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Pastoral Visions

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Title: Pastoral Visions


1
Pastoral Visions
Pastoralists document their lives through words
and pictures
CAPE Unit, AU/IBAR
2
Pastoral Visions
  • In April 2002, the CAPE Unit distributed
    disposable cameras to pastoralists throughout the
    Karamojong Cluster an area which includes NW
    Kenya, NE Uganda, SE Sudan, and SW Ethiopia
    asking the photographers to capture what you see
    around you.
  • In February 2003, CAPE revisited the
    photographers to find out more about their lives
    and the meanings behind their photographs. Each
    photographer was asked to describe what is
    important to them, what each photograph shows,
    why this is important, and what they would want
    someone to learn from looking at that photo.
  • The result is a selection of photographs and
    personal histories from pastoralists throughout
    the Karamojong Cluster. It is our hope that these
    images and stories will provide a more accurate
    picture of the issues facing pastoralists today.

3
I am about 30 years old. I married recently, and
I have four children. I met my wife at the
watering point and began to court her. She is
very beautiful. It took me five days to convince
her to marry me. Then I paid the ekimar
(bridewealth) and married her officially. I am
a good herdsman. The
Akony Lorukea Nanam, Kenya Turkana
most exciting thing in my life is my livestock.
However, life is difficult because the droughts
cause suffering. We are surrounded by insecurity
because of cattle raiding by the Toposa. They
attack us, but we dont retaliate. My animals
have been raided several times, but I have never
retaliated because I am afraid of being killed in
the raids.
4
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5
Milking
This is a woman from one of the ngadakarin
(cattle camps) in our migration group, not from
my adakar though. She is milking her cows in the
evening, but she also milks in the mornings.
Women and girls do the milking, not men. It is an
important job to them. They have always done it.
The cows are milked in the morning before they go
out to graze,
and in the evening when they return home. It can
take a woman three hours to milk the whole herd,
depending on the number of animals. When I take
animals to graze, I include the milking herd.
This is the most important herd because the
family depends on its milk. We depend on
livestock and their products. Milk does not
contribute much to our diet because our cattle
produce little milk. We give most of the milk to
the children.
-Akony Lorukea
6
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7
Migration Preparations
This photo was taken when people from my adakar
(cattle camp) were migrating. We were moving
eastward from a place called Loburin, at Mt.
Zolia, to Natwel, west of Mt. Songot. The donkeys
are about to be loaded with our belongings. When
we move, we take such things as containers for
storing milk and fat, sleeping mats, skins and
hides. The donkeys also carry small children and
very old people. The move from one location to
the other takes about ten days on foot, depending
on the pasture and water available. Migration
weakens
both animals and humans and security is
unpredictable. I move where the cattle camp
leadersLotoom, Apangisepion, and
Lokwarasmoedecide to go. We move in a large
group comprising several ngadakarin. The group
includes all the people I am close to. Some are
members of my age set and some are relatives.
Before you join a migration group, you need to
have known its members for a long time and be
able to trust them
-Akony Lorukea
8
I am married with one wife. During the wet
season, I spend three to four months in the
ngadakarin, our cattle camps. However, in the dry
season, I can come to town when I have an animal
to sell, to buy food for my family, veterinary
drugs, or anything I need. I am in town today
because I have to purchase some items for the
family. It takes three days to walk from the
cattle camps to Lokichoggio. I do not like
staying in town because I will miss my livestock.
Livestock is everything I need in life.
Ekiru Loito Nanam, Kenya Turkana
I have been raided twice. Thirty cows were taken
in the first raid and twenty in the second one. I
am only left with goats. I will replace the lost
cows by trading the goats I have. The bridewealth
from my sisters will increase my cattle, little
by little. I dont consider the option of
stealing back my cows from the Toposa because I
fear dying in a raid. It is better to be
contented with goats alone, but if I get more
cows, I will marry another wife.
9
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10
Healthy Animals Grazing
I did not know the camera could make things look
so nice. The animals look so healthy. The
Toposa raid when the animals are in the pasture
like this. The Turkana also do the same, but they
havent done so since the peace meeting CAPE held
at Nanam. We were having many peace meetings
between the Toposa and us. CAPE and
the government were helping us to have them.
Right now, there is no peace. We are having
problems in maintaining peace and the seers are
to blame. They dream and read the intestines of
dead animals to predict that the Toposa will
raid, or to tell us to go for raids. But our
cattle camp leader, Ekipor, likes peace. He can
dissuade the youth from going for a raid or even
disagree with seers when they support raids. He
advises the youth not to raid and only to fight
back if they are attacked within their
homesteads.
-Ekiru Loito
11
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12
Dismantling the House
This was in 2001, during the wet season. This
person is dismantling her house because shes
about to migrate. It is in my adakar, my cattle
camp. There were no building materials where we
were migrating. We were moving from Nanam to
Nakalale to use the dry season grazing areas at
Mt. Mogila. When we migrate, we move as a whole
cattle camp. Decisions about where to move are
made by Ekipor, our cattle camp leader.
In our community, constructing and dismantling
the shelter is the womans responsibility. When
we migrate, shes the one to pack and lead the
donkeys. A good woman is judged by her shelter,
and she also makes herself a nice skin cloth,
wears a well-mixed beads strap around the neck,
and makes household utensils such as wooden
containers for storing fat and milk. When
someone looks at this picture, he will wonder,
Was she constructing a shelter or was she
dismantling it? But she was dismantling it.
-Ekiru Loito
13
Lobei Ekidor Posta, Kenya Turkana
I am planning a wedding. I am preparing to wed
my second wife and pay the bridewealth. My first
wife will move to town to take care of the
school-going children. The second one will remain
with me at the cattle camps. The first wife is
happy about the arrangement. Her role in the
wedding of the second wife is to escort the ram
that marks the engagement to the parents of the
second wife. She initiates and welcomes the
second wife. I am excited to take another wife. I
already have five children, so now I will have
more.
My cattle were raided, but I was left with goats.
Those are the ones I will offer for bridewealth.
It is better using them to pay for bridewealth
than to let them die during drought. If I get
back some of the raided cattle, I will probably
use them to marry another wife. Plans to marry a
third wife are in store once I get more
livestock. To us, it is worth using the animals
to marry another wife rather than leaving them
for raiders. Then I can have more children to
send to school, and they will take care of me.
14
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15
Nayalel
This photo shows people who are migrating. The
lady, called Nayalel, is leading a donkey while
carrying a metal box on her head. The box
contains her belongings. She belongs to the
migration group of our cattle camp. This
migration was during the beginning of the wet
season. The migration takes about four days. It
is not easy to migrate because we cross bushy
areas,
always on the lookout for the enemies, the
Toposa. The movement is organized such that
women, children and livestock move in the middle
while men are on the sides keeping guard.
During this migration, the Toposa raided us. It
was not while we were moving, but just a day
after we settled at the destination. Even this
cow in the picture was driven away by the Toposa.
One-hundred cows and 28 donkeys, some of which
were mine, were taken away.
-Lobei Ekidor
16
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17
Relief Food Distribution
This woman was picking up maize from the ground
during the relief food distribution after the
1999-2001 drought. She had to pick it from the
ground because she was not registered for the
relief food distribution because there was some
corruption in the registration process. People
were giving out money to be registered. I am also
not registered, even though we thought that the
food was meant
to help those of us in the cattle camps. The food
distribution clerks and committees were seen
selling the relief food in Loki. We suffer when
there is drought like those years. Those who have
enough animals can sell them at the market and
buy food for the family. We have fertile soil
where we can grow maize, but there is not enough
water. The crop that is commonly grown here is
sorghum, which can mature within the three months
of the wet season.
-Lobei Ekidor
18
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19
Ngilenga
This is the same migration as in the photo
described above. The lady in the photo is my
niece. She is loading luggage onto a donkey.
These are containers for keeping milk and fat,
hides and skins, calabashes, spoons, and other
