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Barron

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Barron s Regents Review – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Barron


1
Barrons Regents Review
2
Agrarian revolution
  • Change in farming method in England - 1600s
    increased farm production

3
Absolute monarchy
  • Ruler has complete authority

4
Age of exploration
  • European monarchs sent explorers to Asia, Africa,
    and the Americas 1400-1600

5
Agrarian economy
  • Economic system that focuses on agriculture as
    chief source of wealth

6
astrolabe
  • Instrument that determines latitude by the
    position of the stars

7
appeasement
  • Giving in to an aggressor to avoid war

8
armistice
  • Temporary agreement to stop fighting

9
Anti-Semitism
  • Prejudice against the Jewish people

10
Aristocracy
  • Government ruled by nobles or, the upper class

11
apartheid
  • Strict segregation of the races especially in
    South Africa from 1945-1991

12
archipelago
  • A chain or group of islands Japan.the
    Philippines

13
animism
  • Traditional African ( Japanese) belief that the
    spirit dwells in all living non-living things

14
archaeologist
  • Scientist who studies past human life by studying
    relics or, artifacts left by ancient people

15
alliance
  • Agreement between two or more countries that
    provides for their shared defense protection

16
anthropologist
  • Scientist that studies the origins and cultures
    of human beings

17
acid rain
  • Toxic (deadly) pollution produced by the burning
    of fossil fuels

18
Gupta
  • Indian empire that first developed what are now
    called Arabic numerals

19
clan
  • Extended family or groups of families that have a
    common ancestor or family ties

20
Buddhism
  • Major religion of eastern central Asia based on
    teaching of Siddhartha Gautama who believed in
    self-denial meditation

21
civilization
  • Advanced form of society with a complex social
    system some form of writing advances in
    science technology

22
bushido
  • Traditional code of the Japanese warrior
    (samurai) emphasizes loyalty to the local
    warlord rather than allegiance to the emperor

23
civil disodbedience
  • Nonviolent or passive resistance refusal to obey
    unjust laws

24
city-state
  • Small, independent state that consists of a city
    the territory surrounding it - ancient
    Greece Athens, Sparta

25
balance of power
  • Attempt to set up things so that one nation does
    not have more power than its neighbors or, other
    nations

26
bourgeoisie
  • Middle-class term used by Marx Engels to
    describe the capitalists or, factory owners, who
    exploit the workers (proletariat).

27
citizen
  • Member of a state or country

28
balance of trade
  • Difference in value between a nations imports
    exports over time

29
Byzantine Empire
  • Eastern part of the Roman Empire preserved the
    culture of ancient Greece - saved Roman texts
    from destruction after the fall of the western
    Roman Empire in 476 A.D.

30
Black Death
  • Bubonic plague contagious disease during the
    1300s where possibly over 100 million people
    died in Europe, Asia, and Africa

31
caliph
  • Title for the successor to Muhammad as the
    political religious leader of Islam

32
Bolsheviks
  • Left-wing group in Russia leader was Lenin
    seized control of the government in 1917. They
    were later called communists

33
christianity
  • Belief system based on the teachings of Jesus
    that began in the Middle East about 2000 years
    ago was rooted in the monotheistic religion of
    Judaism

34
class system
  • Social division of society based on wealth,
    birth, education, occupation, or race

35
caste system
  • Division of society into 4 major groups based on
    occupation or birth a rigid social system of
    traditional Hindu society in India

36
Classical period
  • Refers to the artistic style of ancient Greece
    Rome it was considered their Golden Age

37
capitalism
  • Economic system where the means of production
    wealth are controlled by individuals for profit.
    Opposite of communism where the government
    controls these things.

38
calligraphy
  • Fancy handwriting that Chinese Arab scholars
    turned into an art form characters symbols
    represent words or ideas.

39
cultural diffusion
  • Spread of ideas, customs, technology from one
    group or region to another culture.

40
Cultural Revolution
  • Program by Mao Zedong in China (1960s) against
    those who opposed the communist government. Mao
    used the Red Guards (youths) to purge China of
    anyone who disagreed with his ideas or policies.

41
Commercial Revolution
  • Changes in the economies of Europe in the Middle
    Ages led to a growth of towns, banks, trade
    among nations.

42
consumer goods
  • Tangible economic products used to satisfy the
    wants needs of a society.

43
deforestation
  • Destruction of a forest.

44
cuneiform
  • Ancient Sumerian form of writing. Characters were
    formed by pressing a stick into wet clay.

45
czar
  • Title of the Russian emperor also spelled tsar.

