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PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (1)

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Title: PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (1)


1
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals
(1)
  • Thomas Hobbes - 1588-1679

2
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (2)
  • Life
  • Born of low-class parents
  • Outstanding in school
  • Went to Oxford
  • Became tutor/secretary to various aristocratic
    households
  • including the later Charles II
  • Spent various lengthy periods in Europe
  • Lived through the English Civil Wars
  • Published Leviathan in 1651
  • Nearly caught up in Parliamentary witch-hunt
  • publications prohibited as of 1660
  • Good-humoured, witty, generous, and kindly, by
    reports

3
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (3)
  • Hobbes Leviathan (1651)
  • The science of Man Tough-Mindedness
  • Like Machiavelli, Hobbes is interested in
  • (a) true premises that can be verified by
    observation - No wishful thinking here, please!
  • (b) Rigorous deduction - No sloppy reasoning
    either.
  • His model is Geometry lets get clear and true
    general starting-points, and justify everything
    by deduction from those.
  • He wants politics to be a science
  • This was the age of the rise of scientific
    thinking....
  • Can politics be a science? An interesting
    question!
  • But maybe that doesnt matter even if it cant,
    maybe we can find sound principles, anyway -
    good reasons in the political realm.

4
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (4)
  • 1. Hobbes on human nature and value
  • 1.1. Variability
  • We are born with some others arise from
    experience (trial)
  • We are averse to the unknown as well as to known
    dangers
  • Appetites and Aversions are Variable
  • both (1) in same Individual - - we are
    continually changing, too
  • and (2) between different people
  • Note But REASON is NOT - it is the same in
    everyone.
  • 1.2. Goodness whatsoever is the object of any
    mans Appetite or Desire that is it, which he
    for his part calleth Good (Nothing is simply
    and absolutely so
  • some discussion of this famous claim
  • (1) it seems not possible to work as a
    definition, simpliciter
  • (2) its about what the individual calls good.
    Presumably he could be wrong?
  • - compare Aristotle every art and every action
    aim at some good ...
  • 1.3. Pleasure, .. (or Delight) is the appearance,
    or sense of Good and Molestation or Displeasure,
    the appearance, or sense of evil.
  • if good is whatever we desire, then Hobbes idea
    is that its fulfillment brings pleasure to th
    desirer

5
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (5)
  • 1.4. Value whatsoever is the object of any
    mans Appetite or Desire that is it, which he
    for his part calleth Good (Nothing is simply
    and absolutely so)
  • e.g., Value of a man his Price (what would be
    given for the use of his Power) and therefore
    is not absolute
  • - Value is always a relation between individuals
    and other individuals (and/or objects)
  • this is economic value that hes talking about
    here
  • 1.5. Therefore -gt No Common Rule of Good and
    Evil from the nature of the objects themselves
    pace Aristotle
  • --gt rules of good and evil must come either from
  • a) the Individual (no Common-wealth), or
  • b) the Government (Person that representeth
    Common-wealth)
  • c) or an Arbitrator whom men disagreeing shall
    by consent set up, and make his sentence the Rule
    thereof.
  • Q does b c??
  • Note Here Hobbes moves from value to Moral
    Rules. They are not the same!

6
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (6)
  • Sideshows (Notes on some stuff not in our
    anthology) (first 5 chapters of Leviathan)
  • (a) a materialist account of sensation
  • - Hobbes claims that sensations are just
    motions
  • - the question here is - well, so what?
  • the difficult and interesting question whether
    they are can be left to one side.
  • Hobbes appeals only to the familiar evidence of
    commonsense experience whether that is also
    explicable in material terms is not obviously
    relevant.
  • (b) Of Speech truth consisteth in the right
    ordering of names in our affirmations
  • This is a puzzling doctrine, on the face of it -
  • it sounds as though all we need to do to know the
    truth is to put our words together in the right
    way!
  • - but of course, if that right way is the way
    that corresponds to the facts out there, then
    well need to do a lot more homework than that!
  • --gt Clarity is indeed a matter of putting words
    in the right order - but clarity is one thing,
    truth is another.
  • Note These are both sideshows - unlike what
    some scholars think...
  • We will pay no further attention to them here -
    the lecture explains why ....

7
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (7)
  • 2. Rationality
  • The point of action to satisfy Desire ( to
    achieve what one values)
  • Hobbes usage (seems identical with contemporary
    mainstream view) Rationality consists in
    ordering ones actions so as to
  • maximize expected utility
  • (1) Utility of the result, if it comes about
  • multiplied by
  • (2) Probability of result, given the action under
    consideration
  • Expected Utility Net Gain or loss
  • Net Pleasure pleasure - pain Gain -
    Loss
  • (stated in hedonistic terms, which may or may not
    apply...)
  • Crucial Rationality is always a matter of the
    the gain in terms of the values of the individual
    doing the deliberating
  • --gt That is the crucial feature of Political
    Liberalism ....
  • Deliberation consists in appraising ones
    situation with a view to rational behavior as
    previously defined