household things. She comes from our cattle camp.
The whole of my family is in that same cattle
camp and we migrate together. Our cattle camp is
called Ngilenga, meaning knives, signifying that
we are like sharp knives courageously crossing
insecure places to abundant pasture without fear.
Livestock keepers are identified by the cattle
camps or grazing groups they belong to.
-Lobei Ekidor
20
Lokange Ekamais Nanam, Kenya Turkana
I stay at Nanam. Many people stay in this place.
It has about ten cattle camps with very many
animals. It is almost the dry season and we might
soon migrate to the foot of Mt. Songot in search
of pasture and water. It is not very far from
here. Today, I have been watering cattle and
digging water wells. What I am doing now is
different from what I do during the wet season
because at that time, water pools are found all
over and livestock take water on their own.
During the dry season, I need to dig a well in
the riverbed to water my animals.
I am married, with two wives. I have married them
officially and paid bridewealth. Bridewealth here
is 40 cows, 300 goats, 20 camels and 10 donkeys.
It was difficult to pay the bridewealth. I enjoy
herding my livestock and acquiring enough of them
to be able to marry and pay bridewealth.
21
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22
Animals at Rest
The donkeys in this photo are playing by biting
one anothers ears. There are also cattle here
with a herdsman. They are not grazing, but
resting at the cattle camps after having grazed
well. They have also drunk water. They are not my
animals, but those of my neighbours with whom I
stay and migrate. When this photo was taken,
there was enough
pasture and water and these animals were healthy.
Recently, they have been weakened by drought.
They are not as healthy as before. The place is
no longer as green as it was in the photo.
Around 200 people in my family depend on the
livestock in my family. This includes cousins,
wives, children, brothers, sisters, and others. I
am proud to have such a big family. They provide
enough labour for herding.
- Lokange Ekamais
23
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24
Girls Responsibilities
I took this photo at the acacia trees just
nearby. These girls have just completed watering
their animals. Girls do not go herding but water
animals instead. Men also assist in watering.
Girls of this age have a lot of responsibilities
at home. They water livestock, milk animals,
churn milk, construct shelters, look after calves
and kids and take care of small children.
These girls do not go to school, but some do. The
girls and the parents decide together whether one
should go to school. Some girls may not want to
go. The parents want them to stay at home and do
the household chores. Its mostly the parents
decision. I took this photo to show what the
children in our area who do not attend school do.
- Lokange Ekamais
25
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26
Water Point
People are guiding their cattle to the water
trough. To organize the watering of animals, they
gather them at some point away from the water
well. About four or five of us get in the well to
draw water into the trough. A few animals are
selected at a time to drink. This is repeated
until all the animals have been given water. The
goats are watered first, and then the calves,
then adult cattle, and camels and donkeys last.
The owner of the water well, the one who dug the
water point, waters his animals first. It takes a
whole day to dig a watering point. When the water
table is low and wells get deeper, four or five
people enter the well, forming a chain from the
bottom of the well to the top and they pass the
water from the bottom of the well to the trough
where the animals drink. Unlike during the wet
season, animals are watered at intervals to allow
water to collect.
- Lokange Ekamais
27
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28
Epua and Meriarengan
The boy in the photo is Epua from Natamakarwo.
He is a good friend of mine. The reason he is
raising his hands is to show how the horns of his
bull are shaped. He is praising his bull. It is
important because it signifies his position among
his age mates, that he has a bull and loves it.
It gives him status and recognition. The
presence of that bull in the herd makes him want
to take very good care of his animals. He is
named after his bull. If that bull dies, he will
mourn. The name of my friends bull is
Meriarengan.
- Lokange Ekamais
29
Nachakur Kangamanat Lopiding, Kenya Turkana
I am married man with two wives and eight
children. Two of my daughters are married. My
sons are too young to look after the livestock,
so I do it most of the time. I am from the
adakar, or cattle camp, of Lotoom, who is a seer.
We have a very big cattle camp with almost 5000
people, which is good for protection. I am an
elder in my cattle camp. I attend peace
meetings. We elders are the key negotiators
during such meetings. I was a well-known raider
and women sang my praises but now I fear to go
for raids. Raiding is now very different from
those of the past. It is very unregulated now.
30
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31
Migration
The gun in the picture is not mine. It belongs
to the government but I had it for security
reasons. It is an M-4 type. I borrowed it from a
friend in my cattle camp for escorting my
livestock during the migration. It is a
long-range gun. My friend was selected by the
Chief to be a Kenya Police Reservist (KPR), and
so he was given the gun. There are three KPR in
my cattle camp. There are also others with
personal guns.
Our cattle camp leader is called Lotoom and he is
responsible for calling elders to meetings to
discuss issues such as the next migration. Before
the migration starts, the cattle camp leader
summons all the elders and youth to discuss the
possible secure routes to follow. A group of
young men is then sent for surveillance along the
routes. When they come back to the cattle camp,
they give a report to the people and they discuss
the threats. The migration then starts after
consensus is reached on which route we should
take. As people move, armed young men and the
stronger elders escort the animals from the
sides, front and back, as women, children and the
old people walk in the middle.
- Nachakur Kangamanat
32
Gabriel Ochwe Kalapata, Kenya Pokot
My name is Gabriel Ochwe. I have a family. I
have little property, but I live well with my
family because I have my cows. I got them
recently, just this year. I have two cows only. I
also married recently. Thirty cows and thirty
goats are paid to the parents of the lady when
you marry. Thats all that is required, so that
you will be left with one or two cows for your
survival. I married last year, but paid the
bridewealth this year. That is why I am staying
with my wife now. I have a lot of problems, like
starvation, cultivation, and few livestock. The
problems I have are common to the community. The
Turkana and Karamojong often kill my people
during the raids. Raids exacerbate the existing
problems. We need peace with our neighbours.
People are starving this year. We have not
received any rain. Those who suffer most are the
blind, the old and the children. Young men and
women visit their neighbours to beg for food. We
are really starving. When rains come, we
cultivate sorghum. We can only be sure we will
manage when most of the sorghum thrives in the
gardens.
33
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34
Ekitoingikiliok
These people are at their traditional meeting
place, the Ekitoingikiliok, the tree of men. You
can see that they are elders, 35 years and older.
At the tree of men, elders play the
stone-counting and scoring game, ngikiles. They
also do wood carving and hold discussions. Any
matter about the community is reported at the
tree of men where discussions are held and
decisions made. Very many issues are discussed,
hunger or starvation,
raids, lack of pasture and water for livestock,
impending drought, and many others. They
especially discuss issues related to food
shortages during drought. There are many elders
in our cattle camp who make decisions, but only
10 are the most important. They give direction
and make sure everyone is in agreement. Here,
the elders are making wooden sculptures for
household use. They are carving calabashes,
milking cups and watering troughs. One of them is
carving a trough for watering cattle and other
animals. Some are sharpening their wrist knives.
- Gabriel Ochwe
35
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36
Returning from the Watering Point
You can see an old man. He has taken his
livestock to the watering point. The journey back
home is almost finished. You can see the cattle
have taken enough water. At the moment there is
not enough water in our area, so we have to
travel a long way to reach the water points. For
this
reason, elders direct animals to the watering
points because they are more experienced and know
where to find water when it is dry.
- Gabriel Ochwe
37
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38
Homestead
This is an awi, a home. There are about 20
houses in our homestead. One big family can have
20 houses or even more. You can see women, old
people and children outside these houses. They
live together. Women mostly stay around their
homes. Old women do not go out, only the young
ones.
These women are talking about food shortage in
their homes. They are discussing what action
should be taken. You can see that these women are
starving. They are seriously discussing where
they can find food for their families. When there
is starvation, we gather wild fruits, although
there are no wild fruits around our homes. During
starvation, women go to work for people in urban
centres. They fetch water for them and get maize
flour in return.