46
culture
  • Peoples way of life language, customs,
    religion, traditions, and institutions.

47
de-colonization
  • Process by which European colonies in Asia
    Africa became independent countries after World
    War II ended.

48
containment
  • Policy of the U.S. toward the Soviet Union during
    the Cold War to prevent the spread of communism
    in the world.

49
communism
  • Form of socialism proposed by Karl Marx
    Friedrich Engels a classless society
    supports a common ownership equal distribution
    of the products of society no class struggle
    the government will wither away.

50
constitutional monarchy
  • Government in which the king or queens power is
    limited or defined by the legislature or
    parliament body.

51
coup detat
  • (French term) swift overthrow of the government
    by force or by a small group of people.

52
conquistadors
  • Spanish explorers who conquered land in the
    Americas for Spain during the 1500s 1600s.

53
command economy
  • Economic system where the central authority makes
    all the production decisions on what how to
    produce goods. ie communist states

54
crusades
  • Religious wars between Christian Europe the
    Muslims for control of the Holy Lands, lasting
    from 1096 A.D. until 1246 A.D.

55
collectivization
  • System under communism in which many small farms
    were combined into large farms owned operated
    by the govt. worked by the peasants started by
    Stalin in the late 1920s.

56
Cold War
  • Period of tension hostility between the U.S.
    Soviet Union after 1945 because of their
    different political economic systems worldwide
    struggle without actual fighting between the two
    powers ended in 1991 with the collapse of the
    U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union).

57
codified law
  • Organized and written set of rules or laws.

58
Confucianism
  • Belief system of the Chinese philosopher
    Confucius emphasizes traditional values such as
    obedience. respect for elders, education,
    leaders, and the importance of the family!

59
famine
  • Drastic shortage of food that results in severe
    starvation and hunger.

60
ethics
  • Standards or rules that guide human behavior.

61
ethnic group
  • Group of people sharing a common language,
    religion, history, and cultural heritage.

62
ethnic cleansing
  • Term used to describe the forcible removal or
    murder of Muslims from former Yugoslav provinces
    of Bosnia Herzegovina by the Serbian majority
    during the years 1992-1995.

63
Estates-General
  • Legislative assembly of France composed of
    clergy, nobles, and commoners during the Old
    Regime.

64
fossil fuels
  • Fuel such as oil, coal, wood, and natural gas.

65
Five Pillars of Wisdom
  • Basic beliefs of Islam that include one God
    (Allah), praying 5 times a day, fasting during
    the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to
    Mecca and giving alms to the poor.

66
Five Year Plan
  • Series of economic goals started by Joseph Stalin
    in Russia (1927) to build up industry improve
    farm production.

67
Euro or Eurodollar
  • Uniform currency (money) introduced in Europe in
    1999.

68
fascism
  • Political philosophy that puts the nation over
    the individual. A dictator has complete control,
    suppresses all opposition, and has no regard for
    democracy. Mussolini (Italy) in the 1920s and
    1930s.

69
enlightened despot
  • Absolute ruler who bases decisions on the ideas
    of the Enlightenment uses absolute power to
    begin social changes.

70
feudalism
  • political, economic, and social system in Europe
    Japan during the 1100s in which land is
    controlled by the local lord, who owed allegiance
    to a higher lord or monarch. The lord allowed
    serfs to work the land in exchange for protection.

71
expansionism
  • Policy of increasing a nations territory at the
    expense of another nation.

72
Fertile Crescent
  • Large arc of land in the Middle East between the
    Tigris Euphrates Rivers (modern-day Iraq),
    mostly desert or semi-arid (dry) land, called the
    Cradle of Civilization.

73
factory system
  • System that brought workers machines together
    to produce goods in large quantities it began in
    the British textile (fabric) industry during the
    Industrial Revolution.

74
extraterritoriality
  • Special right of foreign citizens to be tried for
    a crime by the laws and courts of their own
    nation this applied to Westerners in China
    during the 19th and 20th centuries.

75
exploitation
  • Term used to describe how the mother countries
    took advantage of their colonies to insure that
    their own economies grew. (also mercantilism).

76
extended family
  • Family made up of grandparents, parents,
    children, aunts, uncles, and cousins whose
    members may live in the same household or area
    this type exists mainly in a traditional society.
  • Opposite is a nuclear family.

77
ethnocentrism
  • Prejudicial belief that ones culture or
    standards are superior to those of other
    societies.

78
The Enlightenment
  • Period known as the Age of Reason in 18th Century
    Europe. Enlightenment thinkers believed that one
    could use reason to understand the universe they
    rejected traditional ideas based on authority.
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