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Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR

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Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR Section 1: The Search for Peace Section 2: Relations with Latin America Section 3: The Rise of Militarism Section 4: War Breaks Out – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR


1
Chapter 17 THE ROAD TO WAR
  • Section 1 The Search for Peace
  • Section 2 Relations with Latin America
  • Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • Section 4 War Breaks Out

2
Objectives
Section 1 The Search for Peace
  • What foreign policy did the United States follow
    after World War I?
  • What were the major postwar peace initiatives?
  • How did war debts and reparations affect European
    nations after World War I?

3
U.S. foreign policy after World War I
Section 1 The Search for Peace
  • The U.S. followed a policy of partial
    isolationism, declining membership in the League
    of Nations and the World Court.

4
Major postwar peace initiatives
Section 1 The Search for Peace
  • The Five-Power Naval Treaty limited nations
    naval strength.
  • The Four-Power Treaty guaranteed respect for
    nations territorial possessions in the Pacific.
  • The Nine-Power Treaty guaranteed Chinas
    territorial integrity.
  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawed war.

5
Effects of war debts and reparations
Section 1 The Search for Peace
  • Britain, France, and Italy were in debt to the
    U.S., so they demanded reparations from Germany
    to help them pay.
  • Germany was forced to borrow money from Britain
    and to print paper money.
  • Germany suffered hyperinflation, which led to a
    severe economic downturn.
  • German bitterness grew.

6
SECTION 1
The Search for Peace
U.S. Foreign Policy After World War I
Americans Concerns After World War I
The United States follows a foreign policy of
partial isolationism. The country declines
membership in the League of Nations and the World
Court.
Many Americans worried about entering another
foreign conflict.
7
Objectives
Section 2 Relations with Latin America
  • What role did the United States play in
    Nicaraguan politics?
  • How did U.S. relations with Latin America change
    in the 1930s?
  • How did the Great Depression affect Latin
    American countries?

8
U.S. and Nicaragua
Section 2 Relations with Latin America
  • 1926 the U.S. invaded Nicaragua to protect
    commercial interests.
  • 1927 Stimson helped negotiate an end to civil
    war in Nicaragua U.S. trained the Nicaraguan
    National Guard.
  • 1926-1933 U.S. troops fought Sandinos forces.
  • 1933 U.S. withdrew.
  • 1936 on U.S. backed the Somoza regime.

9
Changes in U.S. relationship with Latin America
Section 2 Relations with Latin America
  • U.S. established the Good Neighbor policy.
  • U.S. canceled the Platt Amendment (right to
    intervene in Cuban affairs).
  • U.S. gave up its right to intervene unilaterally
    in Panama.
  • U.S. withdrew troops from Haiti.
  • U.S. did not intervene when Mexico chose to
    nationalize its oil industry.

10
The Great Depression in Latin America
Section 2 Relations with Latin America
  • Crop prices decreased, wages dropped,
    unemployment grew.
  • The gulf between the rich and the poor grew.
  • Caudillos took power in many countries.

11
SECTION 2
Relations with Latin America
The Great Depression in Latin America
The Great Depression
12
Objectives
Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • How did Benito Mussolini create a fascist state
    in Italy?
  • How did Joseph Stalin maintain power in the
    Soviet Union?
  • How did Adolf Hitler rise to power in Germany?
  • What caused the Spanish Civil War?
  • What actions did Japans military take during the
    1930s?

13
Causes of the Spanish Civil War
Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • In 1931, Spain adopted a new constitution
    limiting the power of the military and of the
    Catholic Church.
  • The new constitution called for universal
    suffrage, nationalization of public utilities,
    and land for peasants.
  • Conservative military men felt threatened by the
    populist reforms.
  • In 1936, Fascist army officers led by Franco
    began to try to overthrow the government.

14
Mussolini in Italy
Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • led Fascists to power against Communists
  • used Blackshirts to occupy Rome, with support of
    nationalists and industrialists
  • got appointed prime minister and given
    dictatorial powers
  • limited freedom of speech and voting rights
  • arrested opponents

15
Hitler in Germany
Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • Hitler won support by blaming Jews, Communists,
    and intellectuals for Germanys decline.
  • In 1932, 40 percent of the vote in national
    elections went to the Nazi Party.
  • Hitler was appointed chancellor and claimed
    dictatorial powers.
  • Hitler crushed political opposition.

16
Stalin in the Soviet Union
Section 3 The Rise of Militarism
  • seized private land and collectivized agriculture
  • sent opponents to forced labor camps
  • used police and army to suppress dissent
  • purged the party and the army of opposition

17
SECTION 3
The Rise of Militarism
Hitlers Rise to Power in Germany
Hitler claims dictatorial powers Hitler crushes
political opposition.
Hitler is appointed chancellor of Germany
The Nazi Party wins 40 of the vote in national
elections.
Hitlers views win him many supporters.
18
Japans military during the 1930s
  • built up naval forces in violation of Washington
    Conference pledges
  • invaded Manchuria
  • clashed with Chinese troops near Beijing
  • occupied northern China
  • launched bombing raids against Chinese cities
  • occupied Nanjing

19
Objectives
Section 4 War Breaks Out
  • What was the international response to fascism?
  • What were the early events of World War II?
  • Why did tension between the United States and
    Germany increase?
  • Why did Japan bomb Pearl Harbor?

20
International response to fascism
Section 4 War Breaks Out
  • U.S. Congress passed neutrality laws.
  • European leaders adopted a policy of appeasement,
    but also sped up rearmament.
  • The U.S. recognized the Soviet Union.

21
Early events of World War II
Section 4 War Breaks Out
  • 1939 Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia and signed a
    nonaggression pact with Stalin.
  • 1939 Germany invaded Poland and France and
    Britain declared war.
  • 1940 Germany occupied Belgium, Denmark, northern
    France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Norway.
  • 1940 British citizens rescued the British army
    from Dunkirk, and Germany established a puppet
    government in France.

22
Reasons for climbing tensions between U.S. and
Germany
Section 4 War Breaks Out
  • increasing U.S. aid to allies
  • German submarine attacks
  • Roosevelts shoot-on-sight orders

23
Reasons for Japans bombing of Pearl Harbor
Section 4 War Breaks Out
  • freezing of all Japanese assets in the U.S
  • embargo on American shipments of gasoline,
    machine tools, scrap iron, and steel to Japan

24
SECTION 4
War Breaks Out
U.S. Congress passes neutrality laws.
European nations speed up rearmament.

The Response to Fascism
European leader adopt a policy of appeasement.
Soviets and the United States mend fences.
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