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History of Forensic Science

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Title: History of Forensic Science


1
History of Forensic Science
2
Ancient Rome
  • Forensic derived from the Latin word forensis
    which means forum
  • Accused and Accuser argued their cases before a
    chosen group of people
  • The individual with the best argument and
    delivery (in other words, the best forensic
    skills) won!

3
Archimedes (287-212 BCE)
  • Archimedes used water displacement and proved
    that the Kings crown was not made of solid gold
    by its density and bouyancy.
  • This Eureka moment is considered to be the
    earliest account of forensic science.

4
Neros Wife (66 CE)
  • In 66 CE Nero murdered his wife and his mistress
    identified the wifes head by the two discolored
    front teeth. This is the first account of
    forensic odontology.

5
3rd Century China- An Early Forensic Investigation
  • A woman claimed that her husband died in an
    accidental fire. The local death investigator
    noticed that the husbands corpse did not have
    ashes in its mouth. In order to verify the
    womans story he burned two pigs-one alive and
    one dead. He then checked the mouths of each pig
    for ashes. The pig that was burned alive had
    ashes in its mouth, but the other pig did not.
    This proved that the man was dead before he was
    burned. When confronted with the evidence, the
    woman confessed to the murder.

6
Fingerprints
  • Soleiman, an Arabic merchant of the 7th century
    used fingerprints as a proof of validity between
    debtors and lenders.

7
The crowners job was created in 1149 by King
Richard I to determine how much an estate owed to
the crown. Later the crowner was called upon to
investigate questionable deaths. The title of
crowner eventually evolved into coroner.
8
Entomology
  • 12th century China- A case of a person murdered
    by a sickle was solved when the death
    investigator instructed everyone in the town to
    bring their sickles to one location and .

9
Entomology (cont)
  • flies, attracted by the smell of blood,
    eventually gathered on a single sickle. In light
    of this, the murderer confessed.

10
Watch of London and Old Charleys
  • The first police were appointed by Henry III in
    1253. They worked only at night. They were known
    as the Watch of London.
  • Later, they became known as Old Charleys and were
    paid by the residents they served.

11
Autopsy
  • The word "autopsy" comes from the Greek words
    "auto" and "opsis", and it literally means "to
    see for oneself".
  • The first known legal autopsy was ordered by a
    magistrate in Bologna in 1302.
  • To understand the human anatomy better, and to
    improve their skills, the artists Leonardo da
    Vinci and Michelangelo each performed autopsies.
  • The autopsy really became significant in 1761,
    when Giovanni Morganni published his great work
    On the Seats and Causes of Diseases as
    Investigated by Anatomy.

12
Richard Hunne and Blood as Evidence
  • 1511- Hunne questioned the use of ecclesiastical
    law vs. civil law.
  • He was imprisoned for heresy.
  • When he was found dead in his cell, the prison
    claimed that he had committed suicide. However,
    blood evidence proved that he had been murdered.

13
Colonial America (1609-1664)
  • The Night or Rattle Watch was initially created
    to watch for fires, but eventually began to watch
    for criminal activity also.
  • Members carried wooden rattles to alert the
    people if a fire or crime was occurring.

14
1670 Anton Van LeeuwenhoekConstructs a simple
microscope that he presents to The Royal Society
15
Why was this important?
  • The development of increasingly more powerful
    microscopes paved the way for the study of
    Microscopy which has become essential in the
    field of Forensicswhat uses can you think
    ofwhat investigations would utilize this
    technology?

16
1776 Colonial America
The body of General Warren was disinterred from
a mass grave and identified by Paul Revere.
Revere recognized the false teeth that he had
made for the General.
17
First Documented Use of Physical Evidence
  • In 1784, an Englishman was convicted of murder.
  • A torn piece of newspaper that was retrieved
    from the victims head wound matched a piece in
    the Englishmans pocket.

18
Europes Industrial Revolution (18th Century)
  • The populations of the towns increased and so did
    the crime rate.
  • Thief catchers were recruited. These were
    criminals that agreed to implicate their
    accomplices for money or social status. Thus the
    phrase set a thief to catch a thief.

19
The Bow Street Runners of London
  • Henry Fielding, a resident of Bow Street,
    developed the first investigative team in the
    1750s.
  • The Bow Street Runners earned a commission from
    the stolen goods that they recovered.
  • In 1792, an Act of Parliament allowed the runners
    to help outside the London jurisdiction. This
    established the model for Scotland Yard.

20
Paris, France-1810
  • The first detective force, the Surete, is
    established.

21
Mathiew Orfila
  • Orfila is known as the Father of Toxicology
  • He published a book on poisoning in 1813.

22
The Texas Rangers
  • Established in 1823 by Stephen Austin to protect
    the settlers in Texas.
  • They are the oldest law enforcement agency in
    North America.

23
"They were men who could not be stampeded."
Colonel Garrison
24
London Metropolitan Police Force 1829
  • This agency was founded by Sir Robert Peel.
  • They were nicknamed bobbies.
  • They were the first full-time police force to
    have minimum weight and height requirements with
    standards for literacy and competency.

25
The bobbies
26
The Marsh Test
  • Arsenic, also known as inheritance powder, was a
    popular method of murder among royalty.
  • In 1836 Marsh developed a chemical test to detect
    arsenic.
  • In 1840 the test was used to convict Marie
    Lafarge of poisoning her husband.

27
America- Middle of the 19th Century
  • First professional police forces
  • Boston in 1837
  • New York in 1844
  • Philadelphia in 1857
  • All major cities by 1870s

28
The Pinkerton Agency
  • In 1850, Allan Pinkerton established Pinkertons
    National Detective Agency.
  • They were asked by local police to help in
    investigations.
  • They created a Rogues Gallery- a compilation of
    descriptions, methods of operation, hiding
    places, and associates for known criminals. This
    was the precursor to mugshots and Most Wanted
    Lists.
  • Pinkerton gained national fame when he uncovered
    a plot to kill Lincoln in 1861. He subsequently
    became the head of Secret Services during the
    civil war.