- Gabriel Ochwe
39
Elisha Plengun Chemolingot, Kenya Pokot
I became an Assistant Chief in 1993 when the
former Assistant Chief retired and the position
fell vacant in my location. We were many during
the interviews at the District Headquarters,
chaired by the District Commissioner. To become a
Chief or Assistant Chief, you must have been born
in that location and you must be between 20 to 45
years old. If you are educated, that is an added
advantage. That is how one qualifies. After
working as an Assistant Chief, I became the Chief
in 1995. It is difficult being a Chief because
this is a large location and there are many
problems. The main one is the raids. We have to
hold many barazzas, and they are effective. We
sometimes have our own barazzas in the area, and
then when there is conflict, we have what we call
peace committees and border peace committees
formed by the community. Sometimes, NGOs such as
World Vision and CAPE help out. CAPE will bring a
lot of changes, which brings us a lot of hope. We
talk together now, old men, young men, women,
even chiefs. Raids are reducing because of CAPE.
The thing about peace is that its hard to get
the real thing.
40
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41
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42
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43
Asapan
These photos show a ceremony known as Asapan,
where older boys are initiated. For the Pokot,
there is circumcision, and afterwards, Asapan,
but it depends. You can have both, but it is up
to the people to decide. A group of boys, aged 18
and above comes together and decides, Now we are
grown up boys, lets go for Asapan. Its another
stage that shows that they are men and can marry
and eat with other men under the same tree. It
takes place between the months of July and
September. Many people come to Asapan. During
this one, there were about 800 people. Boys and
women came. They heard that there was a ceremony
and they came. People are told about the
ceremony a week earlier, because every community
or family that comes brings milk. This is the
forum where the chief announces future activities
or meetings. It is also an occasion where people
get information, so they travel from very far to
attend. During Asapan, a cow is slaughtered, and
then the blood is put in a calabash, known as
obtuba, where they mix the blood with the milk.
It is the tradition to drink this while kneeling.
There is also edonga, dancing and singing. The
edonga for Asapan is called ayopo, when the girls
mix with the boys. It is like a disco. It is just
fun.
44
John Kamana Chemolingot, Kenya Pokot
I used to work as a photographer, but then I
went back home to my cattle camp. Now I am just
at home, looking after the animals. I am a
pastoralist, but I stay in town also. My animals
are at home and my brothers look after them when
I am away. I am educated, so I like the life of
town.
45
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46
Childrens Chores
In this photo, my child is coming back from
fetching water at the river. The river is seven
kilometres away. She is carrying the water for
home on her back. The animals go to the same
place for water, but they will have to cover an
additional four kilometres further looking for
pasture.

