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Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

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Title: Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy


1
Chapter 17
  • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

2
The Energy Revolution
  • The heating bill for this energy-efficient
    passive solar radiation office in Colorado is 50
    a year.
  • 84 of all commercial energy used in the U.S. is
    wasted
  • 41 wasted due to 2nd law of thermodynamics.

Figure 17-1
3
SOLAR CELLS
  • CONVERT SUNLIGHT INTO ELECTRICITY
  • ATTACH LIKE SHINGLES TO ROOF
  • APPLY TO WINDOW GLASS AS COATING
  • MOUNTED ON RACKS ALMOST ANYWHERE

4
WIND FARMS
  • MANY COUNTRIES
  • ESPECIALLY EUROPE
  • WIND TURBINES LOCATED IN CLUSTERS
  • FEWER ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS THAN ANY ENERGY
    RESOURCE
  • CHEAP

5
FUEL CELLS
  • ELECTRICITY FROM H GAS (H2)
  • PRODUCED BY PASSING ELECTRICITY FROM RENEWABLE
    SOLAR ENERGY SOURCES
  • WIND TURBINES
  • HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS
  • SOLAR CELLS THROUGH WATER

6
FUELCELLS
  • EMIT ONLY WATER VAPOR
  • NO CO2 OR OTHER AIR POLLUTANTS IF THE
  • H2 IS PRODUCED FROM H2O AND NOT CARBON CONTAINING
    FOSSIL FUELS
  • SHIFTING TO H2 AS PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE WOULD
    ELIMINATE MOST AIR POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GASE
    EMISSIONS

7
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Figure 17-2
8
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
  • 84 OF ALL COMMERCIAL ENERGY USED IN THE U.S. IS
    WASTED
  • ABOUT 41 AUTOMATICALLY WASTED DUE TO 2ND LAW OF
    THERMODYNAMICS
  • COSTS U.S. ABOUT 300 BILLION PER YEAR

9
ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY COUNTRY
  • JAPAN
  • GERMANY
  • FRANCE
  • ALL 2 3 TIMES MORE ENERGY EFFICIENT THAN THE
    U.S.

10
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
  • Incandescent light bulb 5 efficient
  • Internal combustion engine 6 - 14 efficient
  • Nuclear power plant 8 14 efficient
  • Coal-burning power plant 34 efficient
  • Fuel cell 40 efficient
  • Steam turbine 45 efficient
  • Human body 20 25 efficient
  • Fluorescent light 22 efficient

11
Net Energy Efficiency
  • Comparison of net energy efficiency for two types
    of space heating.

Figure 17-4
12
MAJOR WAYS TO IMPROVE ENERGY EFFICIENCY
  • 1) Insulation
  • 2) Elimination of air leaks
  • 3) Air to air heat exchangers (heat pump)
  • 4) Cogeneration
  • 5) Efficient electric motors
  • 6) High-efficiency lighting
  • 7) Increasing CAFÉ standards

13
TRANSPORTATION
  • ¼ OF U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • 1073-1985 AVERAGE FUEL EFFICIENCY ROSE DUE TO
    CAFÉ
  • (CORPORATE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY)
  • 1988-2006 AVERAGE FUEL EFFICIENCY FOR NEW
    VEHICLES DECREASED BY 6 DUE TO
  • NO INCREASE IN CAFÉ
  • TRUCKS SUVS PURCHASED THAT DO NOT HAVE TO MEET
    HIGH MILEAGE STANDARDS

14

Cars
Average fuel economy (miles per gallon, or mpg)
Both
Pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles
Model year
Fig. 17-5, p. 388
15
HIDDEN FUEL COSTS
  • GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES
  • TAX BREAKS FOR OIL COMPANIES ROAD BUILDERS
  • POLLUTION CONTROL CLEANUP
  • MILITARY PROTECTION OF OIL SUPPLIES

