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Theories of Practice: The Human Resources Frame

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Title: Theories of Practice: The Human Resources Frame


1
Theories of PracticeThe Human Resources Frame
MPA 8002 The Structure and Theory of Human
Organization Richard M. Jacobs, OSA, Ph.D.
2
A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO
People are the heart of any organization. When
people feel the organization is responsive to
their needs and supportive of their goals,
managers and leaders can count on their
followers commitment and loyalty. Managers and
leaders who are authoritarian or insensitive, who
dont communicate effectively, or who simply
dont care about their people can never be
effective managers and leaders. The human
resource manager and leader works on behalf of
both the organization and its people, seeking to
serve the best interests of both.
3
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A HUMAN RESOURCES
SCENARIO
The job of the manager and leader is one of
support and empowerment. Support takes a variety
of forms letting people know that they are
important and that managers and leaders are
concerned about them listening to find out about
their followers aspirations and goals and,
communicating personal warmth and openness.
Human resource managers and leaders empower their
followers through participation and openness as
well as by making sure that they have the
autonomy and the resources they need to do their
jobs well. Human resource managers and leaders
emphasize honest, two-way communication as a way
to identify issues and resolve differences. They
are willing to confront others when it is
appropriate, but they try to do so in a spirit of
openness and caring. Bolman Deal (1991, p. 359)
4
the human resources frame
5
  • If the principles of scientific management
    were considered revolutionary, the assertions
    of the early human resources theorists were
    radical...

6
  • as their hypotheses challenged the
    antecedents and theories of practice governing
    how managers viewed workers for the new
    Industrial era.

7
One of the earliest precursors of human resources
theory...
  • David Owen
  • 18th century mercantilist
  • owned spinning mills throughout Scotland
  • believed that worker productivity could be
    improved by being attentive to their basic human
    needs

8
  • provided workers a high standard of living,
    including

decent, clean housing
life-long educational opportunities
  • preschool
  • progressive elementary and secondary schooling
  • day care
  • continuing adult education

9
  • in contrast to prevailing practice, Owen trained
    his managers in humane disciplinary practices...

...endeavored to make workers origins rather
than pawns of the organization (de Charms, 1968)
10
Contrasting pawns and origins...
how managers and leaders view pawns
how managers and leaders view origins
  • active resources
  • passive workers
  • competent and basically self-motivated
  • basically incompetent and lazy
  • bring skills, attitudes, energy, enthusiasm, and
    commitment
  • require training
  • need close supervision
  • are self-regulating

11
how origins experience work
how pawns experience work
  • invigorating opportunities to make a personal
    contribution
  • replaceable cogs in a machine
  • victims of incompetent bosses, bureaucratic
    inertia, and organizational doublespeak
  • a place to experience a sense of belonging, to
    build self-esteem, and to become self-actualized
  • a place for personal and professional growth and
    challenge by asserting oneself and advocating
    ones needs
  • alienating, dehumanizing, and frustrating

12
  • The issue raised by the human resources
    theories of practice is that of better aligning
    people and organizations not people or
    organizations...

13
  • because...

people need organizations
for the extrinsic rewards work provides
for the intrinsic satisfaction work can provide
organizations need people
for a reliable and stable labor pool
for the energy, effort, and talent people bring
14
The assumptions of human resources theories...
  • 1. organizations exist to serve human needs

2. organizations and people need each other
ideas
salaries
energy
opportunities
careers
talent
3. the fit of people and organization is critical
an inappropriate fit can lead to exploitation or
victimization by people and/or the organization
15
  • The rise of industrial/organizational
    psychology in the 20th century, especially human
    needs theories, provided a theoretical focus to
    consider the fit of people and organization...

16
Abraham Maslow (1954)...
  • defined the hierarchy of pre-potent needs

5. self-actualization
5
4. self-esteem
4
3. belongingness
3
2. safety, security
2
1. physiological
1
17
Chris Argyris (1957)...
  • asserted that the worker-structure conflict is
    built into the traditional principles of
    organizational design and management

task specialization defines jobs as narrowly as
possible to improve efficiency
...but the outcome is that work is depersonalized
and becomes monotonous
18
evidence of worker-structure conflict
1. personal withdrawalevident in absenteeism
and quitting
2. psychological withdrawalevident in
indifference passivity, and apathy
3. resistanceevident in soldiering, deception,
feather bedding, and sabotage
4. power grabsclimbing the bureaucracy
5. forming coalitions (e.g., unions) to redress
power imbalances
6. socializing children with negative view of
work (i.e., unrewarding, little hope for
advancement)
19
Frederick Herzberg (1959)...
  • formulated a two factor theory of the
    motivation to work