8
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (8)
  • 2.1 Felicity (happiness)
  • Temporal no such thing as perpetual Tranquillity
    -
  • No such thing as a Summum Bonum
  • because? Life itself is but Motion
  • Felicity is a continual progress of the desire,
    from one object to another -- not to enjoy once
    only - but to assure for ever, the way of his
    future desire.
  • The voluntary actions of all men, tend to the
    procuring and the assuring of a contented life
  • 2.2 Power
  • Therefore there is a General inclination of all
    mankind for power
  • a perpetual and restless desire of Power after
    power, that ceaseth only in Death
  • (-- because he cannot assure the power and means
    to live well, which he hath present, without the
    acquisition of more)
  • that deserves thinking about

9
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (9)
  • Power - discussion
  • In saying there is a General inclination of all
    mankind for power -
  • what kind of power is meant?
  • Distinguish
  • (a) Compulsive (coercive) Power power to compel
    others, by force, to do what they otherwise
    wouldnt
  • (b) Productive power to bring about something
    which people (the agent himself, or others) like,
    and so would be willing to buy (more generally,
    they would voluntarily seek the products)
  • In seeking felicity, which do we necessarily
    want?
  • Answer (b)
  • What about (a)? That is less clear. But, Yes - if
    you dont trust other people...
  • Or if you think you have a lot more power than
    they gangster philosophy
  • Thats what State of Nature discussions will
    bring up.... Hobbes claim is that in the S of
    N, you cant trust anyone!

10
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (10)
  • 3. Conflict
  • Competition of Riches, Honour, Command, or other
    power
  • General definition of interpersonal conflict A
    is in conflict with B iff, if A gets what A
    wants, then B does not get what B wants.
  • i.e., those particular ends are incompatible -
    they cant both be realized
  • Hobbes says Conflict inclineth to Contention,
    Enmity, and War
  • Because the way of one Competitor is to kill,
    subdue, supplant, or repel the other
  • This sounds much too strong so far as the
    general case is concerned. Many competitions are
    severely limited with respect to the methods
    allowed in them, e.g., all competitive games and
    the commercial market
  • important distinctions among competitions
  • 3.1 The Zero-Sum Game As outcome Bs outcome
    0
  • -gt More for A Less for B
  • This must be contrasted with
  • 3.2 Positive-Sum Games see next p.

11
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (11)
  • 3.2 Positive-Sum Games
  • There is a possible Gain in net value from
    playing these
  • 3 cases to distinguish
  • (1) both gain
  • (2) one gains and nobody loses Pareto
    improvement
  • (3) one gains more than the other loses. ( net
    positive utilitarian sum)
  • Note that (3) requires interpersonal comparison
    of utilities
  • in those, we are claiming that person A has
    gained more, or less, than B 2 units of good
    for A, and 5 for B.
  • - this is a highly debatable (and much-debated)
    idea
  • But (1) and (2) do not require such comparisons.
    All estimations for them can be within each
    agents own utilities - no interpersonal
    comparison.
  • note that we can say that A gained on the deal
    and B lost - here we compare their present
    situations with their previous ones.

12
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (12)
  • Arts of Peace -
  • Values enabling Positive-Sum Interactions
  • Desire of Knowledge As knowledge doesnt imply
    Bs ignorance
  • Cooperative building a house for A doesnt mean
    No house for B
  • Navigation
  • Arts
  • Letters
  • Society e.g., parties, meetings, public
    encounters
  • Hobbes claim these values inclineth men to
    obey a common Power
  • - Is he right about that?
  • Its crucial whether he is!
  • - And also, what kind of common power..

13
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (13)
  • 4. The State of Nature or Natural Condition
    of Mankind
  • 1. Definitions
  • A Distinction
  • (1) natural condition of mankind the way
    mankind is by nature
  • (2a) state of nature state of society without
    government
  • i.e. anarchy
  • note a further idea (2b) a moral state of
    nature - will be defined below
  • Aristotle thought that man is by nature a
    political animal
  • Hobbes apparently disagrees ...
  • Note Hes talking about the social state, always
    - Robinson Crusoe isnt where its at!
  • The Question would the natural state of man be
    anarchy? Or are we, so to say, born into the
    State?

14
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (14)
  • The State of Nature
  • Is it the Natural Condition of Mankind (?)
  • Re this question (would the natural state of
    man be anarchy? Or are we, so to say, born into
    the State?) - Hobbes seems to think that
    primitive societies are anarchic.
  • He may be right!
  • But we may regard this as a thought experiment
    what would happen if there were no government?
  • Thats what matters for if things would
    necessarily be much worse if that happened,
    Hobbes has his case made!
  • But he was generally wrong about what primitive
    anarchies are like ...
  • Anthropologists believe that they are
    predominantly peaceable

