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Multi Cultural Communication Skills

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Title: Multi Cultural Communication Skills


1
Multi Cultural Communication Skills
2
HOFSTEDES HERMES STUDY
  • Dr. Geert Hofstede undertook a massive research
    project starting in 1966 involving a major
    multinational corporation identified only by the
    pseudonym HERMES. In the course of this project,
    some 116,000 questionnaires were completed by
    HERMES employees at all levels (unskilled workers
    to top managers) located in 50 developed and less
    developed nations.

3
CULTURE
"Culture as the collective programming of the
mind which distinguishes the members of one human
group from another"
4
Four key elements, or "dimensions", of culture
  • Power distance
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Individualism v. Collectivism
  • Masculinity v Femininity
  • Long or short term orientation

5
Power Distance Index (PDI)
It focuses on the degree of equality, or
inequality, between people in the country's
society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates
that inequalities of power and wealth have been
allowed to grow within the society. A Low Power
Distance ranking indicates the society
de-emphasizes the differences between citizen's
power and wealth.
6
Individualism (IDV)
It focuses on the degree the society reinforces
individual or collective, achievement and
interpersonal relationships. A High
Individualism ranking indicates that
individuality and individual rights are paramount
within the society. A Low Individualism ranking
typifies societies of a more collectivist nature
with close ties between individuals.
7
Masculinity (MAS)
It focuses on the degree the society reinforces,
or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine
work role model of male achievement, control, and
power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the
country experiences a high degree of gender
differentiation. A Low Masculinity ranking
indicates the country has a low level of
differentiation and discrimination between
genders.
8
Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)
It focuses on the level of tolerance for
uncertainty and ambiguity within the society -
i.e. unstructured situations. A High Uncertainty
Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low
tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. A Low
Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the
country has less concern about ambiguity and
uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety
of opinions.
9
Long-Term Orientation (LTO)
It focuses on the degree the society embraces, or
does not embrace, long-term devotion to
traditional, forward thinking values. A High
Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the
country prescribes to the values of long-term
commitments and respect for tradition. A Low
Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the
country does not reinforce the concept of
long-term, traditional orientation.
10
Achieving Communication Effectiveness
  • Improve Feedback System
  • Language Training
  • Cultural Training
  • Increasing Flexibility Cooperation

11
Communication Barriers
  • Verbal
  • Language
  • Cultural
  • Perceptual
  • Selecting topic
  • Silence
  • Interruptions
  • Humor
  • Structure
  • Non-Verbal
  • Kinesics
  • Oculesics
  • Proxemics
  • Chronemics
  • Mono
  • Poly
  • Appearance Posture
  • Chromatics

12
An Example of Body Language North American Space
Zones
Public
Intimate
Personal
Social
15 14 13 12 11 10
9 8 7 6 5
4 3 2 1 0
13
Australia
  • Australians generally prefer direct eye contact.
  • Australians tend to be enthusiastic
    conversationalists and debaters.
  • The best policy, however, is to wait for your
    Australian companions to bring up these two
    subjects
  • Australians find arguments and opinionated
    conversation entertaining

14
Australia (Contd.)
  • Topics which are currently controversial in
    Australia include migration.
  • Sport is a common topic of conversation
  • Australians like to criticize themselves, but
    they are not receptive to criticism from others.
  • Don't boast about yourself or your company's
    accomplishments.
  • Australians try not to draw too much attention to
    their academic qualifications or personal
    achievements.

15
FRANCE
  • Give opinions only on subjects that you are
    knowledgeable about.
  • Studying French history, politics, and other
    aspects of the culture will be an advantage for
    you in conversation.
  • It is extremely bad manners to ask about his
    political leanings

16
FRANCE (Contd.)
  • Do not criticize Napoleon,
  • Refrain from using the standard U.S. conversation
    opener, 'What do you do?'
  • Avoid making personal inquiries in the course of
    a conversation, especially during first
    introductions.

17
RUSSIA
  • Visitors should try to speak in a calm, moderate,
    tone of voice at all times.
  • Russian will be delighted if you make the effort
    to speak even a few sentences of their language.
  • There is a great deal of reliance on nonverbal
    communication.
  • When a Russian touches another person during
    conversation, it is usually a sign of confidence.

18
RUSSIA (Contd.)
  • Russians are enthusiastic about discussing
    politics and the challenges of living in Russia.
  • Bringing up the subject of Russian culture and
    history can be an appreciated gesture.
  • Don't be surprised if they start to talk about
    the history of your country.
  • Approach compliments with caution, since they may
    cause Russians to feel a sense of misplaced
    obligation.
  • There is tremendous affection for children in
    this culture

19
UNITED KINGDOM
  • Most Britons are reserved by nature
  • You should not be offended if people outside the
    'Home Counties' of southeast England address you
    in apparently familiar or overly affectionate
    terms such as dear or love
  • For the most part, the British speak in low,
    moderate, measured tones without raising the
    voice or gesticulating wildly for emphasis.

20
UNITED KINGDOM (Contd.)
  • Make an effort to speak in complete sentences
  • Should not interrupt someone
  • Britons, however, are proud of their culture and
    heritage and this should be respected not mocked.
  • A major difficulty in effective communication can
    be the British liking for self-deprecation,

21
USA
  • Be aware that many Americans speak only English.
  • They may speak fast or very loudly
  • Many Americans adopt sports terms in their
    business speech
  • Americans often ask, What do you do? to start a
    conversation.

22
USA (Contd.)
  • Americans like being with people who have a sense
    of humour. Self-deprecating humour, however,
    usually goes over well.
  • Refrain from asking women if they are married.
  • Compliments are exchanged frequently and are
    popular conversation starters.
  • Golf is a popular sport, especially among
    businesspeople. It is often a venue for business
    discussions and deals.

23
Skills and Best Practices Steps to Become a
Global Manager
  • Global Perspective Focus on global business
  • Cultural Responsiveness Become familiar with
    many cultures
  • Appreciate Understand Cultural Synergies Learn
    multicultural dynamics (Objective, Comm. Style,)
  • Cultural Adaptability Live and work effectively
    in different cultures
  • Cross-Cultural Communication Daily
    cross-cultural interaction
  • Acquire Broad Foreign Experience Series of
    foreign career assignments

24
CULTURAL FLUENCY (Dr. Linda Beamer)
  • Acknowledging cultural diversity
  • Organising information according to stereotype
  • Asking questions to challenge stereotype
  • Analyzing communication episodes
  • Generating fluent messages from other cultures
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