16
REASONS FOR LOW FUEL EFFICIENCY
  • 50 OF AMERICANS DRIVE A FUEL-INEFFICIENT TRUCK
    OR SUV
  • GOVERNMENT HAS NOT PROVIDED TAX PAYERS WITH LARGE
    ENOUGH TAX BREAKS, REBATES, LOW-INTEREST, LT
    LOANS TO ENCOURAGE PURCHASE OF MORE FUEL
    EFFICIENT VEHICLES

17
TAX BREAKS
  • 2005 PURCHASE OF A 50000 HUMMER GOT UP TO A
    25000 TAX DEDUCTION
  • PURCHASE OF A HYBRID GOT A TAX DEDUCTION UP TO
    3,100

18
HYBRID CARS
Figure 17-7
19
Fuel-Cell Vehicles
  • Fuel-efficient vehicles powered by a fuel cell
    that runs on hydrogen gas are being developed.
  • Combines hydrogen gas (H2) and oxygen gas (O2)
    fuel to produce electricity and water vapor
    (2H2O2 ? 2H2O).
  • Emits no air pollution or CO2 if the hydrogen is
    produced from renewable-energy sources.

20
FUEL CELLS
  • 2X AS EFFICIENT AS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
  • NO MOVING PARTS
  • REQUIRE LITTLE MAINTENANCE
  • QUIET
  • EMIT NO AIR POLLUTANTS OR CO2
  • UNFORTUNATELY ARE EXPENSIVE
  • WITHIN 20 YEARS, CHINA PLANS TO BECOME WORLD
    LEADER IN PRODUCING HYBRID FUEL CELL VEHICLES

21

Body attachments Mechanical locks that secure
the body to the chassis
Air system management
Universal docking connection Connects the
chassis with the drive-by-wire system in the body
Fuel-cell stack Converts hydrogen fuel into
electricity
Rear crush zone Absorbs crash energy
Drive-by-wire system controls
Cabin heating unit
Side-mounted radiators Release heat generated by
the fuel cell, vehicle electronics, and wheel
motors
Hydrogen fuel tanks
Front crush zone Absorbs crash energy
Electric wheel motors Provide four-wheel drive
have built-in brakes
Fig. 17-8, p. 390
22
BUILDINGS
  • ONE-THIRD U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION
  • 64 FOR HEATING A.C.
  • 24 HEATING
  • 12 LIGHTING
  • GA POWER COMPANY BUILDING IN ATLANTA USES 60
    LESS ENERGY THAN CONVENTIONAL OFFICE BUILDINGS OF
    THE SAME SIZE

23
U.S. GREEN BUILDING COUNCILS LEADERSHIP IN
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
  • LEED
  • ESTABLISHED ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
    GUIDELINES
  • CERTIFIES BUILDINGS AS MEETING ITS STANDARDS AS
  • SILVER
  • GOLD
  • PLATINUM

24
ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDING DESIGN WORLD LEADER
EMERGING
  • CHINA WITHIN 20 YEARS
  • CHINAS MINISTRY OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY BUILDING
    IN BEJIING ONE OF 60 GOLD-STANDARD BUILDINGS
    WORLDWIDE
  • CHINESE LEADERS SEE GLOBAL GREEN MARKET FOR
    ENERGY EFFICIENT
  • CARS
  • BUILDINGS
  • LIGHTING
  • APPLIANCES
  • SOLAR CELLS
  • WIND TURBINES
  • SOLAR WATER HEATERS

25
SUPERINSULATED HOUSES
  • HEAT FROM DIRECT SUNLIGHT, APPLIANCES AND HUMAN
    BODIES CAN WARM IT WITH LITTLE OR NO NEED FOR A
    BACKUP HEATING SYSTEM
  • AIR-TO-AIR HEAT EXCHANGER PREVENTS BUILDUP OF
    INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
  • COSTS 5 MORE THAN CONVENTIONAL HOUSES TO BUILD
  • EXTRA COST PAID BACK BY ENERGY SAVINGS WITHIN 5
    YEARS
  • CAN SAVE A HOMEOWNER 50K - 100K OVER 40 YEARS
  • IN SWEDEN, SUPERINSULATED HOUSES USE 90 LESS
    ENERGY FOR HEATING AND COOLING THAN THE TYPICAL
    AMERICAN HOME

26
Strawbale House
  • Strawbale superinsulator made from bales of
    low-cost straw covered with plaster or adobe.
    Depending on the thickness of the bales, its
    strength exceeds standard construction.

