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Geography and Early India

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Title: Geography and Early India


1
Geography and Early India
  • The Big Idea
  • Indian civilization first developed on the Indus
    River.
  • Main Ideas
  • The geography of India includes high mountains,
    great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain.
  • Harappan civilization developed along the Indus
    River.
  • The Aryan invasion of India changed the regions
    civilization.

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Indian Geography
  • Mountains
  • North The Himalayas are the highest mountains in
    the world.
  • West The Hindu Kush provide protection from
    enemies.
  • Plains and Plateaus
  • Rivers and melting snow kept the plains fertile.
  • Both sides of the river thrived.
  • Water
  • Monsoons
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Civilizations arose around seasonal rainfall.

4
Harappan Civilization
  • People
  • Population grew in the Indus River Valley.
  • Growth came as irrigation and farming techniques
    improved.
  • Cities were built as surplus food was produced.
  • Cities
  • Harrapa
  • Mohenjo Daro
  • Fortresses for defense against enemies
  • Well-planned public areas
  • Achievements
  • Wells and indoor plumbing
  • Pottery, cotton clothing, jewelry
  • Indias first writing system

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Aryan Invasion
When the Harappan civilization dissipated in 1700
BC, Central Asians called Aryans began taking
over territory.
Invaders from the West
The Aryans left behind vast collections of poems,
hymns, myths, and rituals. They also had
religious writings known as Vedas.
Religion
No central government small communities ruled by
rajas
Government
Sanskrit is the root of many modern South Asian
languages.
Language
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Summary
Harappan Civilization
  • Two major cities Harappa, Mohenjo Daro
  • Advanced civilization that thrived between 2300
    and 1700 BC
  • Culture, artistry, city planning

Aryan Invasion
  • South Asian warriors pushed through the Hindu
    Kush mountains and settled in the Indus Valley
  • Oral tradition in religion and mythology
    resulted in the most important language of
    ancient India Sanskrit.

10
Chapter 5 Section 1 pages 124-129
Geography and Early India
Geography of Indian Subcontinent Harappan Civilization Aryan Civilization
India is a very large and separated from the continent of Asia by mountains Subcontinent smaller than a continent Ganges delta in east Triangular shaped Bay of Bengal to the east Indian Ocean to the south Among the northern mountains of which the Himalayas are the largest in the world The Great Indian Desert is west of the Himalayas Most of India is covered by fertile plains and rugged plateaus Major rivers flow from the Himalayas The Indus and Ganges, provide fertile farmland with water Seasonal floods and Monsoons provide silt to farmland Hot and humid climate Arabian Sea to the west 2300 BC to 1200 BC Harappan Civilization formed in the Indus River Valley and the Sarasvati River southeast of the Indus River An irrigation system was used for watering crops Two large cities were formed 300 miles apart, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro (the mound of the dead) Architecture was well planned Towering fortresses (citadels) Brick streets crossed at right angles Flat roofs Store houses, workshops, market stalls and houses Public wells Indoor plumbing Weights to measure goods Artisans pottery, jewelry, ivory, cotton clothing First writing system in India Clay seals to stamp goods 2000 BC People came from Caspian Sea in Central Asia People may have came through the Khyber Pass in Northwest Indias Himalayas Vedas-collection of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals written by Aryan Priest They did not build homes They formed small communities based on family ties No single ruling authority Group leaders were usually skilled warriors A Raja was the leader of the village or group Rajas often fought each other They had farmland and pastures They raised cows, horses, sheep and goats Sanskrit was the Aryan Language Sanskrit Language is the root of many Southeast Asian Languages Sanskrit is an Indo-European Language formed around 10,000 to 6000 years ago
11
Origins of Hinduism
  • The Big Idea
  • Hinduism, the largest religion in India today,
  • developed out of ancient Indian beliefs and
    practices.
  • Main Ideas
  • Indian society divided into distinct groups under
    the Aryans.
  • The Aryans practiced a religion known as
    Brahmanism.
  • Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and
    influences from other cultures.
  • The Jains reacted to Hinduism by breaking away to
    form their own religion.

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Indian Society Divides
Varnas
Social divisions in Aryan society
Brahmins
Priests
Kshatriyas
Rulers and warriors
Vaisyas
Farmers, craftspeople, and traders
Sudras
Laborers and non-Aryans
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Caste System
  • Individuals
  • Place in society based on birth, wealth, or
    occupation
  • 3,000 castes once existed in India.
  • Individuals could rarely change castes.
  • Caste Rules
  • Sutras (guides) listed all the rules for the
    caste system.
  • Breaking rules resulted in a transfer to a lower
    class.

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Brahmanism develops into Hinduism
  • Brahmanism
  • Aryan priests were called Brahmins.
  • Wrote Vedic texts, which were their thoughts
    about the Vedas

Evolving Beliefs The Vedas, Upanishads, and other
Vedic texts began blending with beliefs from
different cultures, creating Hinduism.
  • Hinduism
  • Many gods
  • Reincarnation could be reborn into new forms and
    castes
  • Men and women could both gain salvation, but
    women were inferior.