15
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (15)
  • Two Ideas of state of nature or, Anarchy
  • 2a. political state of nature
  • condition of man with no government
  • i.e., The Stateless State
  • 2b. moral state of nature
  • Condition of mankind with no morality
  • i.e., The Amoral condition)
  • - no conscience, no recognition of any moral
    principles or restraints.
  • Note Hobbes' politically-conceived State of
    Nature is also, in his view, a moral state of
    nature, but it is not defined as such.
  • Note these are not exclusive alternatives. They
    are logically independent. Are they really
    independent?
  • Hobbes thinks not he thinks that PSN Political
    S of N --gt MSN moral s of n
  • that is that if government were disestablished,
    then morality wouldnt cut it things would
    degenerate into what he claims is an awful
    condition
  • Note - whether hes right about that may be the
    most important single question of political
    philosophy

16
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (16)
  • -- Why consider this? - especially if no place is
    ever anarchic?
  • answer Scientific method
  • - Lets compare how things would be without
    government with how they would be with it.
  • - If we can prove it would be better, then weve
    got it made!
  • Hobbes proposes to prove that government is
    justified by showing what would happen if we
    didnt have it.
  • And what he thinks would happen is things would
    be AWFUL!
  • Lets look at the argument

17
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (17)
  • Why the State of Nature will be a State of War
  • Equal ability -gt Equal Hope of attaining Ends
  • Three principal causes of quarrel
  • 1. Competition
  • -gt if two men desire and cannot both enjoy a
    thing, they become enemies and endeavour to
    destroy, or subdue one another
  • -gt if one plant, sow, or build, others may
    probably be expected to come prepared to deprive
    him of the fruit of his labour, and his life, or
    liberty. And the Invader again is in the like
    danger of another.
  • 2. Diffidence (fear) -gt This gives rise to
    Anticipation
  • - no more than his own conservation requires.
  • The only good defense is a good offense...
  • 3. Glory (desire for Reputation Makes men use
    of Violence for trifles - a word, a smile, an
    opinion, a reflection in their Kindred,
    Friends, Nation ...

18
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (18)
  • Hobbess Theory about man in the S of N
  • note his theory - not his definition
  • Five characteristics of People in the State of
    Nature
  • 1. practical Rationality (as maximal
    realization of our values).
  • 2. Equality (gt of vulnerability The weakest
    hath enough strength to kill the strongest)
  • 3. Scarcity. gt Nature doesn't give us everything
    we want
  • gt But this is in principle ameliorable - e.g. by
    cooperation
  • 4. Nonaltruism we don't necessarily love people
    in general
  • gt They prefer themselves and some few loved ones
  • gt people will "invade and despoil" others if it
    came to a conflict
  • 5. Amorality
  • gt No natural conscience -morality is artificial

19
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (19)
  • Why do these lead to war?
  • goods are in short supply 3
  • no one has any scruples 5
  • nor any affection for most others 4
  • no trust - so, offense may be the best defense
    1
  • everyone knows that everyone else is his enemy
    2

20
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (20)
  • The War of All against All
  • Claim During the time men live without a common
    Power to keep them all in awe, they are in that
    condition which is called War - of every man,
    against every man
  • (War, consists not in actual fighting, but in
    the known disposition thereto, when there is no
    assurance to the contrary)
  • gtgt All other time is Peace (nothing fancier
    needed)
  • The Payoff of the War .. no place for
    Industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain
    no Culture of the Earth, no commodious Building
    no Knowledge of the face of the Earth no account
    of Time no Arts no Letters no Society and
    which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger
    of violent death And
  • the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
    and short.

21
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (21)
  • Status of S of N ideas Was there ever such a
    time? Hobbes mentions
  • 1) the savage people in many places of America
  • 2) gtgt except the government of small Families -
    the concord whereof depends on natural lust, not
    government
  • 3) States in their mutual relations Kings, and
    Persons of Sovereign authority -- their Forts,
    Garrisons, and Guns - and continual Spies upon
    their neighbours
  • (1) turns out to be problematic and probably due
    to anthropological ignorance....
  • But (2) and (3) are important...
  • The general question Can human societies be
    peaceable without government?
  • Some distinctions .....

22
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (22)
  • Basic Elements for Political Analysis
  • People Organisms Minds sets of Interests and
    Abilities
  • Society People interacting
  • gt Individuative sense a Society is a
    collection connected by interaction Every member
    interacts with some other members, who interact
    with some members the set of all who interact
    with some interactee starting with, say,
    individual Smith, is a society
  • Association a group whose members
  • (1) deliberately and voluntarily associate
  • (2) for a purpose
  • Community its members commune with other
    members, feel a sense of common values, group
    identity
  • Nation Community with an aspiration to be a
    Political unit
  • State Politically organized society society
    with a Government
  • Government Agency in a society with power to make
    and enforce laws
  • Law Coercively enforceable directive over the
    whole society

23
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (23)
  • Association a group whose members
  • (1) deliberately and voluntarily associate
  • (2) for a purpose
  • Community its members commune with other
    members, feel a sense of common values, group
    identity
  • Our problem a society as defined neednt be
    either an association or even a community.
  • Hobbes thinks it will nevertheless become a
    State
  • Politically organized society society with a
    Government
  • Government Agency in a society with power to make
    and enforce laws
  • which are Coercively enforceable directives over
    the whole society
  • Thats the project!