This picture shows how we prepare a child for
responsibility at home, so that she can help the
younger ones to fetch water when the mother is
away. It is good training, because she will be a
mother one day.
- John Kamana
47
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48
Childrens Chores
These two are looking after the animals. They
have just come from the river with their goats
and are almost reaching home. This picture shows
how our children take care of the animals when
they are still young. This is the responsibility
of the boy as he is growing. The younger children
look after the goats,

but sometimes we give them the responsibility of
looking after the cows. When they are about 14
years old, they are ready to herd the cows.
- John Kamana
49
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50
Hunting
The boy is hunting in this photograph. He hunts
for hare and dik dik. He hunts whenever hes
looking after the livestock. He brings home hare
about once every week for us to eat. Hes ten
years old. When he grows a bit older, he will
stop hunting and just look after the animals. I
took this picture because I

wanted to show how our people depend on animals
for food both livestock and the wild animals
that we hunt.
- John Kamana
51
Peter Adomongura Silale, Kenya Pokot
I am a Chief here in Silale. It is a very
difficult job because of the problems of our
community. Our biggest problem is that we dont
have water. That is why I am working to make sure
that we have our own water sources, by digging
dams. Our other problem is insecurity, but that
has improved lately. I have been working with
the peace makers so that we can live at peace
with the Turkana.
52
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53
Water Pump
This photograph shows a machine for pumping
water that community members built with support
from the Catholic Diocese of Nakuru. Community
members contributed 30 and the Catholic Diocese
contributed 70 to cover the costs of
constructing the deep bore hole. There is almost
always water, but we cannot fetch it because the
machine has a mechanical problem. The bore hole
was constructed in 2000, and it worked for a
short time

and then it broke. It was repaired and it broke
down again. Since then, it has not been fixed,
and so we dont have water. When it was working,
we used it for our drinking water supply only.
The machine used too much energy for us to use it
to supply water for other domestic use or for our
livestock. Water is a problem here. The water
sources are far, so the community members of
Silale decided to build a dam. The World Food
Program and World Vision assisted us with tools.
In two more months, we will have water for our
livestock here.
- Peter Adomongura
54
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55
Young Herder
This picture shows a young boy taking animals to
drink water at a small dam in Lokiwach. The boy
may be ten years old, but he is responsible for
the animals. It is risky to leave the young boys
with the animals because of the insecurity. He
might not protect them, and thieves could shoot
him. Things are
not so bad between us and the Turkana right now,
though. Elders from Pokot and Turkana came
together and discussed drought and how to share
the grazing areas. We use water in their district
until the rainy season comes.

- Peter Adomongura
56
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57
Scaring Birds
This picture shows a girl inside the garden
where she grows sorghum. The young girl is
ensuring that birds do not eat the sorghum. The
sorghum has been planted by the river, near the
water source. Few people cultivate the crop but
those who do also keep animals as a source of
livelihood. No one can
survive just by growing sorghum but if we had
more rain, we could grow more.
- Peter Adomongura
58
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59
Camels
This is a camel that belongs to someone in
Silale. Camels are good for these areas because
they are like Jersey cows that produce a lot of
milk in the highlands. The camel produces milk
during the wet and dry seasons. Another
advantage is that even during the dry season,
when the vegetation is scarce it can
reach the tall branches. It does not compete
with the cows, sheep, and goats or need to travel
far to find vegetation. It can be kept at home to
provide milk for the children. We dont have very
many camels here though.

- Peter Adomongura
60
Archangelo Osango Nanyangachor, Sudan Toposa
Im a Toposa from Nanyangachor. I was born in
Uganda in October 1966 when everyone was fleeing
the war, so my parents fled to Uganda and that is
where I was born. I trained as a nurse in 1990
with AMREF and UNICEF. I went to Lopiding, in
Kenya, for the training. I was top of my class in
Kapoeta, so they chose to train me. In 1992, I
went back to Kapoeta to work. At that time,
Kapoeta was captured, so I could not continue to
work there and I moved to Kakuma. My parents were
killed in the war and I
came back to Sudan for my fathers burial and
found that there was no work for me. After three
years without employment, I started working for
the Diocese of Torit in Nanyangachor and have
worked here since then. Its a good place to work
because theres no war, not even the Antanov
bomber, and its quiet. I am married and my
family lives here. My wife is a Toposa from Buno.
My eldest child is in class one. I have three
children now, but three have also died from
whooping cough and diarrhea. They were so young.
61
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62
Hunger
This shows when the World Food Program brought
relief food to Kalobelen. I think it was
November. It was a difficult time because people
did not have food. It had all been finished by
then as it was the dry season and there was no
rain for people to grow crops. The birds also
came and finished the crops. Even the goats and
bulls were suffering. During food drops, three
women get 50 kilos of sorghum to share.
The women divide it by themselves. Sometimes they
get nothing. They cry, and the others may share
some of their sorghum with them. When the hunger
becomes severe, they slaughter goats and then
cows. At this time, the people were shouting.
They surrounded the food and they were looting
it. Even the men were looting, saying, Lets
just get this by force. Lets just take it, we
wont wait for those UN people. They didnt
share the food they just took what they could.
Some people were stabbed while others lost the
skins they were wearing. The food was still not
enough.

