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Andrew Jackson

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Title: Andrew Jackson Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Grapevine-Colleyville ISD Created Date: 7/1/2005 1:51:51 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Andrew Jackson


1
Andrew Jackson 1767 - 1845
Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the
guardians of the US Constitution, political
democracy, individual liberty, and equality of
economic opportunity. Use your knowledge of the
1820s and 1830s to explain the extent to which
you agree with the Jacksonians view of
themselves.
King Andrew?
2
What were the democratic trends in the 19c?
3
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
4
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
5
Why Increased Democratization?
  • White male suffrage increased new states
    introduce universal male suffrage. RI Dorr
    Rebellion (1842)
  • Party nominating committees.
  • Voters chose their states slate of Presidential
    electors.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs
    (1832) ? Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

6
Jackson's Early Life
7
Jacksons First Hermitage Residence
8
First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815
9
General Jackson During the Seminole Wars (1817)
Wars would not end until 1842
10
Jackson's First Presidential Run
11
The Common Mans Presidential Candidate
12
Jacksons Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay KY
John Quincy Adams MA
John C. Calhoun SC
William H. Crawford GA
13
Results of the 1824 Election
A Corrupt Bargain?
14
Accomplishments of John Quincy Adams
  • Senate voted against Embargo of 1807
  • Secretary of State
  • Treaty of Ghent (1814)
  • Adams-Onis Treaty 1819, Spain ceded Florida,
    the US gave up Texas. (Seminole War)
  • Monroe Doctrine (1823)

15
Accomplishments of John Quincy Adams
  • President 6 1825-29
  • House of Representatives 8 terms
  • Defense attorney in Amistad Slave Revolt Case
    1841
  • Had gag rule repealed could not discuss
    slavery in Senate

16
Beliefs of John Quincy Adams
  • Second Bank of US
  • Opposed annexation of Texas (anti-slavery)
  • Nationalist (American System public University,
    weather stations)
  • Sympathized with Indians

17
What were the key issues in 1828?
18
Rachel Jackson
Final Divorce Decree
19
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
20
1828 Election Results
21
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • State Politicians spoils system Turn the
    rascals out, put our rascals in.
  • Immigrants in the cities.

22
Jacksons Faith in the Common Man
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

23
The Reign of King Mob The Inaugural Brawl!
24
Andrew Jackson as President
25
The Peggy Eaton Affair
Eaton was the wife of Sec. of War and other wives
thought she was an adulteress, so they refused to
sit with her at dinner. Jackson demanded, and
the cabinet resigned, Calhoun then fell out of
favor with Jackson. Van Buren befriended Eaton
and thus Jackson chose Van Buren to succeed him
as president.
26
The Tariff Issue
27
1832 Tariff Conflict
  • 1828 --gt Tariff of Abomination
  • South Carolinas reaction? - Nullification
  • Jacksons response? Force Bill
  • Clays Compromise Tariff? Gradual reduction
    (1832-42)

28
The Nullification Issue
29
The Nullies v Jackson
  • John C Calhoun (VP Under Adams and Jackson) wrote
    South Carolina Exposition (1828)
  • Concurrent Majority a federal law that is
    harmful to states can be declared null and void
    via a convention of the people.
  • Jacksons Response Threatened military force
    and Force Bill

What steps were taken to avoid a military
conflict?
30
Jackson's Native-American Policy
31
Jackson and The Native Americans
  • 1828 The Cherokee Tribes of Georgia wrote and
    adopted a constitution with 3 branch government.
  • Georgia declared the Cherokee Assembly illegal
    (SC ruled in favor of Indians)
  • Cherokee Nation v Georgia state has no
    authority in tribal legislation
  • Worcester v Georgia same ruling by John
    Marshall
  • Jacksons Response
  • John Marshall had made his decision, now let him
    enforce it.

How does this quote from Jackson show his
increasing strength as President?
32
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
33
Indian Removal
34
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
35
Indian Removal Act of 1830
  • 100,000 Indians moved from east of Mississippi
  • 1832 Black Hawk War
  • 1835-42 Osceola and Florida Seminoles
  • 1838-39 Trail of Tears 15,000 Cherokees, 116
    days 4,000 deaths (25)
  • 100 million acres given up
  • 68 million paid out, 32 million acres in West

36
Jacksons Professed Love for Native Americans
37
Jacksonians on States Rights
  • Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)
  • States, not federal government, had power to
    enter into contracts regarding infrastructure,
    transportation.
  • Maysville Road Veto - I am not able to view the
    Maysville Road Bill in any other light than as a
    measure of purely local character.... It has no
    connection with any established system of
    improvements and is exclusively within the
    limits of a State Kentucky....

38
Jacksons Use of Federal Power
VETO
1830 ? Maysville Road project in KY
state of his political rival, Henry
Clay
39
Renewing the Charter of the 1st National Bank
40
The National Bank Debate
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle
41
The Hydra of Corruption The Bank Wars
  • Nicholas Biddle President of Bank of US
  • Functions print stable currency, keep federal
    money, control gold and silver, source of credit
  • 1832 Clay and Webster wanted to use the renewal
    of the charter to embarrass the President if he
    passed the charter he would anger his followers,
    if he vetoed it the wealthy would be upset.
  • How did the veto increase the power of President?

42
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
Soft (paper)
Hard (specie)
  • state bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • suspicious of expansion speculation.

43
The Moneyed Monster The Bank War
  • 1833 Jackson removed most Federal money from Bank
    of US
  • Effect Panic of 1837 What did Biddle have to
    do?
  • Pet Banks
  • Specie Circular US Treasury required all new
    land purchased be secured with gold or silver.
    (1836)

44
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • pet banks?
  • 1832 ? Jackson vetoed the extension of
    the 2nd National Bank of the
    United States.
  • 1836 ? the charter expired.
  • 1841 ? the bank went bankrupt!

45
The Downfall of Mother Bank
46
Hydra of Corruption
47
An 1832 Cartoon King Andrew?
48
1832 Election Results
Main Issue?
49
The Specie Circular (1836)
  • wildcat banks.
  • buy future federal land only with gold or silver.
  • Jacksons goal?

50
Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes lose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!
51
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
52
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
53
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
his death)
1767 - 1845
54
The Era of the Common Man
  • Social mixture
  • Universal Male Suffrage
  • Popular Campaigning
  • Increased Power of President (through veto)
  • Kitchen Cabinet
  • Roger Taney in Supreme Court
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