24
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (24)
  • Hobbes methodology is individualistic
  • - Question are people individualistic?
  • or do they have ties to others?
  • Hobbes allows family ties united by natural
    lust, not reason
  • - he doesnt seem to think much of national ties
    or social ties
  • Is this a mistake, or a bias??
  • arguably not. He notes international anarchy,
    e.g.
  • There are lots of wars among tribes, nations,
    etc.
  • Would more Individualism make for more war? Or
    less??
  • (My guess a lot less )

25
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (25)
  • Implications of the War of All against All
    for Justice
  • Claimed Result nothing can be Unjust in the S of
    N
  • (Hobbes) The Notions of Right and Wrong,
    Justice and Injustice, have there no place
  • No common Power -gt no Law no Law -gt no
    Injustice
  • Force, and Fraud - in war, are the two Cardinal
    virtues
  • Note Justice and injustice are not Faculties of
    the Body or Mind
  • Implications of No Justice
  • -gt No Propriety, no Dominion, no Mine and Thine -
    but only that to be every mans that he can get,
    for so long, as he can keep it

26
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (26)
  • The RIGHT OF NATURE
  • This is asserted to be the Liberty to use ones
    own power
  • ( To use ones own Judgement (ones own Reasons
    re the aptest means for the preservation of his
    own Nature (I.e., ones Life)
  • Q. What is the life we want to preserve?
    Distinguish
  • Longevity, from
  • The most fulfilling (interesting, enjoyable,
    valuable.) life for oneself
  • So which does Hobbes mean?
  • a maybe not longevity
  • b Thered better not be - for it would conflict
    with too many facts
  • e.g., smoking, race-car driving, climbing
    mountains - or suicide-bombers...
  • LIBERTY absence of external Impediments (which
    take away part of ones power to do what he
    would but cannot hinder him from using the power
    left him, according as his judgment, and reason
    shall dictate)
  • Question can the right of nature literally be
    a right?
  • note dont confuse this with the right of
    self-defense..
  • Well get to that...

27
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (27)
  • The RIGHT OF NATURE (2)
  • Question Can the right of nature be a right?
  • answer No!
  • We must distinguish de facto (of the fact)
    and de jure (of the law)
  • Having a right is a normative (moral/legal)
    status
  • A has the right to do x others are morally
    required to let A do x ( it would be wrong
    for those others to prevent As doing x)
  • and as Hobbes notes, Obligation, and Liberty in
    one and the same matter are inconsistent
  • In the State of Nature, by definition, there are
    no Laws
  • - so nothing is normative .. no requirements, no
    duties ...
  • Thus its nonsense to say that we literally have
    as a right what Hobbes says we have in the thesis
    of the right of nature
  • Therefore, we have NO RIGHTS in that condition
  • --gt That is exactly whats wrong with it!

28
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (28)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law (the Laws of
    Nature)
  • gtgt Fear of Death, Desire of commodious living,
    and Hope by their Industry to obtain them
    motivate Peace
  • gtgt Reason suggesteth convenient Articles of peace
    called the Laws of Nature
  • Definition LAW OF NATURE A General Rule of
    Reason, by which one is forbidden to do what
    destroys (or subverts the means of preserving),
    or omit what promotes, ones life
  • Note by life here Hobbes should mean best
    life. A Law of Nature is a generalization about
    how to Maximize ones Utility.
  • Maximizing longevity for its own sake isnt where
    its at.
  • Problem this isnt digital, its analogue..
  • That is it isnt, Life or No-Life.
  • Its the Life(s) I prefer versus the life(s) I
    less prefer
  • - does that matter? Well see.....

29
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (29)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law
  • First Law of Nature
  • That every man, ought to endeavour Peace,
    as far as he has hope of obtaining it and when
    he cannot obtain it, that he may seek, and use,
    all helps, and advantages of War.
  • Hobbes says this is both the first in order,
    and the fundamental law - meaning that all the
    others follow from it
  • It has two Branches
  • (a) Seek Peace and Follow It
  • (b) If you cant get it, then we have a Right of
    Self-Defense (i.e. we may use all helps etc)
  • note that right is now de jure (normative),
    not de facto (descriptive). Here Hobbes proposes
    that we must convert the so-called right of
    nature, in its purely first-personal form, in
    which it has no interpersonal authority, into a
    rule that does have such authority

30
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (30)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law
  • Derivation of the Law of Nature
  • (1) S of N is a State of War, in which
  • (2) Every one is governed by his own Reason (by
    definition, there is no external government)
    Therefore,
  • (3) there is nothing he can make use of, that
    may not be a help unto him, in preserving his
    life against his enemies
  • (4) So every man has a Right to every thing
  • (5) - even to one anothers body.
  • (6) Everyone is roughly equal in destructive
    power so,
  • (7) As long as thisnatural Right endures,
    however strong or wise, our lives will be short
    and miserable.
  • Conclusion it is irrational not to accept this
    Law of Nature
  • This is Hobbess solution to Aquinas problem
    (driving morality from facts)

31
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (31)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law - Game Theoretic
    treatment
  • Analysis the state of nature situation
    presents us with a Prisoners Dilemma
  • Illustrated in this classic story two crooks (Al
    and Bob) are apprehended in the course of
    committing two crimes - a little one and a big
    one
  • Penalty for the little one 1 year in jail
  • Penalty for the big one 10 years in jail
  • The Crown Attorney claps them in opposite ends of
    the local jail, and makes each a deal
  • You confess (squeal) and if the other does not,
    then you get 0 years in jail
  • If you keep mum and the other does too, you get 1
    year in jail
  • If you both squeal, you both get reduced penalty
    5 years in jail
  • If he squeals and you dont, you get 10 years...
  • What do you (as a rational criminal) do??