- Archangelo Osango
63
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64
Christmas Day
It was Christmas Day, and we were having a
party. During Christmas, people bring goats and
chickens that are slaughtered. They also bring
milk for people to drink. Some play music on the
local guitars, called adungu. Marco and Peter
make them. When they play them, you can hear the
sound from very far. They have fun playing. These
things
are new to us, and thats why I wanted to show
them in the photo. We did not have guitars
before. Marco learned to make them when he was
working with the Dinkas, where they have these
guitars in their culture. These days, instead of
just singing and dancing all the time, we also
play these instruments.

- Archangelo Osango
65
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66
Fishing
In this photograph, we were fishing using nets
at the river in Nanyangachor. The Diocese of
Torit gave us the nets in 2001 and taught us how
to use them. Before, we used to fish with the
spears or local hooks. Now, when we use the nets,
we catch more fish. We used to catch just twenty
or thirty but now we catch hundreds.
A long time ago, the people here did not eat
fish. A few of our Toposa people in Juba knew
there were fish here and that they could be
eaten. When they came to Nanyangachor, around
1983, we learned that we could eat fish. They
came from Juba because they were fleeing the war.
There are still some people here who dont eat
fish though.

- Archangelo Osango
67
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68
Ngikiles
I took this picture because it was funny. These
people are shouting and arguing. They are playing
a game called ngikiles. There are several people
on each team. When you take all of the stones
from the other team, you win. People play this
game to pass time, because they are jobless or it
is their day off from herding the
animals. They play near the water point so that
when their animals come, they can stop the game
and fetch water for their animals.

- Archangelo Osango
69
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70
Domestic Dispute
This photo shows an argument between a husband
and his wife in Pongo. Some goats entered the
nyatabo, the kitchen, and ate the womans
sorghum. When she found out, she beat the goats.
The husband came home and wanted to beat the wife
because she had beaten his goats. The people who
were there stopped him, saying, Dont beat her,
dont beat her. Do not fight, because you might
hurt the woman.
Its common for husbands to beat their wives.
Its a problem though because its not good to
just beat your wife for no reason. Instead, you
should just talk to the woman, and she will
understand. If you beat her too often, she will
run to her people for help. Her people will say,
Take back your bridewealth and bring back our
daughter. She will take her children with her
and then she can marry someone else. If the woman
makes a mistake, the people will meet and point
out her mistake. If a man makes a mistake, they
will sit and tell him his mistake. The community
and the relatives of the couple meet to discuss
the issue, and decide how to resolve it.

- Archangelo Osango
71
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72
Traditional Healer
The woman in this photo is a traditional healer
and she is killing the goat to treat a sick
woman. They brought the goat and the healer
slaughtered it and spread the dung on the sick
person. She applied dung all over her body and
blood on her head. The sick woman stayed with her
for three days and recovered. Sometimes doing
this seems to heal the sickness. She had a chest
problem and she

was vomiting and having diarrhea, but she
recovered after this treatment This treatment
doesnt really work because its just a
traditional belief. We want to stop this kind of
belief. I took this picture to show people that
they should come to the clinic and take medicine,
not natural remedies. Herbs do not always work.
Visiting the traditional healer can be expensive.
People pay the healer with the goat that is
slaughtered, but at the clinic, everything is
free of charge, even food.
- Archangelo Osango
73
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74
Paying the Fine
These people are waiting to eat meat. It is a
special case because someone raped the wife of
one of these men. He was in the bush and when the
woman went to fetch the firewood, he attacked
her. The woman was not to blame. When the other
men found out, they looked for the man and beat
him. Then they fined him seven cows. The cows
were paid to the husband and he is sharing them
with people in the community. That is why
theyre waiting for meat. This was his first
rape. The people around know him and they asked,
Why are you doing this? Why would you rape this
woman? Now he has lost his cows, and hes not
yet married. So he will suffer and he will not do
it again.

- Archangelo Osango
75
George Lojore Narus, Sudan Toposa
I was the Executive Director of Kapoeta County
in 2000. The community selected me for the
position. Prior to that, I was the Manager of the
Total Cooperative, which means Serve Toposa by
Toposa. We have a barter shop where we trade such
items as beads for animals. We the members of the
Toposa community started the
cooperative. I was the Manager then I became the
Executive Director of Kapoeta County for a year.
I solved the problems of the Chief and the local
people around here. Now Im just helping the
community in any way I can. I help the
Councilors, translate, anything that is needed.
76
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77
Hair Plaiting
This is a photo of women under the tree plaiting
their hair. They are from Kariang and they came
to meet the Commissioner here in Narus. They came
for an event, bringing sim sim, sesame seeds, as
a gift for the Commissioner. It was a
celebration. When they have a good harvest, they
bring sim sim to the Commissioner. They have
dressed well because of the special occasion.

- George Lojore
78
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79
Ekirek
These are elders under the tree. They are here
to meet for ekirik, a ceremony performed when
they receive the bridewealth for a girl. They
will proceed as a group to meet the man paying
the bridewealth. The ekirek is a very important
ceremony in our custom. People come together and
meet the husband-to-be to discuss the
bridewealth. I think the bridewealth here would
amount to more than 40 cows and even goats in
addition. Bridewealth is important because in our
custom, when you marry someones daughter, it is
important to compensate that family for what they
have expended in bringing her up.

