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World War I: On the Homefront

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Title: World War I: On the Homefront


1
World War I -- America on the Homefront "The
Poster War"
How to fight a war with words, pictures, and
symbols
2
War Mobilization
3
1. Enlistment
4
The Most Famous Recruitment Poster
5
Uncle SamHe the Man!
6
Dont Mess with the U. S.
7
Huns Kill Women and Children!
8
The Little Soldier
9
World War I American Anthem
10
Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your
gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the
run, Hear them calling you and me, Every son of
liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go
today, Make your daddy glad to have had such
a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be
proud her boy's in line.
11
Over there, over there Send the word, send the
word over there That the Yanks are coming,
the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming
everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the
word, send the word to beware We'll be over,
we're coming over, And we won't come back till
it's over, over there!
12
Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your
gun, Johnnie show the Hun you're a son of a
gun, Hoist the flag and let her fly, Yankee
Doodle do or die. Pack your little kit, show your
grit, do your bit, Yankees to the ranks from
the towns and the tanks, Make your momma
proud of you And the old Red White and Blue.
13
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14
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15
The Spirit of 76
16
Over there, over there Send the word, send the
word over there That the Yanks are coming, the
Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming
everywhere So prepare, say a prayer Send the
word, send the word to beware
We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't
come back till it's over, over there!
17
(No Transcript)
18
1917 Selective Service Act
  • 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the
    end of 1918.
  • 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw
    active combat).
  • 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated
    units.
  • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts,
    messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

19
2. Expansion of the Federal Government
20
Council of National Defense
  • War Industries Board Bernard Baruch
  • Food Administration Herbert Hoover
  • Railroad Administration William McAdoo
  • National War Labor Board W. H.Taft
    Frank P. Walsh

21
U. S. Food Administration
22
U. S. Food Administration
23
U. S. Food Administration
24
National War Garden Commission
25
U. S. School Garden Army
26
U. S. Shipping Board
27
U. S. Fuel Administration
28
U. S. Fuel Administration
29
Results of This New Organization of the Economy?
  1. Unemployment virtually disappeared.
  2. Expansion of big government.
  3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.
  4. Some gross mismanagement ? overlapping
    jurisdictions.
  5. Close cooperation between public and private
    sectors.
  6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged
    groups.

30
New Social/Economic Opportunities
31
1. Women
32
YWCA The Blue Triangle
33
Munitions Work
34
The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!
35
Women Used In Recruitment
Hello, Big Boy!
36
Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds
37
The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
38
The Red Cross Nurse
39
National League for Womans Service
40
2. African-Americans
41
Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
  • Great Migration. 1916 1919 ? 70,000
  • War industries work.
  • Enlistment in segregated units.

42
True Sons of Freedom
43
For Colored Men in Service
44
African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for
France
45
Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in
Chicago, 1919
46
3. New American Immigrants
47
The Flag of Liberty Represents All of Us!
48
We are ALL Americans!
49
United War Work Campaign
50
American Committee for Relief in the Near East
51
Wartime Propaganda
52
The Committee of Public Information (George Creel)
  • Americas Propaganda Minister?
  • Anti-Germanism.
  • Selling American Culture.

53
Remember Belgium
54
The Mad Brute
55
Beat Back the Hun
56
The Menace of the Seas
57
Creel Commission Film
58
Attacks on Civil Liberties
59
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
1. Espionage Act 1917 - forbade actions
that obstructed recruitment or
efforts to promote insubordination in the
military. - ordered the Postmaster General
to remove Leftist materials from the
mail. - fines of up to 10,000 and/or
up to 20 years in prison.
60
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
2. Sedition Act 1918 - it was a crime to
speak against the purchase of war bonds or
willfully utter, print, write or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language about this form of US Govt., the US
Constitution, or the US armed forces or to
willfully urge, incite, or advocate any
curtailment of production of things
necessary or essential to the prosecution of
the warwith intent of such curtailment to
cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution
of the war.
61
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
3. Schenck v. US 1919 - in ordinary times the
mailing of the leaflets would have been
protected by the 1st Amendment. - BUT,
every act of speech must be judged acc. to
the circumstances in which it was spoken.
-The most stringent protection of free
speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a
panic. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes - If an
act of speech posed a clear and present
danger, then Congress had the power to
restrain such speech.
62
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
4. Abrams v. US 1919 - majority ruling --gt
cited Holmes Clear and present danger
doctrine. - Holmes Brandeis dissented
The best test of truth is the power of
the thought to get itself accepted in
the competition of the market, denying
that a silly leaflet published by an
unknown man constituted such a
danger.
63
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
  • 5. Post-war labor unrest
  • Coal Miners Strike of 1919.
  • Steel Strike of 1919.
  • Boston Police Strike of 1919.

64
Anti-Labor
If Capital Labor Dont Pull Together
Chicago Tribune
65
Consequences of Labor Unrest
While We Rock the Boat Washington Times
66
Coal Miners Strike - 1919
Keeping Warm Los Angeles Times
67
Steel Strike - 1919
Coming Out of the Smoke New York World
68
The Red Scare
What a Year Has Brought Forth NY World
69
Red Scare -- Anti-Bolshevism
Put Them Out Keep Them Out Philadelphia
Inquirer
70
Boston Police Strike - 1919
He gives aid comfort to the enemies of
society Chicago Tribune
71
Boston Police Strike - 1919
Striking Back New York Evening World
72
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
6. The Red Scare
  • 1919 - 3rd. International goal --gt promote
    worldwide communism.
  • Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case
    Against the Reds)
  • Palmer Raids - 1920

73
Congressman Victor Berger (WI)
You got nothing out of the war except the flu and
Prohibition.
74
Red Scare Palmer Raids
Police Arrest Suspected Reds in Chicago, 1920
75
Red Scare Palmer Raids
A. Mitchell Palmers Home Bombed, 1920
76
The 1920 Election
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