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The perfect tenses

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The perfect tenses Los tiempos perfectos ATENCI N! In Spanish the present perfect subjunctive is used for a recent action. No creo que lo hayas dicho bien. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The perfect tenses


1
  • The perfect tenses
  • Los tiempos perfectos

2
  • You have learned how to form past participles,
    and how to use them as adjectives and to express
    the true passive voice. The past participles in
    both cases had to agree in number and gender with
    the nouns being modified.
  • La puerta está cerrada.
  • Las ventanas fueron abiertas por el profesor.

3
  • You will now learn how to form the perfect
    indicative tenses and the present perfect
    subjunctive.
  • They are all compound tenses that use the
    auxilliary verb (helping verb) haber (to have)
    and the past participle, always ending in the
    letter o.
  • You will need to know the verb haber in the
    present, preterit, imperfect, future,
    conditional, and present subjunctive.
    (Previously, you learned the idiomatic forms of
    haber such as hay there is/are. The
    perfect tenses are formed from the same verb
    using complete conjugations of haber.

4
  • Note that to have can be either a main verb or an
    auxiliary verb in English.
  • As a main verb, it corresponds to tener, while as
    an auxiliary, it corresponds to haber.
  • Tengo muchos amigos.
  • I have a lot of friends.
  • He tenido mucho éxito.
  • I have had a lot of success.

5
Present Preterit Imperfect Future Conditional Present Subjunctive
he hube había habré habría haya
has hubiste habías habrás habrías hayas
ha hubo había habrá habría haya
hemos hubimos habíamos habremos habríamos hayamos
habéis hubisteis habíais habréis habríais hayáis
han hubieron habían habrán habrían hayan
(hay) There is/are (hubo) There was/were (había) There was/were (habrá) There will be habría There would be (haya) There is/are
6
  • I have done the homework. (present perfect)
  • He hecho la tarea.
  • You had done the homework. (past perfect)
  • Habías hecho la tarea. (Hubiste hecho)
    Imperfect is used commonly. Preterit is only used
    in literature.
  • He will have done the homework. (future perfect)
  • Habrá hecho la tarea.
  • We would have done the homework. (conditional
    perfect)
  • Habríamos hecho la tarea.
  • The teacher hopes that they have done the
    homework. (present perfect subjunctive)
  • La profesora espera que hayan hecho la tarea.

7
  • To form any perfect tense, use the following
    format
  • the verb haber conjugated in the appropriate
    tense
  • past participle of the main verb (always
    ending in o.)
  • NOTE The past participle does not change in form
    when it is part of the perfect tenses it only
    changes in form when it is used as an adjective
    and in the passive voice.
  • Clara ha abierto las ventanas. Las camas
    son hechas por la criada.
  • Clara has opened the windows. The beds are
    made by the maid.
  • Las ventanas están abiertas.
  • The windows are open.

8
  • In English, the auxiliary verb and the past
    participle are often separated. In Spanish,
    however, these two elementshaber and the past
    participlecannot be separated by any word.
  • Siempre hemos vivido en Bolivia.
  • We have always lived in Bolivia.
  • Usted nunca ha venido a mi oficina.
  • You have never come to my office.

9
  • In Spanish, the perfect tenses are often used
    with the words ya (already) or todavía no (not
    yet) to indicate that an action, event, or state
    occurring or not yet occurring before another.
  • Remember that, unlike its English equivalents, ya
    and todavía no cannot be placed between haber
    and the past participle.
  • Ella ya había salido cuando llamaron.
  • She had already left when they called.
  • Cuando llegué, Raúl todavía no había llegado.
  • When I arrived, Raúl had not yet arrived.

10
  • The word no and any object or reflexive pronouns
    are placed immediately before haber.
  • Yo no he comido la merienda.
  • I havent eaten the snack.
  • Por qué no la has comido?
  • Why havent you eaten it?
  • Susana ya se ha entrenado.
  • Susana has already practiced.
  • Ellos no lo han terminado.
  • They havent finished it.

11
  • In Spanish, the present perfect indicative (el
    pretérito perfecto de indicativo), is generally
    used just as it is used in English to talk about
    what someone has done or has not done.
  • It usually refers to the recent past.
  • He trabajado cuarenta horas esta semana.
  • I have worked forty hours this week.
  • Cuál es el último libro que has leído?
  • What is the last book that you have read?