32
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (32)
  • Prisoners dilemma the original Story

33
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (33)
  • Prisoners Dilemma More General Version
  • note As outcomes are at the left in each box,
    Bs at the right
  • Cooperate Defect
  • Cooperate 2nd, 2nd 4th, 1st
  • Defect 1st, 4th 3rd, 3rd
  • The dilemma How will Rational Man Cooperate?
  • Rational Man always takes his best option
  • Defect always ranks higher than Cooperate!
  • - This is the problem haunting Hobbes (and
    everybody....)
  • how do we get to where it is better for all of
    us?
  • The common good!

34
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (34)
35
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (35)
  • Second Law of Nature The General Liberty
    Principle
  • That one be willing, when others are so too ...
    to lay down this right to all things and be
    contented with so much liberty against other men,
    as he would allow other men against himself
  • gtgt If A does not lay down this Right, then there
    is no Reason why B should
  • (Hobbes cites The Golden Rule) Whatsoever you
    require that others should do to you, that do ye
    to them)
  • Definition of right To lay down a mans Right
    to any thing, is to divest himself of the
    Liberty, of hindering another of the benefit of
    his own Right
  • Note Some would describe this as the equal
    liberty principle
  • - because we are to accept so much liberty as
    we would allow others
  • - how do you measure liberty, then?? Or do we
    need to?
  • Suppose that person A give up his liberty to
    leave the table without washing the dishes, in
    return for B giving up her liberty to watch TV
    instead of making dinner...
  • One couple, AB, would find this very
    satisfactory, while another would not.
  • Does a measurement need to be made?
  • Or is it enough that they agree?
  • - Hobbess answer is the latter... What matters
    is agreement

36
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (36)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law
  • Third Law of Nature That men perform their
    Covenants made
  • Note about covenant - not just any old exchange
    or agreement
  • Rather, one in which there is a significant time
    gap between As performance and Bs performance
  • When this occurs, it is in the later-performing
    individuals interest to renege
  • as in Take the Money and Run

37
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (37)
  • Promising Keep or Break?
  • A and B make an agreement
  • B
  • Keep
    Break
  • Keep 2nd 2nd 4th,
    1st
  • A
  • Break 1st, 4th 3rd,
    3rd
  • The one who breaks first wins the other is the
    sucker .. But if they both try to break,
    both are worse off
  • - So, what does Rational Man do?

38
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (38)
  • Hobbes Theory of Natural Law
  • Law Three is the Source of Justice
  • in this law consisteth the Fountain and Original
    of JUSTICE
  • 1. gtgt no Covenant, no transfer of Right - and
    every man has right to every thing --gt no actions
    Unjust
  • 2. Covenants, where there is a fear of
    nonperformance on either part .. are invalid No
    Injustice until the cause of such fear is taken
    away
  • 3. -gt Therefore before the names of Just, and
    Unjust can have place, there must be some
    coercive Power
  • 4. gtgt which requires erection of a Commonwealth
  • Justice the constant Will of giving to every man
    his own.
  • --gt No Own (no Property), no Injustice
  • gtgt No coercive Power erected, no Property
  • -gt Therefore (claims Hobbes) Justice Requires
    Government

39
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (39)
  • Justice When A abandons his Right, A is OBLIGED
    not to hinder those, to whom such Right is
    granted.
  • Note Recall that This is how we defined having
    a right
  • It is his DUTY, not to make void that voluntary
    act of his own
  • gtgt such hindrance is INJUSTICE, and INJURY
  • (It is Absurdity to contradict what one
    maintained in the Beginning and Injustice
    voluntarily to undo that, which from the
    beginning he had voluntarily done
  • Needed some voluntary and sufficient sign that
    one does Renounce to him that accepteth it
  • These Signs are either Words only, or Actions
    only or both
  • gtgt They are the BONDS, by which men are obliged
  • gtgt Those words have their strength, not from
    their own Nature, (for nothing is more easily
    broken than a mans word) but from Fear of some
    evil consequence upon the rupture
  • All transfer of right is in consideration of some
    Right (or some other good ) reciprocally
    transferred to himself.
  • For it is a voluntary act and of the voluntary
    acts of every man, the object is some Good to
    himself

40
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (40)
  • CONTRACT mutual transferring of Right
  • Note Difference between
  • (1) transferring Right to the Thing and (2)
    transferring Thing itself gt
  • Suppose one Contractor delivers the Thing,
    leaving the other to perform his part at some
    determinate time after - that is the COVENANT
    situation...
  • One-Way transfer of Right GIFT
  • Sign of Contract PROMISE.
  • Signs by Inference whatever sufficiently
    argues the will of the Contractor
  • Words alone are an insufficient sign of a
    Free-gift and therefore not obligatory.

