BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia

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Memory and Amnesia Episodic Long-Term ... Cueing Memory cues improve retrieval -- long-term memory is content-addressable, not just available based on time of storage.. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia


1
BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia
  • Episodic Long-Term Memory

2
Episodic Memories
  • Episodic memories are tied to specific events.
  • Amalgams of different kinds of information.
  • Serial position curves are also seen with
    episodic memories
  • Primacy and recency effects have different
    explanations than with STM
  • First last events more distinctive, less
    susceptible to interference

3
Levels of Representation
  • Episodic info is remembered at three levels of
    representation
  • Surface form the exact wording of a sentence.
  • Textbase an abstract representation of the
    meaning of a sentence.
  • Mental model a mental simulation of the
    described events.

4
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5
Cueing
  • Memory cues improve retrieval -- long-term memory
    is content-addressable, not just available based
    on time of storage..
  • New experiences prompt the retrieval of
    appropriate memories.
  • The info in the cues is also in the memory
    traces.
  • Types of cues
  • Feature cues components of the memory itself.
  • Context cues related to the environment.

6
Types of Contexts
  • Linguistic the other bits of language occurring
    at the time a specific piece of info was encoded.
  • Paired associate learning
  • External context environmental cues
  • Internal context physiological state, emotions,
    thoughts in time.

7
Context Effects
  • Encoding specificity recall is best when the
    context is most similar to what it was during
    learning.
  • Studying in many different locations adds to
    context independence stronger learning.
  • State-dependent memory refers to both internal
    and external states.
  • Mood-congruent memory may include other forms
    of context effects.

8
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9
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10
Transfer Appropriate Processing
  • Memory is better when the same cognitive
    processes are using during learning and in
    recall.
  • Deep processing affects explicit recall more
    whereas shallow processing affects implicit
    memory processes more.
  • Study rhymes when the test will be about rhymes.

11
Irrelevant Memories
  • Interference occurs when there is competition
    among memory traces.
  • Negative transfer prior knowledge impedes new
    learning.
  • The amount of interference depends on the
    similarity of the information.
  • Proactive and retroactive interference learning
    multiple lists.

12
Associative Interference
  • The more associations there are to a memory, the
    greater the interference and the more difficult
    the recall.
  • Fan effect -- the more you know the harder it is
    to learn.
  • This should prevent more learning but doesnt
  • Chunking of related info prevents associative
    interference because one single trace is involved.

13
Inhibition
  • Interference is controlled by inhibitory
    processes.
  • Part-set cueing poorer memory can occur when
    cues are given because the cue disrupts retrieval
    processes.
  • A form of blocking of associated items to cue.
  • Directed forgetting telling people to forget
    ones reduces interference.
  • Just as if they had never seen the
    to-be-forgotten items

14
More Inhibition
  • Negative priming the decreased availability of
    memories that were recently inhibited.
  • The opposite of normal priming.
  • Retrieval-induced inhibition remembering causes
    forgetting.
  • Repeated practice things associated with what
    was recently remembered are also inhibited with
    repeated recall.

15
Repetition and Practice
  • Repetition effect the more someone is exposed
    to info, the more likely it will be remembered.
  • How info is practiced is very important.
  • Distributed practice is more effective than
    massed practice (one long session).

16
Explanations
  • Deficient processing more neurological
    consolidation occurs with distributed sessions
    compared to massed ones.
  • Encoding variability multiple sessions provide
    more distinct contexts aiding recall via more
    retrieval pathways.
  • Dual process both deficient processing and
    encoding variability are at work.

17
Overlearning and Permastore
  • Overlearning occurs with repeated practice
    strengthens memory traces with increased
    resistence to forgetting.
  • Permastore whatever remains in your memory
    after 3 years is permanent and will remain a
    lifetime.
  • Some things do not go into permastore because
    they are isolated and not linked to other
    knowledge (e.g., math, landmarks).

18
Organization Distinctiveness
  • Episodic memory is improved by organization of
    material to be learned.
  • Even when not given a structure, people impose
    one themselves.
  • Distinctiveness memory is better for items that
    are distinct or novel
  • Von Restorff effect items that dont belong
  • Bizarre imagery use selectively.

19
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20
Relational vs Item-Specific Processing
  • Organization emphasizes similarity relational
    processing that stresses what items have in
    common.
  • Works by creating a retrieval plan.
  • Bizarreness emphasizes difference item-specific
    processing that stresses distinctness.
  • Works by reducing interference.

21
Material Appropriate Processing
  • The type of learning technique should supplement
    or enhance what exists in the type of material to
    be learned.
  • For narrative text that is already relational,
    use an item-specific (bizarreness) approach.
  • For facts that have little relation, use a
    relational, organizational approach.
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