E
A
2F
M
motivation is a psychological complex of two
factors manifesting themselves in attitudes
evident in their effects
20
hygiene factors
2F
  • 2 FACTORS

motivators
these factors are the objective elements and
subjective feelings (i.e., needs or drives
activated by the events themselves) antecedent to
an attitude
21
extrinsic
hygiene factors
  • do not motivate but the absence of hygiene
    increases worker dissatisfaction
  • when hygiene is not met, workers strike or give
    up motivation and become addicted to hygiene

22
Good organizational hygiene provides the
foundation for higher motivation in the
workplace...
hygiene factors
23
motivators
intrinsic
  • experiences enabling personal growth and
    self-actualization in the work itself

doing complete jobs, experiencing success
achievement
engaging in work design and accountability
responsibility
doing the job
the work itself
engaging in new learnings, developing expertise
advancement
24
...motivators build on hygiene factors...
motivators
hygiene factors
25
  • To inculcate higher motivation in workers,
    managers and leaders should focus on
  • using the organizing and planning functions to
    encourage high morale
  • attending to the workers attitudes not the work
    process

26
  • While attending to worker morale and attitudes,
    managers and leaders recognize
  • that workplace hygiene is primary providing the
    foundation for motivation
  • that motivation to work is a psychological
    process not a matter of a workers interest in
    the job
  • that salary is a hygiene factor not a motivator

27
  • According to Herzbergs two-factor theory of
    motivation, the worst of all motivators is

an across-the-board salary increase
28
Douglas McGregor (1960)...
  • posited a theory of management, Theory X and
    Theory Y

asserting that a managers assumptions about
people become self-fulfilling prophecies evident
in organizational behavior
29
  • Theory X...

people are inherently
lazy
passive
possess little ambition
prefer to be led
resist change
30
  • Theory X...

workers are characterized by
an external locus-of-control
other-centered directedness
31
  • Theory X...

management through
coercion
tight controls
threats
punishments
32
  • Theory X...

self-fulfilling prophecies
coercion
low productivity
tight controls
antagonism
threats
militant unions
punishments
subtle sabotage
33
  • Theory Y...

people are inherently
motivated
active and interested
ambitious
prefer to lead
interested in change
34
  • Theory Y...

workers are characterized by
an internal locus-of-control
self-direction
35
  • Theory Y...

management through
open systems
communication
self-managing teams
peer-controlled pay systems
36
  • Theory Y...

management through
open systems
needs and tasks aligned
communication
accurate feedback
self-managing teams
worker investment
peer-controlled pay systems
fairness and equity
37
  • the essential task of managers and leaders is to
    arrange organizational conditions

so that people can achieve their own goals best
by directing their efforts toward organizational
rewards
38
  • While industrial/organizational psychology
    provided a theoretical focus to consider the fit
    of people and organization...

the goal of making the workplace and
productivity a forum for people to express their
freedom and dignity, as noble as this goal may
be, has never been empirically proven.
39
Argyris Schön (1974, 1996)...
  • juxtaposed two theories of practice, Model I
    and Model II

Model Iwhat managers and leaders say conflicts
with what they do
Model IIthrough organizational learning, there
is congruence between what managers and leaders
say and do
40
Model I assumptions...
  • organizations are competitive, dangerous places
  • watch out for yourself or someone else will do
    you in

41
Model I theory-in-use...
core values
action strategy
outcomes behavior
outcomes learning
no learning self-sealing, protection from
negative feedback
defensive, inconsistent, fearful, and selfish
appearance
design and manage the environment unilaterally
identify and achieve goals
42
core values
action strategy
outcomes behavior
outcomes learning
single-loop learning core values and
assumptions remain unquestioned
engenders defensive, inconsistent, fearful, and
selfish behaviors in others
own and control what is relevant to ones
interests
maximize winning, minimize losing
43
core values
action strategy
outcomes behavioral
outcomes learning
core values and assumptions are tested privately
reinforces defensive norms mistrust, risk
avoidance, conformity, and rivalry
insulate oneself from criticism, discomfort, and
vulnerability
minimize the expression of negative feelings
44
core values
action strategy
outcomes behavior
outcomes learning
collusion that impedes organizational learning
critical organizational issues are not discussed
insulate others from being hurt
be rational
45
The Model I problem-solving process...
  • 1. assume that others are causing the problem