Figure 17-9
27
Living Roofs
  • Roofs covered with plants have been used for
    decades in Europe and Iceland.
  • Built from a blend of light-weight compost, mulch
    and sponge-like materials that hold water.
  • Insulators

Figure 17-10
28
Saving Energy in Existing Buildings
  • About one-third of the heated air in typical U.S.
    homes and buildings escapes through closed
    windows and holes and cracks.

Figure 17-11
29
SAVING ENERGY IN EXISTING BUILDINGS
  • INSULATE AND PLUG LEAKS
  • USE ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOWS
  • STOP OTHER HEATING COOLING LOSSES
  • HEAT HOUSES MORE EFFICIENTLY
  • HEAT WATER MORE EFFICIENTLY
  • USE ENERGY EFFICIENT APPLICANCES
  • USE ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING

30
WHY ARE WE WASTING SO MUCH ENERGY?
  • FOSSIL FUELS ARE ARTIFICIALLY CHEAP
  • MARKET PRICES DOES NOT INCLUDE ITS HARMFUL
    ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH COSTS
  • ABSENCE OF SIGNIFICANT TAX BREAKS/REBATES/L.T.
    LOANS
  • EARN AT LEAST 20 PER YEAR ON YOUR MONEY TAX FREE
    BY INVESTING IN IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN
    YOUR HOME

31
RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY
  • DIRECTLY FROM THE SUN
  • INDIRECTLY FROM
  • MOVING WATER
  • WIND
  • BIOMASS
  • GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
  • PROVIDES 18 OF WORLDS ENERGY
  • PROVIDES 6 OF U.S. ENERGY

32
USING RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO PROVIDE HEAT AND
ELECTRICITY
  • The European Union aims to get 22 of its
    electricity from renewable energy by 2010.
  • Costa Rica gets 92 of its energy from renewable
    resources.
  • China aims to get 10 of its total energy from
    renewable resources by 2020.
  • In 2004, California got about 12 of its
    electricity from wind and plans to increase this
    to 50 by 2030.

33
USING RENEWABLE SOLAR ENERGY TO PROVIDE HEAT AND
ELECTRICITY
  • Denmark now gets 20 of its electricity from wind
    and plans to increase this to 50 by 2030.
  • Brazil gets 20 of its gasoline from sugarcane
    residue.
  • In 2004, the worlds renewable-energy industries
    provided 1.7 million jobs.

34
Heating Buildings and Water with Solar Energy
  • We can heat buildings by orienting them toward
    the sun (southern orientation) or by pumping a
    liquid such as water through rooftop collectors.

Figure 17-12
35
Passive Solar Heating
  • Passive solar heating - system absorbs and
    stores heat from the sun directly within a
    structure without the need for pumps to
    distribute the heat.

Figure 17-13
36

Direct Gain
Ceiling and north wall heavily insulated
Summer sun
Hot air
Super- insulated windows
Warm air
Winter sun
Cool air
Earth tubes
Fig. 17-13, p. 396
37

Greenhouse, Sunspace, or Attached Solarium
Summer cooling vent
Warm air
Insulated windows
Cool air
Fig. 17-13, p. 396
38