- George Lojore
80
Marino Namot Nanyangachor, Sudan Toposa
I am 42 years old. I am married with one wife. I
had two wives, but one died. I have five children
who help me look after the livestock. My
ancestral home is Kauto. I am a Community-Based
Animal Health Worker (CAHW). I was trained in
1999. The community selected me because I was
active, hardworking, and the only one who had
gone to school in the whole village. My village
is called Nyao, which means, people are as many
as bees. I dont only treat animals in my cattle
camp, but also in other cattle camps, and
elsewhere where there is a disease outbreak. The
community really appreciates my work because most
of the animals I treat recover. I also enjoy my
work because when I am treating animals in my
cattle camp the community supports me by giving
me food. I also feel honoured to be known by so
many people.
81
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82
Houses and Granaries
These are houses and granaries. The houses are
lower than granaries. The granaries are raised to
keep livestock from feeding on the stored food.
It also helps to keep ants away as they cant
climb to the height of the granary. If they are
high enough, they deter children and thieves. It
is a good way of safeguarding stored food. This
is where I come from and this
is my house. One of the granaries is mine, the
rest are for relatives who stay with me. I sleep
in my house, but when there are mosquitoes, I
sleep in the granary if its empty. The
mosquitoes cant easily fly to the height of the
granary. The shade under the granary is good for
resting during the day. It is really difficult
to build a granary. The roof is first woven on
the ground, and then lifted on to the erected
supporting poles. Women construct granaries. It
is my wife who constructed mine.

- Marino Namot
83
Charles Lotukei Moroto, Uganda Tepeth
I am 26 years old and married. I have one child,
only one. I work for the Internal Revenue
Authority as an office messenger. I was born in
the village, in Nabwin Village, Lea Parish. I
went to school here and trained to be a teacher.
I was a teacher with the Alternative Basic
Education for Karamoja project before I came to
Moroto. My job involved teaching small children
who dont go to school or those who live far from
the schools. I trained and got a certificate. I
wanted to do it to help the community. I stopped
though because it is not a professional teaching
job and because of the long distances. There is
no transport and I had to travel on foot for 26
kilometers. I prefer staying in the village. I am
a pastoralist. My parents and brothers take care
of my animals when I am in town.
84
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85
Naleyo Dance
This shows the harvesting season when people are
happy and they are dancing. This is the Naleyo
dance, which happens only once each year. When
the harvest is good and the yields are okay, they
perform this dance. They dont jump they just
keep their feet on the ground. The lady dances in
front of the man keeping her eyes closed
to show respect. There is one particularly good
singer who leads and the others sing after him.
The men clap and sing, and then the women join in
when the dance begins. Once they begin dancing,
the women go to the men and choose their
partners. The dance can last for two days, from
morning to sunset each day.

- Charles Lotukei
86
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87
Hair Shaving
They are using arrows instead of razor blades
for shaving their hair. They use the arrow
because the trading centre is too far for them to
go and buy a razor blade. It is 20 kilometres
away. They shave different patterns in their
hair. The hair in the middle of the head is left
longer. They shave once a month or so. They do
not like wearing their hair long, so they shave
often.

- Charles Lotukei
88
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89
Permanent Shelter
This picture shows how people live. This is
their permanent shelter. Sometimes, it is used as
a granary or a store. It is not often used for
storing much grain though, only enough for
consumption. It is raised to protect it from
termites and running water. It is women who build
these kinds of structures. The construction
takes one or two months, depending on the
distance from the source of the building
materials. This house is for Lorika, my brother.
His wife built it. It is a well constructed home,
a good one. Thats how we determine good,
hardworking ladies. A good wife builds a good
house for you.

- Charles Lotukei
90
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91
Sorghum Harvest
This photograph was taken during the harvesting
season, around September or October. Harvesting
lasts for one month. A lot of the sorghum is used
for beer and food. After threshing the sorghum,
they prepare some beer and celebrate. Then they
plant new grains, the new yield for the year.
The work is not so difficult. Its women that do
it. They cultivate the fields. They harvest the
produce and remove the husks. They also make beer
from it. The women do all of the work involving
the sorghum.

- Charles Lotukei
92
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93
Erei
This is an erei, a group of homesteads. It is
the permanent home of the people of Tapach, who
had already migrated when I took the picture.
This was the rainy season, so they had moved to
the area where their gardens are to look after
the sorghum. They migrate annually. The men move
to go and look after animals while the women
move to tend the gardens. The moment they harvest
the crops and plant afresh, they have to travel
to look after them. The distance between the two
places is about eight kilometers. They build new
homes in the gardens.
- Charles Lotukei
94
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95
Graans Bull
This is Graans bull. He is an elder at the
cattle camp in Lomelan. The old man is named
after this bull. Hes a famous man there. This
bull has been castrated so that it can grow fat
and heavy. Bulls selected for praise are treated
this way. An elder admires the colour of his
bull, and so he praises it. The horns are burned
to bend them, and
then they are tied. There are specialists locally
that do this task. Graans bull is
healthy. Every man has a bull. Even I have one.
It is named Longoria Lokah. It means spotted one.
Its colour is whitish, yellowish, and blackish.
Its also castrated.

- Charles Lotukei
96
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97
A Wealthy Mans Livestock
This is Graan, the elder who owns the red bull
in the other photo. These are all his goats. Hes
not very oldhe told me that hes 48 years old.
Hes wealthy. All these animals belong to him. He
has about 46 goats, 18 cows, 7 calves, and a few
sheep, not more than 15. He has no camels, but he
owns two donkeys. He has six wives. His animals
are healthy, as you can see. He treats their
diseases. The Lutheran World Federation brings
drugs and he pays them using these very goats.
He is also respected because hes a peacemaker.
He attends the big meetings, even in Kenya. The
Turkana also invite him for peace meetings
because he is their neighbour.