2. develop a private, unilateral diagnosis and
solution to the problem
46
3. get other(s) to change by...
calmly using facts, logic, and rational
persuasion to assert the merits of your point of
view
using indirect coercive influences
formulating and issuing direct critiques
47
  • 4. defensiveness confirms the original diagnosis

5. intensify pressures by offering to protect or
to reject the other person(s)
6. if unsuccessful, bear no responsibility
because the outcome is the other person(s) fault
48
Model I outcomes...
Managers and leaders using a Model I theory of
practice increase in workers...
feelings of vulnerability
self-protecting behaviors
games of camouflage
deception
49
and increase the probability of...
organizational catastrophe
50
Model II problem-solving process...
  • 1. emphasize common goals and mutual influence

LEADERS AND MANAGERS DO NOT FORGET
M
Mutually Assured Destruction produces no winners
A
D
51
2. communicate openly and publicly, testing ones
assumptions and beliefs
Does what I espouse...
what I do?
52
  • 3. combine inquiry with advocacy

what others think, know, want, and feel
inquiry
what I think, know, want, and feel
advocacy
53
Human resources theory requires that managers and
leaders possess...
sufficiently good interpersonal skills
  • a fundamental competence in relating with diverse
    individuals effectively
  • the refined ability to inquire in a
    non-threatening way
  • What is going on here?
  • Why are people behaving as they are?
  • What can I do about it?

54
sufficiently good intrapersonal skills
  • is not afraid of conflict
  • is able to confront conflict
  • in arguments, is able to distance oneself from
    the passion of the moment and to construct how
    other individuals are making sense of things
  • complicates (rather than simplifies) ones
    understanding of how the organization really works

55
sufficiently good group skills
  • negotiates the fit between the individual and the
    organization
  • is comfortable with plurality, diversity, and
    ambiguity
  • directs conflict towards productive ends
  • while solving problems, resolves organizational
    issues

56
while groups can promote...
groups can also generate
increased knowledge
caving into social pressure
a diversity of perspectives
inefficiency
time and energy
personal agendas which dominate the decision
making process
improved communication
increased acceptance of decisions
unproductive constraints
57
  • to increase group productivity managers and
    leaders must be able to address
  • others personal interests
  • the requirements of various task roles
  • the requirements of various personal roles
  • informal group norms
  • interpersonal conflict

58
Basic human resources strategies...
1. develop a long-term organizational commitment
to the philosophy of human resources
  • build human resources in to the corporate and
    incentive structures

tactics
  • develop quantitative and qualitative measures of
    human resources management

59
2. invest in people
  • hire the right people and reward them well
  • provide job security

tactics
  • promote from within
  • train and educate
  • share the wealth of success

60
3. deal directly with people
  • engage in active listening
  • provide accurate feedback
  • search for common interests

tactics
  • experiment with ideas and proposals
  • doubt ones infallibility
  • treat differences as a group responsibility

61
4. empower people through work redesign
  • provide greater autonomy and participative
    management
  • focus on job enrichment

tactics
  • emphasize teamwork
  • ensure egalitarianism
  • provide opportunities for upward hierarchical
    influence

62
  • Because change causes people to feel incompetent,
    needy, and powerless, providing for the
    development of new skills, creating opportunities
    for involvement, and providing psychological
    support are essential managerial/leadership tasks.

