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Calvinism and Counter Reformation

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In what state was the Catholic Church after the Council of Trent? * * Title: Calvinism and Counter Reformation Author: Casey Simmons Last modified by: Casey Simmons – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Calvinism and Counter Reformation


1
Calvinism and Counter Reformation
  • Mr. Simmons
  • World History

2
Huldrych Zwingli
  • Christian unity was lost forever with the Peace
    of Augsburg
  • Zwingli started new group in Switzerland.
  • -forbid relics and images forbidden
  • -scripture reading, prayer, sermons
  • Zwingli was killed in war between Protestants and
    Catholics in Switzerland.
  • John Calvin assumed leadership

3
John Calvin
  • Emphasis on power, grace, and glory of God.
  • Idea of predestination
  • -elect those who were predetermined
  • by God to be saved.
  • -reprobate those who
  • were doomed
  • Idea led to new religion
  • of Calvinism
  • Reforms in city of Geneva
  • Replaced Lutheranism as most powerful protestant
    faith

4
Question
  • What is predestination and how do you feel about
    this idea?

5
English Reformation
  • Scandal/Politics brought about English
    Reformation.
  • Henry VIII and wife Catherine failed to produce
    male heir.
  • Pope denied Henry annulment of marriage. Henry
    would receive annulment from English church
    courts.
  • Henry would marry Ann Boleyn (later Queen
    Elizabeth I)

6
English Reformation (cont)
  • 1534 Henry requested Parliament to break English
    Catholic Church away from Pope in Rome.
  • Act of Supremacy (1534) stated that King was
    supreme ruler of the Church of England (The
    Anglican Church)
  • Thomas More objected to the Act and
  • was beheaded.
  • Edward VI succeeded Henry and moved
  • the church in a more Protestant path.
  • (clergy could marry, service direction, etc.)

7
English Reformation (cont)
  • Henrys daughter Mary would gain crown in 1553.
  • Return of England to Catholicism.
  • Brutal persecution of Protestants. (burned over
    300 protestants at the stake who were charged
    with heresy)
  • Earned name of Bloody Mary
  • Opposite effect on the people by the
  • end of her reign England was more
  • Protestant than ever.

8
Anabaptists
  • Rejected role of state in church affairs.
  • Considered to be radicals by most Protestants and
    Catholics.
  • Believed in the rebaptism of person after
    spiritual rebirth as adults. (separated them from
    both Protestants and Catholics who baptized
    infants)
  • Any member of community could be minister because
    all Christians are priest.
  • Belief in complete separation of church and state
    (they would not hold office, bear arms, or kill)
  • Protestants and Catholics persecuted Anabaptist
  • Mennonites and Amish are examples of Anabaptist.

9
Question
  • Is it right for the American Government to allow
    Amish and Mennonites to forgo military service
    since it is against there religion to fight?

10
Protestant view of Family
  • Rejected idea of special holiness of celibacy
  • Focus on mutual love between man and wife.
  • However womens role was defined as bearing
    children.
  • Women after the reformation were still considered
    subordinates in society.

11
Question
  • Did women gain any rights due to the reformation?

12
The Catholic Reformation
  • In mid 1500s the church future looked grim but it
    was revitalized because of three reasons the
    Jesuits, reforms of papacy, and the Council of
    Trent.

13
Jesuits
  • Ignatius of Loyola founded the society of Jesus,
    or the Jesuits.
  • Recognized by the pope in 1540.
  • Took special vow of obedience to the pope.
  • Goal was to restore Catholicism to Eastern Europe
    and Germany and spread it around the world.
    (achieved through education)

14
Question?
  • What would we call the Jesuits today?

15
Papal Reforms
  • Pope Paul III saw need to reform papacy.
  • Appointed reform commission in 1537 to determine
    what was wrong within the papacy.
  • Commission findings were the papacy used corrupt
    policies in order to strengthen personal needs.
  • Pope Paul also convened the Council of Trent

16
Council of Trent
  • Convened in 1545, council met off and on for 18
    years.
  • Final decrees reaffirmed traditional Catholic
    teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs.
    (both faith and works were needed for salvation)
  • -upheld seven sacraments
  • -upheld Communion (Eucharist)
  • -upheld view of clerical celibacy
  • -belief in purgatory and indulgences
  • was upheld (selling indulgences was forbidden)

17
Questions?
  • What is Purgatory?
  • In what state was the Catholic Church after the
    Council of Trent?
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