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Chapter 10 - Air-Sea Interaction

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The Solar Connection The Coriolis Effect The Winds Chapter Topic Menu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 - Air-Sea Interaction


1
  • Choose to view chapter section with a click on
    the section heading.
  • The Solar Connection
  • The Coriolis Effect
  • The Winds

Chapter Topic Menu
2
The Solar Connection
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-14
3
Air and Sun
  • Life gets almost all its energy from the sun.
  • It turns out that solar energy does more than
    provide energy for life on Earth.
  • It drives the wind, and it drives currents in the
    ocean.
  • The Earths surface is heated by sunlight.
  • The sun not only powers life, but also provides
    the temperature conditions necessary for life.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
4
Air and Sun
  • What is air? Its the mixture of gases that
    surrounds us.
  • Air consists of approximately 78 nitrogen.
  • The breakdown, on average, of clean dry air is
    approximately
  • Nitrogen 78.08
  • Oxygen 20.95
  • Argon 0.93
  • Carbon dioxide 0.03
  • All other gases 0.01

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
5
Air and Sun
This is the composition of the Troposphere
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
6
Air and Sun
  • Air is a mixture of gases that surround us.
  • The four layers of the atmosphere include
  • Troposphere the lowest layer. This one
    concerns us most 15,000 meters (49,200 feet)
  • Stratosphere - continues to about 50,000 meters
    (164,200 feet).
  • Mesosphere - extends to about 90,000 meters
    (295,200 feet).
  • Thermosphere the top layer which goes out into
    space beyond 110,000 meters (360,800 feet)

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
7
Air and Sun
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
8
Air and Sun
  • Air compresses under its own weight.
  • So, while the atmosphere extends more than 100
    kilometers (approximately 70 miles) above sea
    level, most of the mass of the atmosphere exists
    close to Earth in the troposphere and the
    stratosphere.
  • The effects that concern our study (air quality,
    weather, and air-sea interactions) take place in
    these layers.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
9
Air and Sun
  • Besides its gaseous components, the atmosphere
    has two other components that account for about
    4 of its total volume.
  • These are water vapor and aerosols. Aerosols are
    liquid and solid particles suspended in the air,
    such as dust, pollen, or ash.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
10
Air and Sun
  • The amount of water vapor in the air relates to
    air temperature, density,and pressure.
  • As temperature rises, air pressure increases, and
    density decreases.
  • Adding water vapor decreases the density even
    more.
  • Warm air is less dense than cool air.
  • Two air masses of the same temperature can have
    different densities depending on the amount of
    water vapor. These differences cause
    precipitation.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
11
Air and Sun
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
Weather Fronts
12
Air and Sun
  • When saturated or nearly saturated air cools, its
    molecules vibrate more slowly. When water vapor
    molecules slow down enough, they condense into
    liquid water droplets, or into ice crystals when
    the temperature is sufficiently cold. Initially
    these droplets or crystals are very small and
    tend to remain suspended.
  • However, they can collide and form bigger drops
    or clusters of crystals that fall as rain or
    snow, and you get out your umbrella or boots.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
13
Air and Sun
  • A lot of air cooling occurs where a warm,
    moisture-laden air mass collides with a cooler
    air mass.
  • Rain or snow falls where the two masses meet
    because thats where the cold air chills the warm
    air, causing rain or snow to form.
  • When you hear meteorologists talk about a weather
    front, theyre referring to the place where two
    air masses meet.
  • Rain and snow can also occur when warm moist
    ocean air travels over comparatively cool land.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
14
Air and Sun
  • From a marine science perspective, this is an
    important process for two reasons
  • One is that these movements redistribute heat
    around the Earth.
  • A second is that precipitation is our primary
    source of fresh water. Ultimately, all aquifers
    (underground water), rivers, and lakes get their
    fresh water from rain or snow. This is the part
    of the hydrologic cycle that returns water from
    the sea back to land, giving it the potential to
    carry essential nutrients (including organic
    nitrogen) into the ocean.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-3 to 10-8
15
The Earths Heat Balance
  • About 50 of all the sunlight that reaches the
    atmosphere makes it to Earths surface.
  • To maintain balance with the heat from the sun,
    all the energy absorbed reradiates through
    various paths back into space as infrared
    radiation.
  • If this process were imbalanced with more heat
    coming in than leaving, the Earth would grow
    hotter and hotter until life perished.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-8 to 10-9
16
The Earths Heat Balance
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-8 to 10-9
17
Uneven Heating
  • Factors that cause the Earth to heat unevenly
  • The Earth is round, the Earths axis is tilted,
    and the Earths orbit is elliptical hence the
    distance between the Earth and sun varies with
    time of year.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
18
Uneven Heating
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
Angle of Incidence
19
Uneven Heating
Seasonal Changes
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
20
Uneven Heating
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
Elliptical Orbit and Heating
21
Uneven Heating
  • Uneven heating causes weather in part due to
    convection.
  • Convection is vertical circular currents caused
    by temperature differences in a fluid such as
    air. Warm air becomes less dense and rises. Cool
    dense air comes in to replace it, which in turn
    warms and rises. This creates a circular airflow
    pattern.