63
Using human resources theory...
catalysts
effective managers and leaders are
servants
support
whose primary concerns are
empowerment
64
Human resources tasks for managers and leaders...
1. help individuals and group develop a shared
sense of direction and purpose
2. balance task and process goals
3. endeavor to make group work both satisfying
and efficient
65
4. keep on top of a large, complex set of
activities
5. get support from bosses
6. get support from corporate staff and other
constituents
7. motivate, coordinate, and control large,
diverse group of subordinates
66
Abusing human resources theory...
wimps
ineffective managers and leaders are
pushovers
making people happy
whose primary concerns are
managing by abdication
67
Strengths of the human resources theory of
practice...
personal
practical
addresses fundamental human needs and interests
68
Limitations of the human resources theory of
practice...
naïve
optimistic
not realistic in a fast-changing environment
69
Integrating reflective practice, conceptual
pluralism, and organizational analysis...
Analyzing organizations through four frames
inculcates the conceptual pluralism needed to
diagnose the issues underlying the problems
manifesting themselves in human organizations.
the structural frame
the political frame
the human resources frame
the symbolic frame
70
This module has focused on...
the human resources theories that managers and
leaders can utilize in practice episodes
71
as these theories of practice provide managers a
frame of reference to inform decision making, the
the human resources frame
offers managers and leaders guidance about the
strengths and limits of human resources theory
72
A HUMAN RESOURCES SCENARIO
People are the heart of any organization. When
people feel the organization is responsive to
their needs and supportive of their goals,
managers and leaders can count on their
followers commitment and loyalty. Managers and
leaders who are authoritarian or insensitive, who
dont communicate effectively, or who simply
dont care about their people can never be
effective managers and leaders. The human
resource manager and leader works on behalf of
both the organization and its people, seeking to
serve the best interests of both.
73
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A HUMAN RESOURCES
SCENARIO
The job of the manager and leader is one of
support and empowerment. Support takes a variety
of forms letting people know that they are
important and that managers and leaders are
concerned about them listening to find out about
their followers aspirations and goals and,
communicating personal warmth and openness.
Human resource managers and leaders empower their
followers through participation and openness as
well as by making sure that they have the
autonomy and the resources they need to do their
jobs well. Human resource managers and leaders
emphasize honest, two-way communication as a way
to identify issues and resolve differences. They
are willing to confront others when it is
appropriate, but they try to do so in a spirit of
openness and caring. Bolman Deal (1991, p. 359)
74
the human resources frame
75
The next module will focus on...
the political frame
and the political science theories that managers
and leaders can utilize in practice episodes
76
A POLITICAL SCENARIO
Managers and leaders have to recognize political
reality and know how to deal with it. Inside and
outside any organization, there are always a
variety of different interest groups, each with
its own agenda. There are not enough resources
to give everyone what he or she wants, and there
is always going to be conflict.
77
MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN A POLITICAL SCENARIO
The job of managers and leaders is to recognize
the major constituencies, to develop ties to
their leadership, and to manage conflict as
productively as possible. Above all, they need
to build power bases and use power carefully.
They cannot give every group everything it wants,
although they can try to create arenas for
negotiating differences and coming up with
reasonable compromises. Managers and leaders also
have to work hard at articulating what everyone
in their organizations possesses in common.
Managers and leaders must tell the people that it
is a waste of time to fight each other when there
are plenty of enemies outside that they can all
fight together. Groups that fail to work well
together internally tend to get trounced by
outsiders who have their own agendas. Bolman
Deal (1991, p. 361)
78
the political frame
79
References
  • Argyris, C. (1960). Individual actualization in
    complex organizations. Mental Hygiene, 44(2),
    226-37.
  • Argyris, C. (1986, Sept.-Oct.). Double loop
    learning in organizations, Harvard Business
    Review, 64(5), 74-79.
  • Argyris, C. (1977, Sept-Oct). Skilled
    incompetence. Harvard Business Review,
    55(5), 115-25.
  • Argyris, C. (1991). Teaching smart people how
    to learn. Harvard Business Review,
    69(3), 99-109.
  • Argyris, C., Schön, D. A. (1974). Theory in
    Practice Increasing Professional Effectiveness.
    San Francisco Jossey-Bass.

80
  • Barnard, C. I. (1938/1968). The functions of
    the executive. Cambridge, MA Harvard University
    Press.
  • Bolman, L. G., Deal, T. E. (1997). Reframing
    organizations Artistry, choice and leadership
    (2nd edition). San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • DeCharms, P. (1968). Personal causation. New
    York Academic Press.
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive
    dissonance. Stanford, CA Stanford University
    Press.
  • Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B. B.
    (1959/1993). The motivation to work. New
    Brunswick, NJ Transaction Publishers.

81
  • Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human
    motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.
  • McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of
    organization. New York McGraw Hill.
  • Sergiovanni, T. J. (1989). Informing
    professional practice in educational
    administration. Journal of Educational
    Administration, 27(2), p. 186.
  • Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in
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    Sage Publications, Inc.
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