Philosophy and Cognitive Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Philosophy and Cognitive Science PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6ee521-ZGUxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Philosophy and Cognitive Science

Description:

Philosophy and Cognitive Science Conceptual Role Semantics Joe Lau Philosophy HKU – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:55
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: JoeL2157
Learn more at: http://www.philosophy.hku.hk
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Philosophy and Cognitive Science


1
Philosophy and Cognitive Science
  • Conceptual Role Semantics
  • Joe Lau
  • Philosophy
  • HKU

2
Readings
  • Robert Cummins
  • Excerpts on reserve at main office.
  • Ned Block
  • Online article.
  • Advertisement for a theory of semantics, on
    reserve.

3
Topic
  • Some closely related theories
  • Conceptual role semantics (CRS)
  • Computational role semantics
  • Functional role semantics
  • Procedural semantics

4
Three questions about a representational system
  • Which are the representations?
  • What do the representations mean?
  • What makes a representation mean what it does?

5
Q1 Identifying representations
  • Which physical properties / states / objects are
    used to encode information / carry meaning?
  • Which are the symbols?
  • Information encoded by single neuron in the
    brain, or groups of neurons? In what form?
  • Structured? Pictorial? Linguistic?

6
Q2 What do they mean?
  • Identifying their content / what the symbols
    represent.
  • insalata means salad in Spanish.
  • The firing of this neuron represents the boundary
    of a surface.

7
Q3 theory of meaning
  • Questions that remains even after the meaning of
    a representation is known.
  • Given that X means Y, what explains the fact that
    X means Y?
  • What is it for something to have a particular
    meaning?

8
Comparing Q2 and Q3
  • Q2
  • Specifically about a system of representation.
  • An empirical question to be resolved by empirical
    investigations.
  • Q3
  • A general question about the nature of meaning.
  • A philosophical question about how the concept of
    representation is to be understood.

9
CRS
  • A theory of meaning that proposes an answer to
    the third question.
  • Better a very rough and incomplete framework
    for answering the third question.

10
Intrinsic vs. relational properties
  • An intrinsic property of X a property that
    depends only on those properties internal to X.
  • Example the mass of an object
  • A relational property of X a property of X that
    depends on objects that exist externally of X.
  • Example being a father

11
Meaning as a relational property
  • Being meaningful, having a particular meaning are
    relational properties of representations.
  • The intrinsic properties of a physical object is
    not enough to determine its meaning.
  • The meaning of a representation can change
    without changing its intrinsic properties.

12
A unitary theory?
  • Is there one single theory of meaning that
    applies to
  • meaningful expressions in natural languages
  • meaningful mental representations

13
Meaning as covariation
  • The meaning of a mental representation X depends
    on what X covaries with.
  • X covaries with Y X causally correlates with Y

14
Example
  • Hubel and Wiesel orientation selectivity in the
    primary visual cortex (area V1)
  • Activity of cells represent the presence of bars
    or boundaries at a certain orientation.

15
Criticism
  • At best works for detector representations
    that indicate proximate stimulus.
  • Still such representations might covary with
    lots of things.
  • But not the higher cognitive representations.
  • Inaccurate covariation
  • Non-existent covariation

16
Functional role semantics
  • Functionalism Mental states are defined by
    their functional role.
  • Role vs. occupant
  • Intentional mental states are defined by (a) type
    (e.g. belief) and (b) content (e.g. that snow is
    white)
  • So the content of intentional mental states are
    defined and explained by their functional role.

17
Functional role ???
  • A relational property role within the functional
    organization of the mind
  • Conceptual role semantics (CRS)
  • Content defined by the role of a representation
    in cognition, e.g. reasoning, decision,
    perception, memory.

18
Example
  • Consider these inferential transitions between
    the beliefs of an agent
  • PQ ? P
  • PQ ? Q
  • P, Q ? PQ
  • Interpretation represents conjunction
    (and).
  • Meaning determined by role in reasoning.

19
Advantages of CRS
  • Explain differences in meaning despite sameness
    of reference.
  • Lee I have a lot of money.
  • Lee Lee has a lot of money.

20
Computational-RS
  • CompRS CRS Computationalism
  • Computionalism cognition is explained by
    computations.
  • Mental content defined by conceptual role ?
    Mental content defined by computational role
    (role of representation in the minds program)

21
CRS and FRS
  • CRS is one version of FRS
  • CRS is true ? FRS is true
  • FRS is true not ? FRS is true
  • There might be aspects of functional role which
    are not computational.
  • e.g. role in interacting with some
    non-computational system.

22
CRS and covariation
  • Internal conceptual role might not determine all
    aspects of meaning.
  • External causal connections have a role in
    determining which particular object a
    representation is about.

Tung-1
Tung-2
23
Two factor CRS
  • Which is more important? Internal or external
    factor
  • Is this plausible?
  • Internal factor imposes constraints on what the
    representation can be about
  • External factor determines which particular
    object or property is represented.
  • But perhaps some content is determined entirely
    by the internal factor (e.g. and).

24
Narrow vs. wide content
  • Narrow content content that depends only on
    what is inside the head.
  • Wide content content that depends also on
    objects outside the head.
About PowerShow.com