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Chapter 6: Deviance, Crime and Social Control

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Chapter 6: Deviance, Crime and Social Control Melanie Hatfield Soc 100 The Difference between Deviance and Crime Deviance involves breaking a norm and evoking a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6: Deviance, Crime and Social Control


1
Chapter 6 Deviance, Crime and Social Control
  • Melanie Hatfield
  • Soc 100

2
The Difference between Deviance and Crime
  • Deviance involves breaking a norm and evoking a
    negative reaction from others.
  • Societies establish some norms as laws.
  • Crime is deviance that breaks a law, which is a
    norm stipulated and enforced by government
    bodies.
  • Just as deviance is relative, so is crime.

3
Sanctions
  • Many otherwise deviant acts go unnoticed or are
    considered too trivial to warrant negative
    sanctions, or actions indicating disapproval of
    deviance.
  • People who are observed committing more serious
    acts of deviance are typically punished, either
    informally or formally.
  • Informal punishment is mild.
  • Formal punishment results from people breaking
    laws.

4
Classifying Deviance John Hagan
  • Three dimensions
  • Severity of the social response.
  • Perceived harmfulness of the act.
  • Degree of public agreement about whether an act
    should be considered deviant.

5
Hagan Types of Deviance
  • Social diversions are minor, harmless acts.
  • Social deviations are more serious, somewhat
    harmful acts.
  • Conflict crimes are deviant acts defined by the
    state as illegal, but the definition is
    controversial in the wider society.
  • Consensus crimes are widely recognized to be bad
    in themselves.

6
Crimes against Women
  • Until recently, many types of crimes against
    women including rape were largely ignored in
    the US and most other parts of the world.
  • Today the situation has improved.
  • This change has come partly because womens
    position in the economy, the family, and other
    social institutions has improved over the past
    half century.

7
White-Collar Crime
  • White-Collar Crime An illegal act committed by a
    respectable, high-status person in the course of
    work.
  • White-collar crime is underreported,
    underdetected, undeprosecuted, and underconvicted
    because it is the crime of the powerful and the
    well-to-do.

8
Crime Rates
  • Every hour during 2006
  • 2 murders, 11 rapes, 50 robberies, 98 aggravated
    assaults, 136 motor vehicle thefts, 249
    burglaries, and 750 larceny-thefts.
  • Between 1960 and 1992 in the US
  • 500 percent increase in the rate of violent
    crime.
  • 150 percent increase in major property crimes
    rate.

9
Violent Crime, US. Rate per 100,000 Population
10
Property Crime, US. Rate per 100,000 Population
11
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12
Explaining Deviance and Crime
  • Motivational theories identify the social factors
    that drive people to deviance and crime.
  • Constraint theories identify the social factors
    that impose deviance and crime (or conventional
    behavior) on people.

13
Learning the Deviant Role
  • Habitual deviant behavior is a learned process.
  • Howard S. Becker analyzed this learning process
    in a classic study of marijuana users where he
    found that his fellow musicians had to pass
    through a three-stage learning process before
    becoming a regular marijuana user.
  • Learning to smoke in a way that produces real
    effects.
  • Learning to recognize the effects and connect
    them with drug use.
  • Learning to enjoy the perceived sensations.

14
Durkheims Functional Approach (Motivational
Theory)
  • According to Durkheim, deviance gives people the
    opportunity to define what is moral and what is
    not.
  • Our reactions to deviance clarify moral
    boundaries, allowing us to draw the line between
    right and wrong.
  • This promotes the unity of society and
    encourages healthy social change.

15
Strain Theory Merton (Motivational Theory)
  • Argued that cultures often teach people to value
    material success.
  • However, societies do not provide enough
    legitimate opportunities for everyone to succeed.
  • Therefore, some people experience strain.
  • Most will adhere to social norms.
  • The rest adapt.

16
Subcultural Theory (Motivational Theory)
  • Argues that gangs are a collective adaptation to
    social conditions.
  • Distinct norms and values that reject the
    legitimate world crystallize in gangs.
  • Three features of criminal subcultures
  • Delinquent youths may turn to different types of
    crime.
  • Members justify their criminal activities.
  • Members are conformists to the norms of their own
    group.

17
Theory of Differential Association (Motivational
Theory)
  • A person learns to favor one adaptation over
    another as a result of life experiences or
    socialization.
  • Everyone is exposed to deviant and nondeviant
    values and behaviors as they grow up.
  • If you are exposed to more deviant than
    nondeviant experiences, chances are you will
    learn to become a deviant.

18
Labeling Theory (Constraint Theory)
  • Deviance results not so much from the actions of
    the deviant as from the response of others, who
    label the rule breaker a deviant.
  • These labels often become a self-fulfilling
    prophecy.

19
Control Theory (Constraint Theory)
  • The rewards of deviance and crime are many.
  • Nearly everyone would engage in deviance and
    crime if they could get away with it.

20
Conflict Theory (Constraint Theory)
  • The powerful impose deviant and criminal labels
    on less powerful members of society.
  • Meanwhile, they are usually able to use their
    money and influence to escape punishment for
    their own misdeeds.

21
The Medicalization of Deviance
  • The medicalization of deviance refers to the fact
    that medical definitions of deviant behavior are
    becoming more prevalent.
  • Today we respond to many deviant behaviors with a
    medical treatment.

22
The Medicalization of Deviance
23
The Spread of Mental Disorders
  • Many mental disorders have obvious organic
    causes, such as chemical imbalances in the brain.
  • Other disorders are unclear, having more social
    and political value in considering whether or not
    they should be considered a mental disorder.
  • As the number of mental disorders has grown, so
    has the proportion of Americans presumably
    affected by them.

24
Prisons
  • Prisons are agents of socialization.
  • New inmates often become more serious offenders
    as they adapt to the culture of the most
    hardened, long-term prisoners.

25
Goals of Incarceration
  • Rehabilitation - prisoners can be taught how to
    become productive citizens.
  • Deterrence - People will be less inclined to
    commit crimes if they know they are likely to
    serve long and unpleasant prison terms.
  • Revenge - Depriving criminals of their freedom is
    fair retribution for their acts.
  • Incapacitation - The chief function is to keep
    criminals out of society to ensure that they can
    do no more harm.

26
Moral Panic
  • Between the early 1970s and the present the U.S.
    was gripped by moral panic.
  • The government declared a war on drugs,
    imprisoning hundreds of thousands of nonviolent
    offenders.
  • Many states passed a law to put three-time
    violent offenders in prison for life.

27
Belief in Capital Punishment
28
Death Penalty
29
Capital Punishment
  • Whether capital punishment serves as a deterrent
    is questionable for 2 reasons
  • Murder is often committed in a rage, when the
    perpetrator is not thinking entirely rationally.
    In such cases the murderer is unlikely to coolly
    consider the costs and consequences of his or her
    actions.
  • If rational calculation of consequences does
    enter in to the picture, the perpetrator is
    likely to know that very few murders result in
    the death sentence.

30
Incarcerating Less serious Offenders
  • Most of the increase in the prison population
    over the past 20 years is because of the
    conviction of nonviolent criminals.
  • The main rationale for imprisoning these
    offenders is that incarceration presumably deters
    them from repeating their offense.
  • Data shows a weak relationship between
    imprisonment and the crime rate.
  • Prison teaches inmates to behave more violently.

31
Rehabilitation and Reintegration
  • Evidence suggests that institutions designed to
    rehabilitate and reintegrate prisoners into
    society can work, especially for less serious
    offenders.
  • A cost-effective and workable alternative may
    exist, but it is not likely to be tried anytime
    soon because of the current climate of public
    opinion.

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