19
Jains React to Hinduism
Origins of Jainism
  • 599 BC, established as an alternative to Hindu
    ritualism
  • Based on the teachings of Mahavira, who abandoned
    his life of luxury to become a monk

Four Principles of Jainism
  • Injure no life.
  • Tell the truth.
  • Do not steal.
  • Own no property.

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Origins of Buddhism
  • The Big Idea
  • Buddhism began in India
  • and became a major religion.
  • Main Ideas
  • Siddhartha Gautama searched for wisdom in many
    ways.
  • The teachings of Buddhism deal with finding
    peace.
  • Buddhism spread far from where it began in India.

22
Siddhartha
  • Quest for Answers
  • Siddhartha was born a prince, but he questioned
    the meaning of life.
  • Determined to find answers using
  • Meditation
  • Fasting
  • Learning from different teachers
  • Enlightenment
  • Found it under the Tree of Wisdom while
    meditating
  • Called the Buddha (Enlightened One)
  • Spent the rest of his life traveling and teaching
    his ideas

23
Teachings of Buddhism
Four Noble Truths
Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human
life. No one can escape sorrow.
1.
Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and
material goods.
2.
People can overcome desire and ignorance and
reach nirvana, a state of perfect peace.
3.
People can overcome ignorance and desire by
following an eightfold path that leads to wisdom,
enlightenment, and salvation.
4.
24
Chapter 5 Section 2 pages 130-135 Origins
of Hinduism
Religion Origins Teachings Gods
Brahmanism Polytheism Priest were called Brahmins Based on the Rigveda, oldest of the Vedas, written before 1000 BC Based also on a final group of Vedas text are Upanishads from 600 BC Priest believed fire would carry a sacrifice to the gods Brahma
Hinduism Hinduism believes in many gods, but they believe that all the gods are aspects of a single universal spirit called Brahman. Three aspects of Brahman are particularly important in Hinduism Brahman, Siva, and Vishnu Polytheism Developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures Vedas Upanishads Ideas from Persia and other Central Asian Kingdoms A universal spirit named Brahman created the universe and everything in it. Everything in the world is just part of Brahman. Every person has a soul or Atman that will eventually join with Brahman. Peoples souls are reincarnated many times before they can join Brahman. A persons karma affects how he or she will be reincarnated Salvation is called moksha Dharma is a set of spiritual duties Karma is the effects that good and bad actions have on a persons soul Brahma Siva Vishnu
Jainism/Jains (Atheist) Mahavira 559 BC Ahimsa practice of nonviolence Every soul is the architect of their own life
Sikhism/Sikhs (Monotheistic) Guru Nanak 1400 AD Blend of Hinduism, Islam and other religions Reunite with god after death Wear 5 items long hair, small comb, steel bracelet, a sword, and a special undergarment Gurus
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Challenging Hindu Ideas
  • Ancient Ways
  • The Buddha taught that following the Vedic texts
    was unnecessary.
  • Challenged the authority of Hindu priests
  • Changing Society
  • A more individualistic approach to enlightenment
  • Rebirth as a means to evolve
  • Caste System
  • Opposed caste system
  • The Eightfold Path could lead any individual to
    nirvana.
  • The Buddhas teachings reached all classes.

27
Buddhism began in India and then became a major
religion.
Buddhism branches out
  • Asoka, one of the most powerful kings in India,
    became a Buddhist and spread Buddhism in India
    and foreign lands.
  • Buddhist missionaries traveled the world to
    teach enlightenment.

Buddhism splits
  • Buddhism split into two main sects Theravada
    and Mahayana.
  • Members of the Theravada followed the Buddhas
    teachings exactly.
  • Members of the Mahayana believed that individual
    interpretation was important.

28
Chapter 5 Section 3 pages 136-141 Origins
of Buddhism
Spread Beyond India Spread in India Basic Ideas
Powerful kings in India, Asoka became Buddhist in 200 BC and began to work on spreading Buddhism to areas outside India Buddhist missionaries spread the religion to other kingdoms in Asia Eventually Buddhism spread via the Silk Road into China, Korea, and Japan South east Asia near Himalayas Other Areas Sir Lanka, Myanmar, Persia, Syria, and Egypt After Buddhas death around 483 BC, 500 followers gathered together. They wanted to make sure Buddhas teachings were remembered Buddhas followers spread his teachings throughout India Within 200 years of Buddhas death, his teachings had spread through most of India Largest Buddhist population was around the city of Bodh Gava in Northeast India near the Ganges River Delta Basic ideas came from the Vedas Rituals were necessary for enlightenment Fasting Meditation Reincarnation Nivarna state of perfect peace Opposed Caste System (The Varnas) Buddhism made people feel they had the power to change their lives The Noble Truths page 138 The Eightfold Path page 139
29
Indian Empires
  • The Big Idea
  • The Mauryas and the Guptas built great empires
    in India.
  • Main Ideas
  • The Mauryan Empire unified most of India.
  • Gupta rulers promoted Hinduism in their empire.