The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
22
Uneven Heating
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
Convection
23
Uneven Heating
Idealized Convection Flow
The Solar Connection
Chapter 10 Pages 10-10 to 10-14
24
The Coriolis Effect
The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Pages 10-15 to 10-19
25
Deflection to the Right or Left
  • The Coriolis effect is the tendency for the path
    of a moving object to deflect to the right in the
    Northern Hemisphere and to deflect to the left in
    the Southern Hemisphere.

The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Page 10-15
26
The Earths Rotation
  • The Coriolis effect is caused by the Earths
    rotation relative to an object in motion over its
    surface.
  • Motion or lack of motion is relative to the
    place from which you observe it.
  • Standing on the equator relative to anyone on the
    Earth, youre motionless.
  • Someone at a fixed point in space would say
    youre moving. To that person, you are moving
    because the Earth is rotating.

The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Pages 10-16 to 10-18
27
The Earths Rotation
Relative Motion
The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Pages 10-16 to 10-18
28
The Earths Rotation
Apparent Deflection
The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Pages 10-16 to 10-18
29
The Earths Rotation
  • Major Ocean Gyres The Coriolis effect creates
    circular airflow and current patterns such as the
    major ocean gyres in the Northern Hemisphere to
    the right and in the Southern Hemisphere to the
    left.

The Coriolis Effect
Chapter 10 Pages 10-16 to 10-18
30
The Winds
The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-19 to 10-25
31
The Coriolis Effect and the Wind
  • The Coriolis effect deflects the air to the right
    in the Northern Hemisphere. This gives the air a
    circular flow pattern rather than a straight
    north-south pattern.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-19 to 10-21
Global circulation.
32
The Coriolis Effect and the Wind
  • Atmospheric circulation cells are six distinct
    air masses (three in each hemisphere) with
    individual air flow patterns.
  • Of the six cells, the most important are the
    Hadley cells. These lie between the equator and
    approximately 30 north or south latitude.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-19 to 10-21
33
The Coriolis Effect and the Wind
  • Trade winds are caused by air rising at the
    equator and moving northward.
  • The air becomes dense enough from cooling and
    moisture loss to sink. Most of the air descends
    and flows back toward the equator, deflecting
    westward as it flows.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-19 to 10-21
34
The Coriolis Effect and the Wind
  • Between 30 and 60 latitude are the Ferrel
    cells.
  • They exist because some of the wind that descends
    from the Hadley cells doesnt turn toward the
    equator.
  • Instead it continues on toward the poles shifting
    to the right (Northern Hemisphere) as it moves.
    This is what causes the Westerlies, getting
    this name because theyre from the west.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-19 to 10-21
35
Intertropical Convergence Zones and Atmospheric
Heat Engine
  • The geographic equator is 0 latitude.
  • The meteorological (ITCZ) equator is an imaginary
    line marking the temperature equilibrium between
    the hemispheres that shifts north and south of
    the geographic equator with seasonal changes.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-21 to 10-22
36
Intertropical Convergence Zones and Atmospheric
Heat Engine
  • The ITCZ equator is important because atmospheric
    and ocean circulation are approximately
    symmetrical on either side of it not at the
    geographic equator.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-21 to 10-22
37
Intertropical Convergence Zones and Atmospheric
Heat Engine
  • The Earths major deserts are found at 30
    latitude. Here the downward vertical airflow
    brings dry air to the Earths surface. This leads
    to areas with little rainfall and significant
    evaporation.
  • Where the ocean is alongside deserts, the
    combination of high evaporation and low rainfall
    makes the salinity of these waters higher than
    average.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-21 to 10-22
38
Intertropical Convergence Zones and Atmospheric
Heat Engine
The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-21 to 10-22
The Worlds Major Deserts
39
Monsoons and Cyclones
  • Monsoons are seasonal wind pattern changes caused
    by heating or cooling on the continents. Monsoons
    cause summers with significant rainfall and
    winters with very little.
  • Cyclones are large rotating storm systems of low
    pressure air with converging winds at the center.
    There are two main types extratropical and
    tropical.
  • Extratropical cyclones occur where the Polar and
    Ferrel cells meet.
  • Tropical cyclones form within a single
    atmospheric cell.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-22 to 10-24
40
Monsoons and Cyclones
  • In both cases, cyclones form when moist wind gets
    drawn into a low-pressure area, causing it to
    twist around on itself.
  • Cyclones appear to rotate the wrong way with
    respect to the Coriolis effect.
  • When a cyclone forms, the low pressure pulling
    the wind into the pattern is stronger than the
    Coriolis effect.
  • The winds that get drawn in and provide the
    cyclone energy are pulled away from the Coriolis
    effect. This imparts the backwards spin.
  • Cyclones help with the redistribution of heat
    that is important to all life on Earth.

The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-22 to 10-24
41
Monsoons and Cyclones
A Tropical Cyclone Hurricane Katrina
The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-22 to 10-24
42
Monsoons and Cyclones
Extratropical Cyclone Formation
The Winds
Chapter 10 Pages 10-22 to 10-24
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