12
Present indicative of haber
SINGULAR FORMS SINGULAR FORMS PLURAL FORMS PLURAL FORMS
yo he nosotros/as hemos
tú has vosotros/as habéis
Ud. / él / ella ha Uds. / ellos / ellas han
13
  • INTÉNTALO! Indica el pretérito perfecto de
    indicativo (present perfect) de los siguientes
    verbos.
  • (comer, vivir) Yo ________________________
  • he comido I have eaten
  • he vivido I have lived
  • 2. (traer, compartir) Tú ____________________
  • has traído You have brought
  • has compartido You have shared
  • 3. (llegar, estar) Usted ya _____________________
    __
  • ha llegado You have already arrived
  • ha estado You have already been

14
  • 4. (leer, resolver, poner) Ella ______________
  • ha leído She has read
  • ha resuelto She has solved
  • ha puesto She has put
  • 5. (decir, romper, hacer) Ellos___________
  • han dicho They have said/told
  • han roto They have broken
  • han hecho They have done

15
  • 6. (ver, dormirse) Nosotros __________________
  • hemos visto We have seen
  • nos hemos dormido We have fallen asleep
  • 7. (escribir, abrir) Yo no____________
  • he escrito I have not written
  • he abierto I have not opened
  • 8. (correr, morir) Él todavía no____________
  • ha corrido He has not yet run
  • ha muerto He has not yet died

16
  • The past perfect for (el pretérito
    pluscuamperfecto) uses the imperfect of the verb
    haber. Only in literature is the preterit of
    haber used for the past perfect.
  • The past perfect indicates an action that
    happened prior to another action in the past.
    (had done/had happened)
  • The past perfect is often used in conjunction
    with antes de noun or antes de infinitive
    to describe when the action(s) occurred.
  • Antes de este año, nunca había estudiado
    español.
  • Before this year, I had never studied Spanish.
  • Luis me había llamado antes de venir.
  • Luis had called me before he came.

17
  • Antes de 2003, había vivido en La Paz.
  • Before 2003, I had lived in La Paz.
  • Cuando llegamos, Luis ya había salido.
  • When we arrived, Luis had already left.

18
Past imperfect indicative of haber
SINGULAR FORMS SINGULAR FORMS PLURAL FORMS PLURAL FORMS
yo había nosotros/as habíamos
tú habías vosotros/as habíais
Ud. / él / ella había Uds. / ellos / ellas habían
19
  • INTÉNTALO! Indica el pretérito pluscuamperfecto
    de indicativo (past perfect) de cada verbo.
  • Nosotros ya (cenar) _______ cuando nos llamaron.
  • habíamos cenado
  • We had already eaten when they called us.
  • 2. Antes de tomar esta clase, yo no _______
    (estudiar) nunca el español.

  • había estudiado
  • Before taking this class, I had not ever
    (never) studied Spanish.
  • 3. Antes de ir a México, ellos nunca _______ (ir)
    a otro país.

  • habían ido
  • Before going to Mexico, they had never gone to
    another country.

20
  • 4. Eduardo nunca __ (entrenarse) tanto en
    invierno.
  • se había entrenado
  • Eduardo had never trained so much in the winter.
  • 5. Tú siempre__ (llevar) una vida sana antes del
    año pasado.
  • habías llevado
  • You had always led a healthy life before last
    year.
  • 6. Antes de conocerte, yo ya te __ (ver) muchas
    veces.

  • había visto
  • Before meeting you, I had already seen you many
    times.

21
  • In Spanish, the future perfect (el futuro
    perfecto) is
  • used to talk about what will have happened by
    some future point in time.
  • The phrases para time expression and dentro
    de time expression are used with the future
    perfect to talk about what will have happened by
    some future point in time.
  • Para el lunes, habré hecho todas las
    preparaciones.
  • By Monday, I will have made all the preparations.
  • Dentro de un año, habré renunciado a mi trabajo.
  • Within a year, I will have resigned from my job.

22
Future indicative of haber
SINGULAR FORMS SINGULAR FORMS PLURAL FORMS PLURAL FORMS
yo habré nosotros/as habremos
tú habrás vosotros/as habréis
Ud. / él / ella habrá Uds. / ellos / ellas habrán
23
  • INTÉNTALO! Indica la forma apropiada del futuro
    perfecto.
  • Para el sábado, nosotros _______ (obtener) el
    dinero.

  • habremos obtenido
  • By Saturday, we will have obtained
    (gotten) the money.
  • 2. Yo ______(terminar) el trabajo para cuando
    lleguen mis amigos.
  • habré terminado
  • I will have finished the work by when (by the
    time) my friends arrive.

24
  • 3. Silvia ______(hacer) todos los planes para el
    próximo fin de semana.
  • habrá hecho
  • Silvia will have made all of the plans by next
    weekend.
  • 4. Para el cinco de junio, ustedes ___ (llegar) a
    Quito.
  • habrán
    llegado
  • By June 5th, you all will have arrived in Quito.

25
  • 5. Para esa fecha, Ernesto y tú _______ (recibir)
    muchas ofertas.

  • habrán recibido
  • By that date, Ernesto and you will have
    received many
  • offers.
  • 6. Para el ocho de octubre, nosotros ya ______
    (llegar) a Colombia.

  • habremos llegado
  • By October 8th, we will have already arrived
    in Colombia.