- Charles Lotukei
98
Lokolimoe Phillip Kathile, Uganda Dodoth
My name is Lokolimoe Phillip, and I am a
Community-Based Animal Health Worker (CAHW) for
Kathile. I became a CAHW in 1994. Now, I just do
this work voluntarily. I am not paid for it. Its
difficult because the cattle owners say the
prices of the drugs are fixed, so I dont get any
profit for selling the drugs. When we had a lot
of rain, it was okay because I was farming, but
now there is not much rain. I only get blood to
drink when I help with the animals, thats all.
99
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100
Security
The animals are grazing and the guns are there
for security. These people said that the Jie
might come and attach them. Today, they do not
have their guns because the government disarmed
them. This picture was taken before disarmament
when the raids were worse. The Turkana still have
their guns but there is some kind of peace
between them and the Dodoth. The Turkana raid
other people, but not Dodoth. It is only the Jie
that are disturbing our people. The Jie were
disarmed, but they escaped and ran.
The peace between the Turkana and the Dodoth
came last year in 2002. CAPE and the Sub-County
Chiefs helped to create peace by bringing people
together from the Turkana and Dodoth sides. Up to
now, there is still peace. CAHWs can play a
role in making peace. We can advise pastoralists
about their animals, the movement of the animals,
where they should look for water and pasture. We
could advise them to avoid places where there is
an outbreak of disease. When people have healthy
animals, they dont go for raids. What agitates
them to go for raids is when their animals die.
They are now peaceful, even the Turkana, who are
in their cattle camps in Kalapata. When your cows
are healthy, what more do you need? You will
live.
- Lokolimoe Phillip
101
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102
Local Market
This photograph was taken during the vaccination
for rinderpest. The picture shows the cattle camp
leaders of Kathile. At this meeting, we were
trying to persuade the leaders to bring their
animals for vaccination. Even women were included
because they are also involved in cattle keeping.
The man is a vet doctor from Kaabong. He is
the one who organized the meeting. He was
mobilizing people for the vaccination. I took the
picture to show that these people are concerned
about the health of their animals. They want
their animals to be vaccinated against epidemic
diseases.

- Lokolimoe Phillip
103
Lokol Andrew Kaabong, Uganda Dodoth
I work as a Community-Based Animal Health Worker
(CAHW). In 1993, Dr. Akabwai trained us. Then I
was incorporated into the government veterinary
department as local staff. They elected me
because my father was a CAHW in the early 50s and
60s. I would stay with him when he was working,
and I enjoyed it. That is the work which made me
want to go to school. My parents educated me and
I stopped in senior three, in 1989. When Akabwai
came with his project of paravets, I decided to
join him. I supplied the pastoralists with many
things, including vaccinations and drugs. So the
department identified me as their own paravet.
Im enjoying this work very much.
Now I am a meat inspector in Kaabong town. I
inspect the cows, goats and sheep. Every day,
animals are slaughtered to be sold to the public.
It is important that I ensure that the meat is
fit for human consumption, free from diseases,
worms and cysts. Secondly, I was trained in
spraying animals and removal of external
parasites like ticks and fleas. I am doing it now
for the whole district.
104
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105
Vaccination Mobilization
This photograph was taken at a local market in
Kaplenba Parish. What you are seeing are gourds
that have sour and fresh milk inside. There are
also saucepans used for carrying milk. The people
have brought chickens to the market for sale.
There are women from the village, not from town,
and at the market they sit together.

I took this picture because I saw that most of
these women had come from the cattle camp, and
the most important thing for me was to look for
livestock people. Most of them had plaited their
hair. They had also smeared their hair with
butter oil. They mix it with charcoal and rub it
around their head. Thats why the hair appears
black and beautiful.
- Lokol Andrew
106
Lokong Augustine Kaabong, Uganda Dodoth
Im a Community-Based Animal Health Worker
(CAHW) from Kaabong. I like being a CAHW. I like
assisting people. CAHWs are important because
they go where the doctor cannot reach. When you
are a CAHW, you can cross from sub-county to
sub-county treating, where the doctors cannot
reach. Now I keep animals, but not here where I
work. My relatives look after my animals. I
inform them about vaccination and make sure they
are well taken care of. If there are other
diseases, they have to inform me about the
symptoms and not wait until the animals are about
to die. I can then treat my animal before it is
too late.
107
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108
Animals out Grazing
These are animals out grazing. Different
livestock owners graze their animals together,
but they keep each group a few metres apart. They
can tell their animals by the colours and the
size and shape of the horns. They dont like to
count the numbers. They say that if you count
them, they will die.
- Lokong Augustine