41
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (41)
  • In Contracts
  • ... he that promiseth only because he hath
    already received is to be understood as if he
    intended the Right should pass for otherwise the
    other would not have performed his part first...
  • -gt All Contract or Promise is equivalent to
    Covenant
  • -gt All contract is obligatory.
  • 1. He that performeth first in the case of a
    Contract, ... hath it as Due
  • 2. Contract I merit at the Contractors hand
    that he depart with his right
  • 3. Gift no merit that the giver should part
    with his right but when he has parted with it,
    that it should be mine, rather than anothers
  • that is gifts are not payments for specific
    services rendered but they still transfer
    rights, from giver to recipient

42
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (42)
  • Hobbes Covenant in the condition of mere
    Nature, upon any reasonable suspicion, is Void
  • gtgt But if there be a common Power set over them
    both, with right and force sufficient to compel
    performance it is not Void
  • gtgt The bonds of words are too weak to bridle
    mens ambition, avarice, anger, and other
    Passions, without the fear of coercive Power
  • gtgt In State of Nature, all are judges of the
    justness of their own fears
  • -gt he which performeth first, does but betray
    himself to his enemy contrary to the Right (he
    can never abandon) of defending his life ...
  • - -gt the law of nature does not oblige in the
    state of nature
  • (It binds in fore interno, but not in fore
    externo)
  • fore interno to a desire they take place
    fore externo in actual action
  • -gt Hobbes says Contracts really oblige in Civil
    Society only
  • is he right??

43
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (43)
  • gtgt that which could not hinder a man from
    promising, ought not to be admitted as a
    hindrance of performing.
  • Contracts you Cant Make
  • Animals Covenant with Beasts is impossible -gt
    Animals have no rights
  • God To make Covenant with God, is impossible
  • Oath (to God) adds nothing to Obligation. For a
    Covenant, if lawful, binds in the sight of God,
    without the Oath, as much as with it if
    unlawful, it doesnt bind, even if it is
    confirmed with an Oath.
  • Note thus, founding obligations on religion
    is pointless
  • Morality To Vow anything contrary to any law of
    Nature is in vain
  • Physical Laws To promise the Impossible, is no
    Covenant ...

44
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (44)
  • When is the Deal Off? Men are freed two ways by
    Performing or by being Forgiven
  • apart from circumstantial changes, such as a
    heart attack
  • When its On gtgt Covenants from fear, in the
    condition of Nature, are obligatory (Prisoners of
    war, if trusted with the payment of their Ransom,
    are obliged to pay it)
  • Earlier Covenant overrides later
  • A Covenant not to defend myself from force is
    always void
  • I can say this Unless I do so, or so, kill me
  • - but not Unless I do so, or so, I will not
    resist you, when you come to kill me
  • ?
  • A Covenant to accuse oneself, without assurance
    of pardon, is likewise invalid
  • The force of Words being too weak, there are in
    mans nature, but two imaginable helps to
    strengthen it
  • 1) Fear of the consequence of breaking their
    word
  • 2) Pride in appearing not to need to break it
  • Note The second, Hobbes thinks, is unreliable
  • - but thats surely individually variable. Some
    people are highly reliable and take great
  • (and justified) pride in being so . However,
    others are not. And thats the problem!

45
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (45)
  • Promising and Prisoners Dilemma, again

46
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (46)
  • about The FOOL
  • The fool hath said in his heart, there is no
    such thing as Justice
  • He agrees that there are Covenants but he
    questioneth, whether Reason might not recommend
    Injustice Thrasymachus!
  • gt I say it is not against reason. Consider that
    in a condition of War, for want of common Power
    to keep them in awe, all are Enemies
  • gt He which declares he thinks it reason to
    deceive those that help him, cannot be received
    into any society, but by the error of them that
    receive him
  • gtgt which errors a man cannot reasonably reckon
    upon as the means of his security
  • gt if he be out of Society, he perisheth
  • gtgt if he live in Society, its only out of
    others ignorance
  • that is, if others know that you think this,
    youll be ignored, or worse

47
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (47)
  • The FOOL, continued .
  • Attaining Sovereignty by Rebellion cannot
    reasonably be expected, but rather the contrary
  • and because by gaining it so, others are taught
    to gain the same in like manner, the attempt
    thereof is against reason
  • -gtgt therefore Keeping of Covenant, is a Rule of
    Reason
  • Note how this depends on the condition of
    Equality of Vulnerability 2 on slide 17
  • - in the case of promising, its gullibility -
    and this is not obviously equal
  • Question how does it apply at the one-on-one
    level??
  • society at large supports the peaceable and
    cooperative.
  • But in individual cases, there can be large local
    disparities of power - the man with the gun has
    more than the unarmed storekeeper, e.g.
  • Question is there any other way to deal with
    this other than by instituting a pblic police
    force?
  • possible answer No. A private police force
    might work too - or better await further