26
  • 9. Para las nueve, mi hermana ______ (salir).
  • habrá
    salido
  • By 900, my sister wil have left.
  • 10. Para las ocho, tú y yo ______ (limpiar) el
    piso.
  • habremos
    limpiado
  • By 800, you and I will have cleaned the floor.

27
  • The conditional perfect is used to express an
    action that would have occurred, but didnt.
  • No fuiste al espectáculo?
  • You didnt go to the show?
  • Te habrías divertido!
  • You would have had a good time!
  • Maite habría preferido ir a la ópera, pero Álex
  • prefirió ir al cine.
  • Maite would have preferred to go to the opera,
    but
  • Álex preferred to see a movie.

28
Conditional indicative of haber
SINGULAR FORMS SINGULAR FORMS PLURAL FORMS PLURAL FORMS
yo habría nosotros/as habríamos
tú habrías vosotros/as habríais
Ud. / él / ella habría Uds. / ellos / ellas habrían
29
  • INTÉNTALO! Indica las formas apropiadas del
    condicional perfecto de los verbos entre
    paréntesis.
  • Nosotros ______(hacer) todos los quehaceres.
  • habríamos hecho
  • We would have done all of the chores.
  • 2. Tú ______ (apreciar) mi poesía.
  • habrías apreciado
  • You would have appreciated my poetry.

30
  • 3. Ellos ______ (pintar) la casa.
  • habrían pintado
  • They would have painted the house.
  • 4. Usted ______ (tocar) el piano.
  • habría tocado
  • You would have played the piano.
  • 5. Ellas ______ (poner) la mesa.
  • habrían puesto
  • They would have set the table.

31
  • 6. Tú y yo ______ (resolver) los problemas.
  • habríamos resuelto
  • You and I would have solved the problems.
  • 7. Ustedes ______ (vivir) en el campo.
  • habrían vivido
  • You all would have lived in the countryside.
  • 8. Tú ______ (abrir) la puerta.
  • habrías abierto
  • You would have opened the door.

32
  • The present perfect subjunctive (el pretérito
    perfecto de subjuntivo), like the present perfect
    indicative, is used to talk about what has
    happened.
  • The same conditions which trigger the use of the
    present subjunctive apply to the present perfect
    subjunctive.
  • Present subjunctive Present perfect
    subjunctive
  • Espero que duermas bien. Espero que hayas
    dormido bien.
  • I hope that you sleep well. I hope that
    you have slept well.
  • No creo que aumente de peso. No creo
    que haya aumentado de peso.
  • I dont think he will gain weight. I
    dont think he has gained weight.

33
  • The action expressed by the present perfect
    subjunctive is seen as occurring before the
    action expressed in the main clause.
  • Me alegro de que ustedes hayan estudiado tanto
    esta tarde.
  • Im glad that you have studied so much this
    afternoon.
  • Dudo que ella haya llegado a tiempo.
  • I doubt that she has arrived on time.

34
  • ATENCIÓN!
  • In Spanish the present perfect subjunctive is
    used for a recent action.
  • No creo que lo hayas dicho bien.
  • I dont think you (have) said it right.
  • Espero que él haya llegado.
  • I hope he (has) arrived.

35
Present subjunctive of haber
SINGULAR FORMS SINGULAR FORMS PLURAL FORMS PLURAL FORMS
yo haya nosotros/as hayamos
tú hayas vosotros/as hayáis
Ud. / él / ella haya Uds. / ellos / ellas hayan
36
  • INTÉNTALO! Indica el pretérito perfecto de
    subjuntivo de los verbos entre paréntesis.
  • Me gusta que ustedes ______ (decir) la verdad.
  • hayan
    dicho
  • I like that you all have told the truth.
  • 2. No creo que tú ______ (comer) tanto.
  • hayas comido
  • I dont believe that you have eaten so much.
  • 3. Es imposible que usted ______ (poder) hacer
    tal (such a) cosa.
  • haya podido
  • It is impossible that you have been able to do
    such a thing.

37
  • 4. Me alegro de que tú y yo ______ (estudiar)
    juntas.
  • hayamos
    estudiado
  • I am happy that you and I have studied together.
  • 5. Es posible que yo ______ (aprender) un poco
    esta semana.
  • haya aprendido
  • It is possible that I have learned a little this
    week.
  • 6. Espero que ______ (haber) suficiente comida en
    la celebración.
  • haya habido
  • I hope that there has been sufficient food at the
    celebration.

38
  • Use the third person singular of haber habido
    in the appropriate tense to express
  • There has/have been
  • There had been
  • There will have been
  • There would have been
  • Hay muchos problemas con el nuevo profesor.
  • There are many problems with the new professor.
  • Ha habido muchos problemas con el nuevo profesor.
  • There have been a lot of problems with the new
    professor.
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