30
Mauryan Rule
  • Candragupta Maurya
  • Candragupta seized control of northern India and
    created a society dominated by war.
  • Candragupta became a Jainist monk and gave up his
    throne.
  • Asoka
  • The grandson of Candragupt extended Mauryan rule
    over most of India.
  • Asoka converted to Buddhism and stopped waging
    war, choosing instead to rebuild cities and
    spread Buddhist teachings.

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Gupta Empire
  • After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, India
    remained primarily Buddhist for 500 years.
  • Under the rule of Candra Gupta I, India became
    unified and prosperous again.
  • Gupta rulers spread Hinduism in their empire
    through the building of temples and the promotion
    of Hindu writings and rituals.
  • Widespread religious tolerance was encouraged for
    Buddhists and Jainists.

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Candra Gupta II
Under Candra Gupta II, the Gupta Empire reached
the height of its power. It spread across
northern India and prospered.
Growth
The economy boomed, allowing citizens the time
and money to create great works of art and
literature.
Economy and Culture
The Caste System
It was believed that keeping citizens under
strict caste rule would stabilize the empire.
Social Ramifications
Women in the caste system were not seen as equals
and had few basic rights.
35
Time Line
  • 320 BC Candragupta Maurya becomes the first
    Mauryan emperor.
  • 301 BC Candragupta Maurya relinquishes the throne
    to become a Jainist monk.
  • 270 BC Asoka becomes the second Mauryan emperor.
  • 261 BC Asokas empire gains great power, and he
    leaves to become a Buddhist.
  • AD 375 Candra Gupta I invades and conquers
    northern India and brings Hinduism, prosperity,
    and a strict caste system back into popular
    culture.

36
Chapter 5 Section 4 pages 142-145 Indian
Empires
Empire Ruler Achievement
Mauryan Candragupta Asoka Founded the Mauryan Empire Ruled through a network of spies and an army of more than 600,000 soldiers Expanded the empire across most of India Converted to Buddhism and abandoned war Had wells dug and roads built throughout the empire Helped spread Buddhism
Gupta Candra I Samudra Candra II Founded the Gupta Empire and conquered much of Northern India Expanded the empire to the Ganges River Valley through wars of conquest Expanded the Gupta Empire throughout much of India Helped the empire prosper economically Oversaw a period of great productivity in arts and literature
37
Indian Achievements
  • The Big Idea
  • The people of ancient India made great
    contributions to the arts and sciences.
  • Main Ideas
  • Indian artists created great works of religious
    art.
  • Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta
    period.
  • The Indians made scientific advances in
    metalworking, medicine, and other sciences.

38
Religious Art Temples
  • Both Hindu and Buddhist temples began flourishing
    under Gupta rule.
  • Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu
    temples became complex towers covered with
    intricate carvings.
  • Buddhist temples were large and impressive, some
    carved out of mountainsides.
  • Buddhist stupas were built to house sacred
    objects from the life of the Buddha. They were
    covered with detailed carvings.

39
Religious Art Paintings and Sculpture
  • Great artists were commissioned by rich and
    powerful members of society.
  • Paintings offered a perspective on the daily life
    and religious belief of the ancient Indians many
    of these paintings could be found on the walls of
    temples.
  • Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and
    entire temples in the likenesses of the Buddha
    and Hindu gods.

40
Sanskrit Literature
  • Mahabharata
  • One of the worlds longest literary works
  • The story of two Indian families struggling for
    control of a kingdom
  • Many long passages of Hindu beliefs and practices
  • Ramayana
  • The story of a god, Vishnu, who has taken human
    form
  • Written long after the Mahabharata contains
    models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and the ideal
    mate (Sita)

41
Sanskrit Literature
Other Works
  • Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named
    Kalidasa to write plays for the royal court.
  • The Panchatantra, a book of stories intended to
    teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was
    translated into many languages.

42
Scientific Advances
Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created tools
and weapons by mixing iron and other metals
together.
Metalworking
The Indians invented the concept of zero and
developed a sophisticated number system, the
Hindu-Arabic numerals.
Mathematics
Using plants and minerals, Indian doctors made
advances in medicinal science. They were among
the first to practice inoculation and perform
surgery.
Medicine
Indian astronomers knew of seven about the nine
planets in the solar system and could predict
eclipses of the sun and moon.
Astronomy
43
Chapter 5 Section 5 pages 147-151 Indian
Achievements
Details About Achievements
Religious Art Hindu and Buddhist temples Ajanta temple Stupas Carvings and sculptures of gods Monumental statues Wall and ceiling paintings of life in India and god
Sanskrit Literature Mahabharata Ramayana Bhagavad Gita Kalidsaas plays Panchatantra
Scientific Advances Metallurgy Alloys Iron Pillar Hindu-Arabic numerals Zero Medical textbooks Inoculation Astronomical knowledge
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