48
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (48)
  • Economics
  • Whatsoever is done to a man, conformable to his
    own Will signified to the doer, is no Injury to
    him.
  • The received view on Commutative and
    Distributive Justice
  • Commutative - equality of value of the things
    contracted for Grotius
  • Distributive - equal benefit, to men of equal
    merit Aristotle...
  • Hobbes comments As if it were Injustice to
    sell dearer than we buy or to give more to a man
    than he merits.
  • The value of all things contracted for, is
    measured by the Appetite of the Contractors
  • Economic justice
  • --gtgt Therefore the just value, is that which
    they be contented to give.
  • In short the right price is the agreed price (if
    not coerced)

49
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (49)
  • Compare with Aquinas (who gets it from
    Aristotle)
  • Two sorts of business exchanges
  • (1) natural and necessary - one commodity for
    another, or for money needed to buy what is in
    turn needed - praiseworthy, for it serves natural
    needs
  • (2) money for money, or for goods to make money
    - rightly condemned
  • trade in itself has a certain quality of
    baseness - does not of its own nature involve
    an honorable or necessary end
  • So profit is wrong?
  • Whos right - Aquinas or Hobbes?
  • Answer Hobbes.
  • Because profit is mutual advantage via mutual
    agreement.
  • Aquinas personal vendetta against usury is
    unfounded ...

50
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (50)
  • Fourth Law of Nature Gratitude That a man
    which receiveth Benefit from another of mere
    Grace, Endeavour that he which giveth it, have no
    reasonable cause to repent him of his good will.
  • or Dont bite the hand that feeds you!
  • or dont kill the goose that lays the golden
    egg!
  • gtgt For no man giveth, but with intention of Good
    to himself Gift is Voluntary if men see they
    shall be frustrated, there will be no beginning
    of benevolence, or trust
  • Breach of this Law is Ingratitude
  • Note that this is reason commanding us
  • No one can command gratitude ...

51
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (51)
  • Fifth Law of Nature Compleasance That every man
    strive to accommodate himself to the rest
  • Men are diverse in their Affections so also, a
    man that ... will strive to retain those things
    which to himself are superfluous, and to others
    necessary and for the stubbornness of his
    Passions, cannot be corrected, is to be left, or
    cast out of Society, as cumbersome thereunto.
  • Thus regarding Helping the Poor
  • Everyone does what is necessary for his
    conservation. He that shall oppose himself
    against it, for things superfluous, is guilty of
    the war that thereupon is to follow and therefore
    doth that, which is contrary to the fundamental
    Law of Nature, which commandeth to seek Peace.
  • The observers of this Law, may be called
    SOCIABLE. The contrary, Stubborn, Insociable
  • This is an extremely important passage in
    relation to the welfare state

52
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (52)
  • The theory behind compleasance is probably
    Co-ordination
  • Co-ordination
  • B
  • x y
  • x 1, 1 0, 0
  • A
  • y 0, 0 1, 1
  • Here nobody has an interest in going for y if
    others do x (e.g. Rule of the Road) - but which
    shall it be? One good answer is if people are
    already doing x, then you should do it too....

53
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (53)
  • Hobbes on the administration of the Laws -
    forward-looking
  • Sixth Law of Nature to pardon the offences past
    of them that repenting, desire it.
  • Seventh Look not at the greatness of the evil
    past, but the greatness of the good to follow.
  • -gtgt Whereby we are forbidden to inflict
    punishment with any other design, than for
    correction of the offender, or direction of
    others.
  • gtgt Cruelty is against the Law of Nature Note
    First statement of Deterrence/Protection Theory
    of Punishment
  • 8th Law Against Hate Literature All signs of
    hatred, or contempt, provoke to fight gtgt The law
    isThat no man by deed, word, countenance, or
    gesture, declare Hatred, or Contempt of another.
  • this is relevant to the modern idea of hate
    laws .

54
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (54)
  • Property
  • Law Twelve That such things as cannot be
    divided, be enjoyed in Common, if it can be and
    if the quantity of the thing permit, without
    Stint otherwise Proportionally to the number of
    them that have Right. - corresponding Vice
    Inequity
  • Law Thirteen If it can neither be divided, nor
    enjoyed in common, then the Entire Right or else
    (making the use alternate,) the First Possession,
    be determined by Lot
  • For equal distribution is of the Law of Nature
    and other means of equal distribution cannot be
    imagined.
  • And therefore those things which cannot be
    enjoyed in common, nor divided, ought to be
    adjudged to the First Possessor and in some
    cases to the First-Borne, as acquired by Lot
  • Questions Why does equal distribution of
    what cannot be divided, imply first possession?
  • And what is the basis for equal distribution?
  • But he later says To the Sovereign belongeth
    (8) the whole power of prescribing the Rules,
    whereby every man may know, what Goods he may
    enjoy and what Actions he may do, without being
    molested by any of his fellow Subjects i.e., of
    Property propriety

55
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (55)
  • Law Fourteen They that are at controversy,
    submit their Right to the judgment of an
    Arbitrator.
  • (And no man is a fit Arbitrator in his own cause
    If one gets greater profit, honour, or
    pleasure due to victory of one party, then no
    man can be obliged to trust him.
  • (This extremely interesting law needs a lot of
    thought. How do we decide which man is to serve
    as arbitrator?
  • One obvious answer is the one who is agreed to
    by both parties to the dispute
  • And they will agree on the basis of his perceived
    track-record on such things
  • - Also by perception of his common sense and good
    will
  • no small matter this, as we will see later!

