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Punctuation 1: Comma, Series

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Punctuation 1: Comma, Series Separate three or more equally ranked words, phrases, or short clauses with commas. Place a comma between each item and before the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Punctuation 1: Comma, Series


1
Punctuation 1 Comma, Series
  • Separate three or more equally ranked words,
    phrases, or short clauses with commas. Place a
    comma between each item and before the
    conjunction and, but, or nor.

2
  • Example with words
  • Example with phrases
  • Example with short clauses

3
Comma, Parenthetical
  • Set off with commas any words that are
    unnecessary for the grammatical completeness of
    the sentence and that interrupt its natural flow.
    A partial listing of these parenthetical
    expressions are

4
  • Accordingly Indeed
  • Also Nevertheless
  • Consequently Of course
  • Furthermore On the other hand
  • Hence Perhaps
  • However Secondly
  • In addition Therefore
  • In fact Too
  • In the meantime Yes

5
Comma, Parenthetical
  • Beginning
  • Middle
  • End

6
Comma, Direct Address
  • Set off with commas nouns used in direct address.
    Capitalize only proper nouns.

7
  • Beginning of a sentence
  • Middle of a sentence
  • End of a sentence

8
Comma, Appositive
  • An appositive renames or explains the noun that
    appears directly before it. Set off with commas
    appositive expressions.

9
  • Within a sentence
  • End of a sentence

10
Comma, Appositive
  • When appositive expressions are needed to
    identify the nouns they rename or explain, omit
    the commas. Also, omit the commas with one-word
    appositives.

11
  • Indicates which one
  • One-word appositive

12
Comma, Appositive
  • Another appositive form is a college degree that
    follows directly after the name of an individual.
    Set off the degree in commas.

13
  • Degree abbreviated
  • Degree written in full

14
Comma, Dates
  • Separate combinations of weekday, calendar date,
    and year with commas. No commas are used,
    however, with a calendar date expressed alone.

15
  • Calendar dateno commas
  • Calendar date and yearcommas
  • Weekday and calendar datecommas
  • Weekday, calendar date, and yearcommas

16
Comma, Dates
  • Expressions of month and year are written without
    commas.
  • Without commas

17
Comma, Addresses
  • Use commas to set off a state name following the
    name of a city.
  • Within a sentence

18
Commas, Addresses
  • In the body of a document, spell out and separate
    with commas the parts of an address.
  • Name and complete address

19
Comma, Coordinating Conjunctions
  • When two complete independent thoughts are joined
    by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or,
    nor), place a comma before the conjunction.

20
Comma, Independent Adjectives
  • When two or more independent adjectives modify a
    noun, separate the adjectives with commas.
    Reverse the adjectives and insert the word and to
    test whether or not the adjectives are
    independent.

21
  • Independent adjectives
  • Adjectives not independent

22
Comma, Introductory Phrases and Clauses
  • A sentence appearing in normal order follows a
    subject-verb-object pattern.
  • Normal order

23
  • However, when a sentence is inverted, it contains
    an introductory phrase or clause.

24
Comma, Introductory Phrases and Clauses
  • Place a comma after an introductory expression
    that contains any verb form.

25
Comma, Restrictive Phrases and Clauses
  • Restrictive phrases and clauses are essential to
    the meaning of a sentence. If they are removed,
    the meaning of the sentence would be altered or
    unclear.

26
  • Essential for identification or meaning

27
Comma, Nonrestrictive Phrases and Clauses
  • Nonrestrictive phrases and clauses add an
    additional idea but do not substantially modify
    the meaning of a sentence. If they are were
    removed, the meaning of the sentence would not be
    altered.
  • Use commas to set off nonrestrictive word groups
    from the remainder of the sentence.

28
  • Additional idea

29
Comma, Contrasting or Contingent Expressions
  • Contrasting or contingent expressions should be
    set off by commas. Come words often used to
    introduce contrasting expressions are but, never,
    not, seldom, and yet.

30
Comma, Clarity
  • Separate with a comma two identical verbs that
    appear together in a sentence.

31
Comma, Clarity
  • Words repeated for emphasis are separated by a
    comma.

32
Comma, Short Quotations
  • Use a comma to separate from the rest of the
    sentence a complete sentence set off in quotation
    marks.

33
  • Beginning Quotation
  • Ending Quotation
  • Interrupted Quotation

34
Comma, Short Quotations
  • No comma is needed when a quotation at the
    beginning of a sentence ends with a question mark
    or exclamation mark.
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