Earth Sheltered
Reinforced concrete, carefully waterproofed walls
and roof
Triple-paned or superwindows
Earth
Flagstone floor for heat storage
Fig. 17-13, p. 396
39
ACTIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS
  • ABSORBS ENERGY FROM THE SUN BY PUMPING A
    HEAT-ABSORBING FLUID (WATER OR ANTIFREEZE
    SOLUTION) THROUGH SPECIAL COLLECTORS ON ROOF OR
    ON SPECIAL RACKS TO FACE THE SUN
  • MOST ARE FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS
  • DARK COLORED, HEAT ABSORBING PLATES IN A BOX
    COVERED WITH GLASS
  • CAN ALSO BE USED TO PROVIDE HOT WATER (CHINA,
    SPAIN, JAPAN, GERMANY, ISRAEL)

40
Cooling Houses Naturally
  • We can cool houses by
  • Superinsulating (superwindows, blown insulation)
    them.
  • Taking advantages of breezes.
  • Shading them.
  • Having light colored or green roofs.
  • Using geothermal cooling.

41
SOLAR CELLS (PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS)
  • THIN WAFERS OF PURIFIED SILICON
  • TRACE AMOUNTS OF GALLIUM CADMIUM THAT ALLOWS
    THEM TO ACT AS SEMICONDUCTORS
  • SUNLIGHT STRIKES CELL EMITTING E- THAT FLOW AND
    CREATE AN ELECTRICAL CURRENT
  • EACH CELL PRODUCES A SMALL AMOUNT OF ELECTRICITY
    SO MANY CELLS WIRED TOGETHER TO PRODUCE
    ELECTRICAL POWER
  • CAN BE CONNECTED TO BATTERIES TO STORE ENERGY
  • NO MOVING PARTS, QUIET, LITTLE MAINTENANCE,NO
    POLLUTION AND LAST AS LONG AS CONVENTIONAL FOSSIL
    FUELS OR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

42
Producing Electricity with Solar Cells
  • Solar cells convert sunlight to electricity a
    PV cell uses light to energize electrons along a
    semiconductor.

Figure 17-16
43
Producing Electricity with Solar Cells
  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells can provide electricity
    for a house or building using solar-cell roof
    shingles.

Figure 17-17
44
Producing Electricity with Solar Cells
  • Solar cells can be used in rural villages with
    ample sunlight who are not connected to an
    electrical grid.
  • Nanotechnology

Figure 17-18
45
Electricity Costs
46
PRODUCING ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE
  • LEADING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE
  • 2ND CHEAPEST WAY TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY
  • SUPPLIES ABOUT ONE-FIFTH OF WORLDS ELECTRICITY
  • NORWAY 99
  • NEW ZEALAND 75
  • ARGENTINA 42
  • U.S. IS WORLDS LARGEST PRODUCER OF ELECTRICITY
    FROM HYDROPOWER,ESPECIALLY IN THE WEST
  • MUCH OF WORLDS UNTAPPED POTENTIAL IN CHINA,
    INDIA, SOUTH AMERICA, CENTRAL AFRICA AND PARTS OF
    FORMER SOVIET UNION

47
PRODUCING ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE
  • There is little room for expansion in the U.S.
    Dams and reservoirs have been created on 98 of
    suitable rivers.

48
PRODUCING ELECTRICITY FROM THE WATER CYCLE
  • OTEC
  • Only two large tidal energy dams are currently
    operating one in La Rance, France and Nova
    Scotias bay of Fundy

49
PRODUCING ELECTRICITY FROM WIND
  • Wind turbines can be used individually to produce
    electricity. They are also used interconnected in
    arrays on wind farms.

Figure 17-21
50
WIND ENERGY CHEAPEST MOST NONPOLLUTING WAY TO
PRODUCE ELECTRICITY
  • 2.5 CENTS PER KILOWATT HOUR
  • CAPTURING ONLY 20 OF WIND ENERGY AT BEST SITES
    COULD MEET ALL OF THE WORLDS ENERGY DEMAND
    OVER 7 TIMES THE AMOUNT OF ELECRICITY CURRENTLY
    USED IN WORLD
  • COULD REPLACE NUCLEAR AND COAL BURNING POWER
    PLANTS
  • ND, TX, KS, SD THE SAUDI ARABIA OF WIND POWER
  • MORE THAN ENOUGH WIND RESOURCES TO MEET
    ELECTRICITY NEEDS OF THE U.S.