56
PS 226 Hobbes Notes (56)
  • Summary on Laws of Nature
  • In one easy sum Do not that to another, which
    thou would not have done to thy self
  • note consider the case of differing tastes I
    dont like to be tickled, but she does ...
  • has to be interpreted at the most general level
  • Dont do to people what they dont like, unless
    they have themselves violated that very
    precept...
  • The sum whereof consisteth in forbidding us to
    be our own judges. (Elements of Law, 2.5.2)

57
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (57)
  • The Laws of Nature are Immutable and Eternal
  • for Injustice, Ingratitude, Arrogance, Pride,
    Inequity, Acceptation of persons, and the rest,
    can never be made lawful. For it can never be
    that War shall preserve life, and Peace destroy
    it.
  • Note
  • gtgt The Laws of Nature are improperly called
    laws
  • - they are but Conclusions, or Theorems
    concerning what conduceth to the conservation and
    defence of themselves
  • whereas Law, properly is the word of him, that by
    right hath command over others.
  • But yet if we consider the same Theorems, as
    delivered, in the word of God, that by right
    commandeth all things then are they properly
    called Laws reminding us of Grotius...
  • ?

58
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (58)
  • The Rational Status of the Laws of Nature
  • They oblige in foro interno (All must desire they
    should take place) but in foro externo - that
    is, to the putting them in act, not always.
  • gtgt He that endeavoureth their performance,
    fulfilleth them and he that fulfilleth the Law,
    is Just.
  • The Sucker For he that should be modest, and
    tractable, and perform all he promises, in such
    time, and place, where no man else should do so,
    should but procure his own certain ruin, contrary
    to the ground of all Laws of Nature, which tend
    to Natures preservation.

59
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (59)
  • Queries re the Rational Status of the Laws of
    Nature
  • Our question are you just being a sucker if
    youre moral?
  • Why should we cooperate in PDs?
  • Two answers
  • a) this is a straight deliverance of Reason
  • Hobbes cant say this
  • b) because were nice
  • Hobbes cant say that either

60
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (60)
  • The Rational Status of the Laws of Nature
  • Why should we cooperate in PDs? (continued)
  • A Third Answer Iteration ..
  • Suppose A and B play PD repeatedly
  • and they dont know when the last play is
  • As defection now invites Bs defection at the
    next round
  • Each round you play, you lose more...
  • Cooperation is then rational
  • (This is the folk theorem on PD

61
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (61)
  • The Rational Status of the Laws of Nature
  • Note on Iteration
  • In small communities ( 200) people are likely to
    do repeated play with the same persons
  • In large, not...
  • Chain connection everybody plays with somebody
    who plays with somebody else, who ...

62
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (62)
  • The Rational Status of the Laws of Nature
  • Whats rational is to form a conscientious
    aversion to noncooperation
  • Thats not the same as cooperation simply being
    rational
  • Enforcement people should (and do) cuss each
    other out (or worse) for defecting.
  • How morality works everyone is disposed to
    criticize all who dont conform to the
    fundamental idea
  • This matters and has some effect
  • - how much?
  • Thats the big question!
  • - so now we move to Hobbes political theory ....

63
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (63)
  • Hobbes Argument for Government first version
  • 1. The State of Nature would be terrible for
    everyone
  • 2. The problem is people running on their own
    individual senses of what to do
  • 2.1 Those senses are altogether pre-moral and
    always are directed toward maximizing the
    individuals gain no matter how
  • 2.2. man in the S of N faces a Prisoners
    Dilemma, and because of the above will go for the
    Suboptimal outcome (ie. War)
  • 3. Therefore, we need a united central agency
    that can overpower any subset of the people i.e.,
    the Sovereign
  • 4. Hence, The State ....

64
PS 226 Hobbes Notes 1 - Morals (64)
  • Hobbes Argument for government second version
  • 1. The State of Nature would be terrible for
    everyone
  • 2. The problem is people running on their own
    individual senses of what to do
  • 2.1 individuals trying to come to agreement will
    be stymied because promises without the sword are
    but words and without force
  • 2.2. man in the S of N faces a Prisoners
    Dilemma, and because of the above will go for the
    Suboptimal outcome (ie. War) we wont be able to
    rely on people keeping agreements. Therefore we
    wont make any such agreements, seeing that they
    are useless
  • 3. Therefore, we need a united central agency
    that can compel people to keep their agreements.
  • 4. To do this, the enforcer needs to be able to
    overpower any subset of the people i.e., the
    Sovereign
  • Hence, The State .... to which we move next
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