29
Pinkertons private eye Logo
30
William Herschel- 1856
Herschel, working in India, uses thumbprints on
documents to identify workers.
31
The Secret Service
  • The Secret Service was created on July 5, 1865 in
    Washington, D.C., to suppress counterfeit
    currency.
  • Two years later, the Secret Service
    responsibilities were broadened to include
    "detecting persons perpetrating frauds against
    the government."
  • In 1894, the Secret Service began part-time
    protection of President Cleveland.
  • In 1902, one year after the assassination of
    President McKinley, the Secret Service began to
    protect the President on a full-time basis.

32
The Main Duties of the Secret Service
33
Alphonse Bertillon
  • In 1879 Bertillon develops a system to identify
    people using measurements.
  • He named the system anthropometry.
  • For two decades, this system was considered full
    proof.

34
TheRequired Measurementsof
theBertillonSystem
35
Forensics in Literature
  • 1887- A Study in Scarlet was the first Holmes
    story.
  • It was published in Beetons Christmas Annual.
  • In 2007, a copy of Beetons sold at auction for
    156,000
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was a physician that had
    an unsuccessful practice.
  • He used his role model Professor Bell as a
    template for Sherlock Holmes. Bell had excellent
    deductive reasoning skills.

36
Sherlock Holmes
  • Holmes eventually starred in 60 works (4 novels
    and 56 short stories)
  • The character lived at 221B Baker Street. This
    was a fictional address, but so many readers
    tried to find Holmes residence that England
    created a 221B Baker Street.
  • Holmes arch enemy was Professor Moriarty.
  • Doyle killed off the character of Holmes in 1893.
    The outrage was so great that Doyle was forced to
    bring him back.

37
A Letter from a Fan
38
1888 and the Kodak Camera
  • George Eastman invents the first hand-held
    camera. He names the brand Kodak and sells it for
    25.00.

39
1892- Francis Galton
  • Galton, a nephew of Charles Darwin, was the first
    to state that fingerprints are unique to each
    person.
  • His suggestion to use fingerprints for
    identification was not taken seriously until the
    Bertillon System failed.

40
1900- Scotland Yard
  • In 1900, Scotland Yard replaced the Bertillon
    System with a fingerprint identification system.
  • The Metropolitan Police's crime database is
    housed at New Scotland Yard. The system is called
    Home Office Large Major Enquiry System, more
    commonly referred to by its acronym, HOLMES. The
    training program is called "Elementary", after
    Holmes's well-known phrase "elementary, my dear
    Watson".

41
Karl Landsteiner
  • In 1900, Landsteiner identifies human blood
    groups.
  • He will receive the Nobel Prize in 1930 for this
    discovery.

42
The West Case
  • In 1903, Will West was arrested and taken to Fort
    Leavenworth prison. His measurements were taken
    using the Bertillon system and it was soon
    discovered that they matched another inmate,
    William West. Will and William were identical
    twins, but their fingerprints were different.
    This case marked the end of the Bertillon System
    and all subsequent identification was done using
    fingerprints.

43
The Locard Principle
  • In 1904, Edmond Locard established the principle
    that every contact leaves a trace.
  • This is also called the exchange principle.

44
The FBI
  • In 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt established
    the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

45
The First Crime Lab in the World
  • In 1910, the first crime laboratory was opened by
    Locard.
  • The lab was located in France.

46
Soil as Evidence
  • In 1910, George Popp uses soil evidence to solve
    a murder case.
  • Other botanicals were also used to strengthen the
    case.

47
1923 Developments
  • The first police lab is created in the United
    States. The lab is located in Los Angeles.
  • Frye vs. The United States established the
    concept of general acceptance for evidence
    presented in court.
  • Francis Aston receives the Nobel Prize for the
    development of the mass spectrometer.

48
Calvin Goddard
  • In 1925, Calvin Goddard wrote a paper about the
    use of a comparison microscope in ballistic
    investigation.
  • He later worked with the police to determine that
    the St. Valentines Day Massacre was the work of
    Al Capones gang. He was able to match the
    bullets to their Tommy guns.

49
FBI Crime Laboratory
  • The FBI opened its first national crime lab in
    1932. The lab offered services to all law
    enforcement agencies in the country.
  • The lab was located in Washington, D.C. and
    performed 963 examinations during its first year
    of existence.

50
The 1950s
  • In 1954, Borkenstein invents the Breathalyzer for
    field sobriety testing.
  • Forensic anthropology is formed when growth
    stages of skeletal bones is discovered.
  • In 1959, Watson and Crick discover that DNA has a
    double-helix shape.

51
Developments in the 1970s
  • Japan discovers that Superglue fumes will develop
    fingerprints.
  • The FBI creates a fingerprint database.
  • Psychological profiling begins.
  • Bite mark evidence convicts the serial killer Ted
    Bundy.

52
DNA Fingerprinting
  • In 1984, Alec Jefferies discovers that everyone,
    except identical twins, has unique DNA
  • In 1987, DNA fingerprinting is used to convict
    Colin Pitchfork of murder.
  • In 1998, an FBI DNA database is created.

53
Richard Saferstein discusses the history of CSI
  • Listen to the author of your textbook discuss the
    history of CSI.
  • http//www.videojug.com/interview/early-history-of
    -csi-2

54
The Future of Forensic Science
  • The field of Forensic Science is constantly
    changing as new technologies are discovered.
  • The fascination with CSI is just getting started!
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