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Unification of Italy


Title: PresentationExpress Author: Helene Avraham Last modified by: Aaron Lynch Created Date: 6/11/2008 8:35:12 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unification of Italy

Unification of Italy
  • List the key obstacles to Italian unity.
  • Understand the roles Count Camillo Cavour and
    Giuseppe Garibaldi played in the struggle for
  • Describe the challenges that faced the new nation
    of Italy.

Terms and People
  • Camillo Cavour a politician who worked to unify
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi a nationalist military
    leader who worked with Cavour to create an
    unified Italy
  • anarchist person who wants to abolish all
  • emigration movement away from ones homeland

How did influential leaders help to create a
unified Italy?
Italy had not experienced political unity since
Roman times. That changed in the 1800s, however,
when leaders such as Giuseppe Mazzini and Count
Camillo Cavour worked to build a united state.
Napoleons invasions stirred Italian nationalism
in the early 1800s, but there were many obstacles
to unity.
  • Despite a common language, people identified
    mainly with their local regions due to frequent
    foreign rule.
  • At the Congress of Vienna, Italy was partitioned
    by Austria, the Hapsburg monarchs, and others.
  • Nationalist revolts were continually crushed by

Giuseppe Mazzini, a nationalist leader, founded
Young Italy in the 1830s.
  • It was a secret society whose goal was to
    establish a united Italy.
  • Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in
    Rome in 1849, but French forces soon toppled it.
  • Still, the ideas of nationalists such as Mazzini
    soon spread.

Victor Emmanuel II, the monarch of Sardinia,
wanted to join other states to his own and
increase his power.
Cavour was a skilled politician who reformed
Sardinias economy His ultimate goal was to
drive Austria out of Italy and annex more
He made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister
in 1852.
Sardinia helped Britain and France fight Russia
in the Crimean War.
With Sardinia in control of northern Italy,
Cavour next turned his attention southward.
In southern Italy, Giuseppe Garibaldi led a
volunteer force of 1,000 Red Shirts.
  • Garibaldi was a nationalist and ally of Mazzini.
  • Using weapons and ships supplied by Cavour, the
    Red Shirts won control of Sicily and marched
    toward Naples.

Cavour feared Garibaldi would set up his own
republic in the southern part of Italy.
  • However, when Victor Emmanuel sent Sardinian
    forces to confront Garibaldi, he turned over
    Naples and Sicily. Victor Emmanuel II was crowned
    king of Italy in 1861.
  • Italy won the province of Venetia during the
    Austro-Prussian War and won Rome during the
    Franco-Prussian War. It was finally a united

Italy became a unified state between 1858 and
  • Regional rivalries and differences made it hard
    to solve problems.
  • The north was rich and had a tradition of
    business and culture, whereas the south was rural
    and poor.
  • Popes resented seizure of the Papal States and
    urged Italian Catholics not to cooperate with
    the new government.

Italy faced many problems once it was unified.
Under Victor Emmanuel, Italy became a
constitutional monarchy.
  • Italy had a two-house legislature.
  • The lower house was elected, but only a small
    number of men had the right to vote.
  • The king appointed members to the upperhouse,
    which could veto laws passed by the lower house.

Turmoil broke out in the late 1800s as the left
struggled against a conservative Italian
Socialists organized strikes and anarchists
turned to violence.
Italy developed economically, particularly after
  • Industries developed in northern regions and
    people moved to cities.
  • Though a population explosion created tensions,
    many people chose to emigrate, which calmed
    things at home.
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