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The Constitutional Convention

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Title: The Constitutional Convention


1
The Constitutional Convention
2
What it was
  • A meeting in Philadelphia, US capital, with the
    purpose of
  • Amending/fixing the problems associated w/the
    Articles of Confederation
  • Such as
  • No Executive to enforce laws-Shays Rebellion
  • No power to tax
  • No Judicial branch
  • No power of interstate trade
  • No law forbidding states from coining

3
Where, When, Who
  • Philadelphia- May-September 1787
  • 55 delegates from 12 states
  • Wealthy white males
  • George Washington was president of the secret
    meetings

4
Attendees
5
Absent
6
Too Many Problems
  • The Delegates at the Convention decided there
    were too many problems with the Articles and
    decided to
  • Create an entirely NEW CONSTITUTION
  • Eliminating the Articles of Confederation
  • Now they would need to compromise in many areas

7
Problems and Compromises
  • The Large and small states fought over
    REPRESENTATION in Congress-
  • The more representatives in Congress the more
    power a state would have-VA vs. NJ Plans
  • The Great Compromise-solved the representation
    debate
  • A Bi-cameral legislature was created
  • House of Representatives-based on population
  • Senate-two for each state
  • Sometimes known as
  • Connecticut Compromise

8
Problems and Compromises
  • Slavery was also a major problem
  • Southern states wanted slaves counted for
    representation
  • Not for taxes
  • Northern states opposed this view
  • For every 5 slaves a state had 3 counted for
    representation and taxation
  • 3/5 Compromise
  • New slaves were not to be imported after 1808-not
    an end to slavery

9
Problems and Compromises
  • Under the Articles trade was controlled by the
    states
  • Northern states wanted national government to
    have this power
  • Southern states feared a loss of through new
    export taxes-cotton
  • Control of interstate trade went to National
    government
  • Import taxes (tariffs) but no export taxes
  • Commerce Compromise

10
Problems and Compromises
  • Delegates argued over election of a president
  • Elected directly by the people or
  • Elected by the state legislatures
  • They decided to
  • Indirectly elect the president with a
  • Group of electors known as
  • The Electoral College

11
Problems and Compromises
  • Debt from the revolution was another issue that
    needed to be dealt with
  • Southern states had paid theirs
  • Northern states still owed millions to other
    nations
  • Southern states agreed to pay off the debt as a
    nation if
  • The new nations capital was placed in the south
  • This issue and compromise was known as Assumption

12
A New Plan of Government
  • By September 1787 the meeting was done
  • The delegates had created a brand new
    constitution
  • The Constitution of The United States of America
  • It now needed to be ratified/approved by
  • 9 of 13 states

13
The Fight for RatificationFederalists vs.
Anti-federalists
  • Favored ratifying
  • Saw no need to add/change the new plan
  • Organized supporters to write essays telling why
    new plan should be ratified-
  • The Federalist Papers
  • GEORGE WASHINGTON FAVORED RATIFICATION
  • Feared the new constitution would result in
  • A loss of personal and state rights
  • Demanded a Bill of Rights be added
  • To guarantee civil liberties/rights

14
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15
The Fight for RatificationFederalists vs.
Anti-federalists
  • Promised to add a Bill of Rights in return wanted
  • Guarantee Constitution would be ratified
  • Agreed to ratification with addition of
  • Bill of Rights 10 total 1791
  • This became the final compromise
  • The Constitution is known as a
  • Bundle of Compromises

16
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17
Articles vs. Constitution
  • No power to tax
  • No Executive
  • No Judicial Branch
  • No control over trade between the states
  • States could coin
  • State governments most power
  • National govt taxes
  • President to enforce laws
  • Supreme Court to interpret laws
  • Controls interstate commerce/trade
  • Only the national govt can coin
  • NATIONAL GOVERNMENT SUPREME TO STATES
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