109
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110
Newly Married Woman
This photo is of a girl who has just entered her
new home after marrying a man from this house.
She is supposed to grind sorghum in the presence
of her mother-in-law. When a girl goes to her
marital home, she is given sorghum to grind. In
Karamoja, this is one of the traditions that we
observe, it is a type of initiation. When a
bride joins her husbands family, she has to
abide by their rules. Also, she cannot return to
her own family until she has ground the sorghum
and brewed beer. Then she will be able to return
to her maiden home as a married woman.
- Lokong Augustine
111
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112
Morning Discussions
This was taken during the morning hours in the
cattle camp, when they were planning the
activities of the day. The man in front is an
elder, and he is talking to the youths,
instructing them where to graze the animals, and
where to find the grass and water. They are also
warned about places where the enemies are, and
which areas they should avoid. These discussions
take place every
morning. Different elders advise the youth each
morning. The ones who have returned home from
traveling will announce the news from those
places. This picture is important because it
shows how members of a cattle camp decide how to
take care of their animals. All these people come
from different awi, homesteads, to contribute
ideas and agree on what to do. Then all of them
are informed because they have been together.
- Lokong Augustine
113
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114
Rinderpest Vaccination
This is a vaccination camp. People brought their
animals because they were informed by the cattle
camp leaders. Over 1000 animals have been
vaccinated for rinderpest. This crush was built
by the livestock owners. The big posts came from
Oxfam, but the long ones were found locally by
the people who wanted their animals treated.
Carrying out vaccinations can be difficult for
the animals and their owners. It can take a long
time, and many times, there is no grass or water
for the animals in the area. Sometimes the people
have to pay for the service. They did not pay for
this vaccination because it was rinderpest, but
they pay for the others it costs around 300
Ugandan Shillings.
- Lokong Augustine
115
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116
Cattle Market
This is a cattle market. These animals have been
bought by traders who will take them to Mbale or
Kampala. After buying the animals, they tie them
under a tree. Many people want to sell their
animals. Before, there was no market here, but
now we have one, and people from Teso and Mbale
come here to buy animals. The animals for sale
are healthy. When animals are traded in the
market like this, they have to be inspected. The
District Veterinary Officer inspects them to make
sure that they are healthy.
- Lokong Augustine
117
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118
Crush Construction
These people are building a local crush. It is a
contribution from the community. The people
wanted to have a vaccination. The District
Veterinary Officer mobilized them, saying,If you
build your own crush, I will send people to
vaccinate your animals. So, many people came
together and participated in its construction.
It is good to see that they are all active, all
contributing. The poles are found locally and the
community cut and fit them by themselves. The
people are not paid for this work they are just
interested in having their animals vaccinated.
- Lokong Augustine
119
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120
Traditional Dance
This is a traditional dance performed by the
local people from the cattle camp after returning
from grazing their animals. After milking them,
they are now enjoying themselves. They are
praising their bulls by singing their songs and
jumping. They dance a few nights every week, just
to enjoy themselves. The dancing is
also a time for the men to court the ladies. If I
sing my song about my bull, and it becomes better
than the other ones, maybe the ladies will
appreciate me.
- Lokong Augustine
121
Lomodo Nakape Kotido, Uganda Dodoth
I am a Community-Based Animal Health Worker
(CAHW). The community respects this work because
their livelihood depends on livestock. I am very
active in attending to sick cases. But it is
difficult because there arent enough veterinary
drugs or transport, and some people dont pay for
the drugs. I enjoy it though. Now that I am a
CAHW, my brothers take care of my livestock. I
am a pastoralist, but I am in town visiting
today. I usually dress in traditional clothes,
but in town, I must be in a shirt and trousers.
This was a declaration passed by the government
during disarmament to identify those who hide
guns under their clothes when in town. Right now,
the army is not on good terms with the civilians
because some groups think they havent been
fairly treated. Some clans feel that other clans
are better protected than they are. I had a gun
but I returned it to the government.
122
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123
Adakar Construction
This person is settling near the vaccination
crush after all his cattle have been vaccinated.
He is making an adakar, or cattle camp. It is
important to make a good cattle camp to keep away
predators such as hyenas, and thieves. Inside the
cattle camp, he will build temporary houses for
shelter. This photo shows how we migrate and
settle temporarily.
- Lomodo Nakape
124
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125
CBPP
These are people treating a cow suffering from
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). It was
the only sick animal in the herd. We knew it was
CBPP because the cow wasnt eating and it was
coughing. There is a vaccine against CBPP, but
this cow hadnt received it. It contracted the
disease because it has not been vaccinated. The
CBPP vaccination is supposed to be annual, but we
havent done one for three years.
People pay for the vaccinations and treatment.
For a cow sick with CBPP, it costs between 200
and 1000 Ugandan Shillings. Most people are
willing to pay. If they dont have cash, they can
pay later, but some pretend that their animal
died after treatment so they dont have to pay,
and so we lose money. In this area, livestock
owners are mostly concerned about anaplasmosis,
East Coast Fever, CBPP and rinderpest, but
rinderpest has been eradicated. Right now,
anaplasmosis is the biggest problem because it
comes from ticks. We can spray the animals to
prevent it, but most livestock owners dont want
to have their cows sprayed.
- Lomodo Nakape
126
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127
Kotido Livestock Market
Here, people are selling their livestock in a
market in Kotido town. In this market, the
animals are not usually inspected and certified.
Both sick and healthy animals are here. CBPP is
common in the animals sold here. In this market,
a healthy bull costs approximately 200,000
Ugandan Shillings while a sick one costs only
40,000 Ugandan Shillings. Livestock owners dont
want to exclude sick animals from the
markets, even though they dont fetch much money.
Those who bring animals to the Kotido market are
mainly Jie, Dodoth and even people from other
tribes, both from near and far. People mostly
send sick animals to the market because they
cant find any cure for the disease back home, or
they are too sick to be treated. Rather than let
them die and go to waste, they try to earn some
money from the market. Sometimes people can get
sick when they eat this meat. We try to make sure
the meat is cooked properly though. The sick
animals mostly stay in Kotido, and the healthy
ones are taken to Mbale.
- Lomodo Nakape
128
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129
Engagement Dance
These people are performing a traditional dance
at a place called Nakapelimoru. They are dancing
because they are happy. A suitor is proposing to
a lady in this place. We also dance just for
normal recreation, but the feathers, bracelets
and colorful beads clearly indicate that it is an
engagement dance. I wanted to show other people
how we
dance in our place, and that people in our
community are happy, beautiful and
well-decorated.
- Lomodo Nakape
130
Lomodo Nakape Kalapata, Uganda Dodoth
I have been a Community-Based Animal Health
Worker (CAHW) since 1996. The people chose me
because they know that I am capable and I would
help control livestock diseases. I am educated,
but they also know that I understand animals. The
government trained me. I stay in Kalapata. I like
being a CAHW because I get some knowledge about
animals and I live with the community. CAHWs are
close to the community and the animals, so it is
quite good.
131
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132
Sleeping Skin
This man is drying a skin to use for sleeping.
The skin takes three days to dry and then he will
shape it with a knife until it becomes round.
Everyone has a skin for sleeping when they are
out in the pastures with their animals.
- Louren Barnabas
133
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134
Local Council Peace Dialogue
These are warriors and the local councilors
discussing peace. I took this photo because
peace is very important to the people. If peace
is not there, there is nothing because everyone
will be killing one another.
- Louren Barnabas
135
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136
Retaliation
All these people are armed. I took this photo
just after a raid and people were running after
the raiders. The enemies had stolen some cows
from their camp. When they followed the tracks,
they found the enemies were not there. People
gathered together talking about the raid, and
deciding what to do. Lorikirip, the cattle camp
leader, was directing them. They
discussed how to control the area, and then
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