51
THE AGE OF WIND ENERGY
  • EUROPE LEADS THE WORLD
  • 75 OF WORLDS WIND GENERATED POWER PRODUCED
    THERE BY INLAND OFFSHORE FARMS OR PARKS
  • DENMARK, GEMANY, SPAIN MANUFACTURE 80 OF GLOBAL
    WIND TURBINES
  • INDIA, CHINA, BRAZIL, CANADA, AUSTRALIA
    INCREASING THEIR USE OF WIND ENERGY

52
PRODUCING ENERGY FROM BIOMASS
  • Plant materials and animal wastes can be burned
    to provide heat or electricity or converted into
    gaseous or liquid biofuels.

Figure 17-23
53
PRODUCING ENERGY FROM BIOMASS
  • The scarcity of fuelwood causes people to make
    fuel briquettes from cow dung in India. This
    deprives soil of plant nutrients.

Figure 17-24
54
Converting Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid
Biofuels
  • Motor vehicles can run on ethanol, biodiesel, and
    methanol produced from plants and plant wastes.
  • Major advantages of biofuels
  • 1) Crops used for production can be grown almost
    anywhere.
  • 2)There is no net increase in CO2 emissions.
  • 3) Widely available and easy to store and
    transport.

55
PRODUCERS OF BIOMASS
  • BIGGEST PRODUCERS ARE
  • BRAZIL
  • U.S.
  • EUROPEAN UNION
  • CHINA
  • ALL PLAN TO DOUBLE PRODUCTION BY 2020.

56
BENEFITS OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION
  • BIOFUELPRODUCTION CAN HELP INCREASE ECONOMIC
    GROWTH AND REDUCE POVERTY IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES
  • TROPICAL COUNTRIES HAVE SEVERAL ADVANTAGES TO
    PRODUCING BIOMASS
  • PLENTIFUL RAINFALL
  • LONG GROWING SEASONS
  • HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY OF TROPICAL SUGAR AND OIL
    PLANTS
  • COMPARATIVELY LOW LABOR AND LAND COSTS

57
DISADVANTAGES TO BIOMASS PRODUCTION
  • CAN USING INDUSTRIALIZED AGRICULTURE TO GROW
    LARGE AREAS OF MONOCULTURE CROPS TO PRODUCE
    BIOFUELS BE DONE SUSTAINABLY?
  • INDUSTRIALIZED AGRICULTURE HAS THE HARMFUL IMPACT
    OF LAND DEGRADATION, INCREASED AIR AND WATER
    POLLUTION AND INCREASED EMISSIONS OF CO2 AND
    OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES
  • EXPANDING THE LAND AREA DEVOTED TO BIOFUEL CROPS
    CAN DECREASE AND DEGRADE BIODIVERSITY (BRAZILS
    PLANS)
  • GROWING COMPETITION BETWEEN USING LAND TO GROW
    CROPS FOR FOOD AND FOR BIOFUELS. IF BIOFUELS WIN
    OUT, WORLD FOOD SUPPLIES COULD BE THREATENED.

58
Producing Ethanol
  • Crops such as sugarcane, corn, and switchgrass
    and agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes
    can be converted to ethanol.
  • Switchgrass can remove CO2 from the troposphere
    and store it in the soil.

