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The Characteristics of Living Things

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Title: Introduction to the Science of Biology The Characteristics of Living Things Author: Dave Krupp Last modified by: kathyamorton_at_comcast.net – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Characteristics of Living Things


1
The Characteristics of Living Things
2
The Characteristics of Living Things
  • Great Complexity Cellular Organization
  • Reproduction Development
  • Responds with the Environment
  • Metabolism
  • Capacity for growth
  • Homeostasis
  • Heredity
  • Evolution (Adaptation)

3
The Hierarchy of Life
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ Systems
  • Organisms
  • Populations
  • Communities
  • Ecosystems
  • Biosphere

4
Some Elements
5
Simple Inorganic Molecules
  • Water (H2O)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Molecular Oxygen (O2)
  • Ammonium (NH3)
  • Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

6
Biological Compounds
Categories
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
7
Cell Organelles
nucleus
smooth ER
mitochondria
rough ER
golgi
8
Cells
Nerve cell
Osteocyte
Muscle cell
Blood cell
9
Levels of Body Organization
10
Levels of Sturctural Organization
11
Prokaryotic Cell
12
Eukaryotic Animal Cell
13
Eukaryotic Plant Cell
14
Classification Six kingdom system

Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
E. coli
Cyanobacteria
Protista
Paramecium
Diatom
Slime mold
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
15
Asexual Reproduction
Coral polyp budding
16
Sexual Reproduction
17
Development
18
Both Sexual Asexual
19
Interaction with the environment
  • Living things interact with each other and with
    the environment
  • Ecology the study of these interactions
  • Hawaiian Monk seals eat fish
  • Humans eat fish
  • What if something happened to the fish?

20
Interaction with the Environment
21
Metabolism
  • The sum total of the chemical processes that
    occur in living organisms, resulting in growth,
    production of energy, elimination of waste
    material, etc.
  • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules
  • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules

22
Cellular Respiration
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6H2O 6CO2 energy

23
Photosynthesis
  • 6H2O 6CO2 light ? C6H12O6 6O2

24
Growth
  • Organisms require a source of food to provide
    energy for growth

25
  • Autotrophs
  • Organisms that make their own food (like plants,
    some protists, and some bacteria)
  • Plants capture energy from the sun, use water and
    carbon dioxide to make sugars and starches

Photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
26
  • Heterotrophs
  • Organisms that take in food to meet their energy
    needs
  • Animals must consume autotrophs (plants), and
    other heterotrophs to meet their energy needs

27
Homeostasis
  1. Maintenance of constant internal conditions in
    varying environments
  2. Adaptation of organisms to specific environments

28
Homeostasis
Three big problems
  1. Obtaining energy and nutrients
  2. Maintaining temperature
  3. Obtaining and holding onto water

29
Body Temperature Regulation
30
Temperature Control
  • Ectotherms (Poikilotherms)
  • Generate body heat metabolically, but cannot
    maintain constant internal body temperature
  • Body temperature mimics the surrounding
    environment

31
Ectotherms
  • Most ectotherms regulate their body temperature
    by
  • basking
  • moving between shade/sun
  • being active at certain times of day

32
Temperature Control
  • Endotherms (homeothermic)
  • Generate body heat metabolically and body
    temperature does not match the temperature of the
    surrounding environment
  • These organisms retain metabolic heat and can
    control metabolism to maintain a constant
    internal temperature

33
Heredity
  • Transmission of characteristics from parent to
    offspring
  • Instructions from parent to offspring are passed
    on in the form of genes

34
DNA
Contains information for almost all cell
activities
35
Heritable variations
Banding pattern
Dwarfism
Eye color
Beak Depth
Blood type
36
Evolution
Change in the genetic composition of a population
through time
37
Mechanisms Contributing to Evolutionary Change
  • Production of heritable variations
  • Natural Selection
  • Chance

38
Adaptations
The structural, functional, and behavioral
features that contribute to the success of a
species.
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