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CHAPTER 4 Social Structure

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CHAPTER 4 Social Structure Section 1: Building Blocks of Social Structure Section 2: Types of Social Interaction Section 3: Types of Societies Section 4: Groups ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 4 Social Structure


1
CHAPTER 4Social Structure
  • Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations

2
Objectives
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Identify and describe the two major components of
    social structure.
  • Analyze how these two components of social
    structure affect human interaction.

3
Major Components of Social Structure
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Social Structure -the network of interrelated
    statuses and roles that guide human interaction,
    give society its enduring characteristics and
    make patterns of human interaction predictable
  • Status a socially defined position in a group
    or in a society and has attached to it one or
    more roles
  • Role the behavior expected of someone occupying
    a particular status

4
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Peoples particular roles and statuses affect how
    they relate to one another.
  • Statuses are ways of defining where individuals
    fit in society and how they relate to others
  • ascribed status assigned according to qualities
    beyond a persons control
  • achieved status acquired through individuals
    own direct efforts
  • master status one status tends to out-rank
    others, plays the greatest role in ones life and
    determining social identity

5
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Roles are the components of social structure that
    bring statuses to life.
  • reciprocal roles corresponding roles that
    define the patterns of interaction between
    related statuses
  • role expectations socially determined behaviors
    expected of a person performing a role

6
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • role performance actual role behavior, does not
    always match expectations
  • role set the different roles attached to a
    single status
  • role strain occurs when a person has difficulty
    meeting the role expectations of a single status
  • role conflict occurs between two statuses when
    trying to fulfill expectations

7
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Statuses and their related roles determine the
    structure of groups in society.
  • social institution statuses and roles are
    organized to satisfy one or more of the basic
    needs of society

8
Objectives
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Identify the most common types of social
    interaction.
  • Distinguish between types of interactions that
    stabilize social structure and those that can
    disrupt it.

9
Common Types of Social Interaction
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • When playing a role, must interact with others
  • Interactions either change or stabilize society
  • exchange interacting in an effort to receive a
    reward or a return for ones actions
  • reciprocity you do something for someone else,
    they owe you something in return
  • exchange theory people are motivated by
    self-interest in their interactions

10
Common Types of Social Interaction
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Competition two or more people or groups in
    opposition to achieve a goal that only one can
    attain
  • positive means of motivating people to perform
    roles society asks
  • can also lead to psychological stress, lack of
    cooperation in social relationships, inequality,
    and conflict
  • Conflict the deliberate attempt to control a
    person by force, to oppose someone else, or to
    harm another person
  • Simmels four sources of conflict war, within
    group, legal disputes, clashes over ideology
  • positive effects reinforces group boundaries,
    strengthens group loyalty, draw attention away
    from internal problems, lead to social change

11
Common Types of Social Interaction
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Cooperation two or more people or groups
    working together to achieve a goal that will
    benefit more than one of them
  • Accommodation a state of balance between
    cooperation and conflict, a compromise, truce

12
Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Competition and Conflict disrupt social
    stability
  • Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation
    stabilize social stability

13
Objectives
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Identify and describe the types of societies that
    exist in the world today.
  • Explain the roles individuals play in these
    models of group systems.

14
Types of Societies
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • role behavior takes place in groups
  • group set of people who interact on the basis
    of shared expectations and who possess some
    degree of common identity
  • largest and most complex groups are societies
  • Sociologists classify societies according to
    subsistence strategies.
  • subsistence strategies way a society uses
    technology to provide for the needs of members

15
Types of Societies
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Preindustrial food production is the main
    economic activity and can be subdivided according
    to the level of technology and the method of
    producing food
  • hunting and gathering, pastoral societies,
    horticultural society, agricultural society
  • Industrial emphasis shifts from the production
    of food to the production of manufactured goods
    made possible by changes in production methods
  • leads to urbanization
  • Postindustrial much of the economy is involved
    in providing information and services
  • 73 of Americans
  • SmartNotebook Activity

16
Objectives
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Summarize the major features of primary and
    secondary groups.
  • Identify the purposes that groups fulfill.

17
What is a group?
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • A group has 4 major features
  • two or more people, interaction among members,
    shared expectations, common identity
  • These distinguish a group from an aggregate or
    social category
  • aggregate people gathered in the same place at
    the same time, but lack organization or patterns
  • social category classifying people according to
    a shared trait or common status

18
Types of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Features of Primary Groups
  • Interact over a long period of time on a direct
    and personal basis
  • Entire self of the individual is taken into
    account
  • Relationships are intimate and face-to-face

19
Types of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Features of Secondary Groups
  • Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
  • Involve a reaction to only a part of the
    individuals self
  • Casual and limited in personal involvement

20
Types of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Features of Reference Groups
  • group with whom individuals identify and whose
    attitudes and values they adopt
  • Features of In-Groups and Out-Groups
  • in-group group that a person belongs to and
    identifies with
  • out-group any group that the person does not
    belong to or identify with

21
Types of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Features of E-communities
  • e-community people interact with one another
    regularly on the Internet
  • Features of Social Networks
  • social network web of relationships that is
    formed by the sum total of a persons
    interactions with other people

22
Purposes of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Select leaders people that influence the
    attitudes and opinions of others
  • instrumental leaders task oriented
  • expressive leaders emotion oriented
  • Define their boundaries so that members can
    tell who belongs and who does not
  • Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions
  • Control their members behavior if members
    violate groups norms, the group cannot survive
    long

23
Objectives
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Explain how bureaucracies are structured.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies.

24
What are Formal Organizations?
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Sociologists use the term formal organization to
    describe a large, complex secondary group that
    has been established to achieve specific goals.
  • Most organizations are structured in the form of
    a bureaucracy.
  • bureaucracy a ranked authority structure that
    operates according to specific rules and
    procedures
  • Bureaucracies were created to rationally organize
    groups to complete a set of goals

25
Webers Model
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Division of Labor
  • work is divided among specialists in various
    positions, expected to complete specific task
  • Ranking of Authority
  • clear-cut lines of authority, each is responsible
    to a supervisor at a higher level
  • Employment based on formal qualifications
  • individuals are hired based on tests, education,
    or previous experience
  • Rules and regulations
  • identify the responsibilities of each person
  • Specific lines of promotion and advancement
  • job security and seniority

26
Effectiveness of Bureaucracies
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Efficient at coordinating large numbers of
    people, defining tasks and rewards
  • Provides stability
  • Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and
    result in oligarchies
  • In some instances, rewards incompetence and
    expands uncontrollably
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