Figure 17-26
59
(No Transcript)
60
ETHANOL
  • MADE FROM FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION OF SUGARS
    IN PLANTS SUCH AS SUGARCANE,CORN AND SWITCHGRASS.
  • 10-23 pure ethanol makes gasohol which can be
    run in conventional motors.
  • 85 ethanol (E85) must be burned in flex-fuel
    cars.
  • Processing all corn grown in the U.S. into
    ethanol would cover only about 55 days of current
    driving.
  • Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol with
    vegetable oil made from a variety of different
    plants can meet 10 of energy needs in U.S.
  • Production
  • BRAZIL LEADS THE WORLD MAKES ETHANOL FROM
    BAGASSE A RESIDUE FROM SUGARCANE
  • U.S. WORLDS SECOND LARGEST PRODUCER OF ETHANOL
  • BRAZIL HAS BENEFITED MORE ECONOMICALLY - WHY?
    (PAGE 406)
  • WHY HAS THE U.S. NOT BENEFITED AS WELL
    ECONOMICALLY?

61
SWITCHGRASS
  • TALL GRASS NATIVE TO N.AMERICAN PRAIRIES
  • GROWS FASTER WITH LESS FERTILIZER THAN CORN
  • CAN BE GROWN ON LAND UNFIT FOR CROPS
  • HELPS REMOVE CO2 FROM TROPOSPHERE
  • FUEL YIELD IS ABOUT 2 MORE/ACRE THAN SUGARCANE
  • NET ENERGY YIELD IS 4, MUCH GREATER THAN CORN
  • MOST OF WORLDS ETHANOL LIKELY TO BE PRODUCED
    FROM SWITCHGRASS AND SUGARCANE

62
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
  • Geothermal energy - heat stored in soil,
    underground rocks, and fluids in the earths
    mantle.
  • Use geothermal energy stored in the earths
    mantle to heat and cool buildings and to produce
    electricity.
  • A geothermal heat pump (GHP) - heats and cools a
    house using the difference between the earths
    surface and underground temperatures.

63
Geothermal Heat Pump
  • The house is heated in the winter by transferring
    heat from the ground into the house.
  • The process is reversed in the summer to cool the
    house.

Figure 17-31
64
HYDROGEN
  • Some energy experts view hydrogen gas as the best
    fuel to replace oil during the last half of the
    century, but there are several hurdles to
    overcome
  • Hydrogen is chemically locked up in water and
    organic compounds.
  • It takes energy and money to produce it (net
    energy is low).
  • Fuel cells are expensive.
  • Hydrogen may be produced by using fossil fuels.

65
Converting to a Hydrogen Economy
  • Iceland plans to run its economy mostly on
    hydrogen (produced via hydropower, geothermal,
    and wind energy), but doing this in
    industrialized nations is more difficult.
  • Must convert economy to energy farming (e.g.
    solar, wind) from energy hunter-gatherers seeking
    new fossil fuels.
  • No infrastructure for hydrogen-fueling stations
    (12,000 needed at 1 million apiece).
  • High cost of fuel cells.

66
A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY STRATEGY
  • Shifts in the use of commercial energy resources
    in the U.S. since 1800, with projected changes to
    2100.

Figure 17-34
67

Small solar-cell power plants
Bioenergy power plants
Wind farm
Rooftop solar cell arrays
Fuel cells
Solar-cell rooftop systems
Transmission and distribution system
Commercial
Small wind turbine
Residential
Industrial
Microturbines
Fig. 17-35, p. 414
68

What Can You Do?
Energy Use and Waste
Get an energy audit at your house or office.
Drive a car that gets at least 15 kilometers
per liter (35 miles per gallon) and join a
carpool.
Use mass transit, walking, and bicycling.
Superinsulate your house and plug all air leaks.
Turn off lights, TV sets, computers, and other
electronic equipment when they are not in use.
Wash laundry in warm or cold water.
Use passive solar heating.
For cooling, open windows and use ceiling fans
or whole-house attic or window fans.
Turn thermostats down in winter, up in summer.
Buy the most energy-efficient homes, lights,
cars, and appliances available.
Turn down the thermostat on water heaters to
4349C (110120F) and insulate hot water
heaters and pipes.
Fig. 17-37, p. 416
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