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State Socialism After Stalin

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Owner Last modified by: Sergei Created Date: 1/1/1601 12:00:00 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: State Socialism After Stalin


1
State Socialism After Stalin
2
  • Stalins last years 1945-53
  • A new mobilization of the country
  • To rebuild the economy
  • To build up military power against the West
  • Privations and hardships for the population
  • A new wave of mass repressions affecting all
    groups of Soviet population, including top
    leadership
  • Stalins cult reaches its apex

3
  • Stalins last years 1945-53
  • 1946 start of the Cold War
  • 1947-49 The Communist takeover and
    Stalinization - of Eastern Europe
  • 1949 The Communist victory in China
  • 1950-53 The Korean War
  • Growing fears of a coming World War III

4
  • Stalins last supper http//www.youtube.com/watch
    ?vT75ECk5HqVofeaturerelmfu
  • Stalin is buried
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWojz2-6vM2o

5
  • Stalins regime could not be maintained after his
    death
  • --Extreme degree of state domination over
    society, permanent emergency rule, mass terror
    cannot be maintained for long
  • --Communist elites needed more normal, more
    stable regimes in which they would be secure
    from dangers from
  • the dictators
  • the people
  • --War with the West was not inevitable
    coexistence between the two systems was possible
    the Korean War could be stopped by negotiation

6
  • Changes were inevitable they were in the
    interests both of the rulers and of the ruled
  • BUT Stalinist features remained at the
    foundation of communist power
  • --Communist bureaucracy reigned as the New Class
    (nomenklatura) no interest in sharing power
  • --One-party systems
  • --Control of information
  • --Mechanisms of repression (security services,
    the military) remained in place

7
  • From the death of Stalin to the collapse of
    communism
  • In each communist country attempts to develop
    viable political-economic systems which would
  • --secure the dominance of communist elites,
  • and
  • --make state socialism attractive or at least
    acceptable - to the masses

8
  • Return to the past was impossible
  • Options for the future
  • --National Stalinism (Albania, Romania, China)
  • --Reform socialism
  • --Capitalism

9
  • National Stalinism would simply prolong the
    agony.
  • Reform socialism required a strong commitment to
    democracy from the ruling elites.
  • They needed to take big risks with
    democratization
  • But the fear of losing power prevented most of
    them from taking such risks
  • And when some of them would venture risky
    democratic strategies, Soviet hardliners would
    intervene (Hungary, 1956, Moscow, 1964,
    Czechoslovakia, 1968, Poland, 1981, Moscow, 1991)
  • Ultimately (in 1989-91), the elites opted for
    national capitalism

10
  • The role of nationalism
  • The nationalist-communist fusion in its various
    forms
  • Sources of nationalist agendas in communist
    countries
  • Nation-building processes were spurred on by
    state socialism
  • National communist elites sought to reduce or
    overthrow imperial control
  • Part of the reform process, an element of
    democratization

11
The Timeline The Thaw 1953-1964 The
Conservative Era 1964-1985 Reforms and
Collapse 1985-1991
12
  • Leaders of de-Stalinization,1950s-60s
  • Iosip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)
  • Nikita Khrushchev (USSR)
  • Wladyslaw Gomulka (Poland)
  • Imre Nagy (Hungary)
  • Alexander Dubcek (Czechoslovakia)

13
Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito
14
The USSR Nikita Khrushchev
15
Poland
Wladyslaw Gomulka
16
Hungary Imre Nagy
17
Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubcek
18
  • THE THAW
  • 1953 Stalins death, first moves towards
    liberalization in USSR and Eastern Europe
  • 1956
  • The rise of Nikita Khrushchev
  • The 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party
    Khrushchevs secret speech denounces Stalin
  • Upheaval in Poland
  • The Hungarian revolution and its suppression
  • 1957 Stalinists attempt to overthrow Khrushchev
  • 1961 Khrushchev renews his anti-Stalinist
    campaign new Party programme promises the
    beginning of full communism within 20 years
  • 1962 The Cuban missile crisis. The Novocherkassk
    massacre
  • 1964 Khrushchev is deposed by conservatives

19
  • A new society product of socialist
    transformations
  • Increasingly urbanized
  • Rapidly growing educational levels
  • Class struggle is over
  • Rising expectations of peace and a better, freer
    life
  • Women, youth, intellectuals new social demands
  • Citizens losing fear of the state

20
  • Khrushchev in black and white http//www.youtube.
    com/watch?vUQAqkhb82js

21
  • Changes in the Soviet system during The Thaw
  • End of mass terror, release of millions from
    GULAG, reform of security police
  • Return of most deportees to their homelands
  • Major improvements in the quality of life of the
    population
  • Official renunciation of Stalinism
  • Relaxation of Party control on information and
    culture
  • Attempts at accommodation with the West

22
  • Cultural dissent
  • http//www.dailymotion.com/video/xfpblm_y-y-yyyyyy
    y-yyyyy-cyyyyyy-yyyyyyyy-byzakelis_shortfilms
  • http//www.dailymotion.com/video/x84l0f_yyyyyyyyy-
    yyyyy-yyyyy-yyyyyyy_music?fromrsshmz706c6179657
    2

23
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24
Nuclear weapons stockpiles
25
Gen. Curtis B. LeMay, Chief of the Strategic Air
Command, advocated all-out nuclear war to destroy
Soviet Union and Red China
26
  • Spring 1961
  • JFK asks JCS If your plans for general
    nuclear war are carried out as planned, how
    many people will be killed in the Soviet Union
    and China?
  • Answer
  • 275 mln. instantly
  • 325 mln. after 6 months
  • Up to 600 mln. total for Europe and Asia
  • http//www.japanfocus.org/-Daniel-Ellsberg/3222

27
Chinas leader Mao Zedong urged Khrushchev to
wage nuclear war against the West
28
(No Transcript)
29
A US Navy destroyer intercepting a Soviet
freighter off Cuba
30
(No Transcript)
31
  • THE CONSERVATIVE ERA
  • 1964 Khrushchev is deposed by the Party
    leadership Leonid Brezhnev becomes the head of
    the Soviet Communist Party
  • 1965
  • Limited market reforms announced in USSR
  • First public trials of dissidents
  • 1966 Hungary introduces New Economic Mechanism
  • 1968
  • Protests and repression in Poland
  • The Prague Spring and its suppression
  • 1969 The Sino-Soviet military conflict
  • 1970 In Poland, worker protests lead to the fall
    of Gomulka
  • 1971-72 The start of détente between the USSR
    and the West
  • 1979 Détente is over the Soviet invasion of
    Afghanistan
  • 1980-81 The rise of Polish Solidarity martial
    law is imposed
  • 1982 Brezhnevs death and the succession crisis
  • 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary

32
Leonid Brezhnev, top Soviet leader, 1964-82
33
August 21, 1968 Soviet-led invasion of
Czechoslovakia
34
  • Czechoslovakia, 1968 http//www.youtube.com/watch
    ?vSVIp5lUJhCs

35
(No Transcript)
36
Andrei Sakharov
37
Soviet-Western détente Brezhnev with Nixon, 1972
38
Soviet-Western détente Brezhnev with US
President Carter, 1979
39
(No Transcript)
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