator
  • Inertia keeps coil spinning

29
Spinning Motor
  • Step 3 Step 4
  • commutator _____________ commutator
    current keeps spinning reverses
    current
  • again - keeps

  • spinning

30
Chapter 8 Section 3
  • Producing Electric Current

31
Mechanical to Electrical Energy
  • Moving ________________ through
  • magnetic field ? ______________ current
  • Moving _______________ through wire loop ?
    electric current
  • Electromagnetic induction creating a current by
    _________________ magnetic field

32
Generators
  • Def uses electromagnetic ________________ to
    transform mechanical energy to ___________________
    _.
  • Move a _____________ in a permanent magnet

33
Switching Current Directions
  • Each half-turn poles of coil _________________ ?
    current switches direction
  • Coil keeps rotating current periodically changes
    ____________________
  • US generators rotate ____________ times/sec
    3,600 rotations/min

34
Using Generators
  • This type of generator is used in cars
    ________________________
  • Lights, accessories, spark plugs
  • Running _________________ turns coil

35
Electricity to Your Home
  • Huge generators in power plants rotate the
    permanent ____________________ and the coil stays
    still
  • Electricity is generated in the ______________
  • A _______________________ (large wheel rotates
    when pushed by water, wind or steam) spins the
    ____________________
  • Some use thermal energy heat water turn
    turbine (_____________________ energy) spin
    generator (electrical energy)
  • Pg. 241

36
Direct and Alternating Currents
  • Current in ________________ vs. electric
    generator
  • Battery ______________ Current (DC) flows in
    one direction through wire
  • Wall Outlet Alternating Current (AC)
    _____________________ direction of current in a
    regular pattern
  • 60 cycles/s 60 ________ ? changes direction
    ___________ times each second

37
Transmitting Electrical Energy
  • Electricity to your house
  • Goes through ______________ lines energy ?
    heat due to ____________________ in wires
  • Reduce heat/resistance ? send at high voltage
    __________________ V
  • BUT cant use that high of voltage ? goes through
    __________________

38
Transformers
  • Def ___________________ or decreases the voltage
    of an alternating current.
  • Has ________________ coil and secondary coil
    wrapped around same iron core
  • Current goes in primary coil ? magnetizes core
  • As AC current changes direction the
    _________________ of magnet change
  • Changing poles ? creates electric current in
    _____________________ coil

39
Types of Transformers
  • __________________ increases voltage outgoing
    is higher
  • Primary coil smaller than secondary
  • __________________ decreases voltage outgoing
    is lower
  • Primary coil is larger than secondary

40
Transmitting AC
  • Generator ? step-__________ tran. ? high voltage
    lines ? step-___________ tran. ? house
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