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Unit 3B: Biological Bases of Behavior: The Brain

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Title: Unit 3B: Biological Bases of Behavior: The Brain


1
Unit 3B Biological Bases of Behavior The Brain
2
Unit Overview
  • The Tools of Discovery Having Our Head Examined
  • Older Brain Structures
  • The Cerebral Cortex
  • Our Divided Brain
  • Right-Left Differences in the
    Intact Brain
  • The Brain and Consciousness

.
3
The Tools of Discovery Having Our Head Examined
4
Introduction
  • Lesion- in the interests of science or medicine,
    scientists can selectively destroy tiny clusters
    of brain cells/tissue.
  • Today, we can also stimulate (electrically/chemica
    lly) various parts of the brain and note the
    effects.

5
Recording the Brains Electrical Activity
  • We are now able to detect an electrical impulse
    from a single neuron detect exactly where
    information goes from any stimulus.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) reads regular brain
    waves of electrical activity that sweeps the
    surface of the brain a computer can filter out
    unrelated brain activity
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vbO-_ZtIxcr0feature
    relatedsafeactive

6
Neuroimaging Techniques
  • CT (Computed Tomography) scan
  • (CAT Scan)- Takes X-ray photographs that can
    reveal brain damage
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vuHu9aa0QDiEfeature
    relatedsafeactive
  • PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan
  • Shows the brains consumption of glucose (sugar)
    which creates a visual display of brain activity
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vd9iOxMFmPlAfeature
    relatedsafeactive

7
Neuroimaging Techniques
  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)- brain scan
    where the head is put in a strong magnetic field
    which aligns, and then disorients the atoms
    pictures of brains soft tissue
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxi8HRkFTHgwsafeac
    tive
  • fMRI (Functional MRI)- reveals brains
    functioning and structure. Where the brain is
    active, the blood goes.
  • The brain lights up as you perform different
    mental functions
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vxi8HRkFTHgwsafeac
    tive

8
Older Brain Structures
9
The Brainstem
  • Brainstem
  • Medulla
  • Pons
  • Reticular formation

10
The Thalamus
  • Thalamus
  • All the senses EXCEPT smell

11
The Cerebellum
  • Cerebellum
  • Little brain

12
The Limbic System
  • Limbic System
  • Hippocampus

13
The Limbic System The Amygdala
  • Amygdala
  • Aggression and
    fear

14
The Limbic System The Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Influence on the pituitary gland
  • Reward Centers
  • Reward deficiency syndrome

15
The Cerebral Cortex
16
Introduction
  • Cerebrum
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Fabric of interconnected neural cells covering
    the cerebral hemispheres
  • The bodys ultimate control and
    information-processing center
  • Gives certain areas of the body different
    attention -DEMO
  • Moving up the ladder of life means a larger
    cerebral cortex
  • Allows humans to adapt, learn, and think

17
Structure of the Cortex
  • Glial cells (glue cells) provide the myelin
    and nutrients that neurons need.
  • The more complex the animal, the more glial cells
  • Lobes
  • Frontal lobes speaking, muscle movement, and
    making plans/judgments
  • Parietal lobes receives sensory information for
    touch and body position
  • Occipital lobes receives information from
    visual fields
  • Temporal lobes receive information from the
    opposite ear
  • Scenario DEMO

18
Functions of the Cortex - Association Areas
  • Association areas- areas of the cortex that are
    not involved in primary motor or sensory
    functions, but are involved in higher mental
    functioning- learning, speaking, remembering,
    thinking
  • Phineas Gage Video

19
Functions of the Cortex Motor Functions
  • Motor Cortex (in the frontal lobe) output
    controls voluntary movements
  • Mapping the Motor Cortex different areas of the
    cortex control different parts of your body
  • Being able to predict a monkeys movement .10
    seconds before it happens
  • Neural Prosthetics- research showing it is
    possible to control objects by tracking what
    neurons fire in the motor cortex

20
Functions of the Cortex - Sensory Functions
  • Sensory Cortex-
  • Front of the parietal lobes that registers and
    processes body touch and movement sensations
  • The more sensitive the body region, larger the
    sensory cortex area devoted to it.

21
Functions of the Cortex
22
Language
  • Aphasia an impaired use of language can result
    from damage to one of the following areas-
  • Brocas area (disrupts speaking) controls
    language expression and directs the muscle
    movements involved in speech
  • Wernickes area (disrupts understanding)
    controls language reception a brain area
    involved in language comprehension and expression

23
Language Continued
  • Is language only located in the left hemisphere?
  • Left handed and divided brain woman-
  • When a word is in her left visual field
    (processed in right half of brain) she can write
    it but not say it
  • When a word is in her right visual field
    (processed in left half of brain) she can say it,
    but not write it
  • Clear scientific evidence that in some people the
    capacities for spoken and written language may be
    located in different hemispheres
  • Learning a second language
  • At a young age- the brain shows activity in the
    same area as your native language
  • After childhood- brain activity is in an adjacent
    area while speaking

24
Language
25
Language
26
Language
27
Language
28
Language
29
Language
30
The Brains Plasticity
  • Brain Damage
  • Plasticity the ability of the brain to modify
    itself after some types of damage (VIDEO)
  • The younger the child, the greater chance the
    remaining hemisphere can take over functions of
    the surgically removed one
  • Unused or damaged parts of the brain looks for
    signals to process (Deaf people have enhanced
    peripheral vision)
  • Constraint-induced therapy restrain a fully
    functioning limb to force the bad limb to be
    reprogramed
  • Neurogenesis neural stem cells to rebuild or
    replace damaged brain cells

31
Our Divided Brain
32
Right v Left Brained
  • The right versus left brain is a myth.
  • There is no evidence to support the idea that the
    two brains do not communicate with one another.
  • Neither logic or musical ability is kept in
    one brain or the other.
  • HOWEVER, there is NEW research that suggests
    lateralization (hemispheric specialization)-
    functions on the brain may be either on the left
    or right
  • The right hemisphere processes emotional
    expressions. Which face is happier?

33
Splitting the Brain
  • Vogel and Bogen
  • Corpus-callosum large band of neural fibers
    (axons) that connect the two brain hemispheres
    and carry messages
  • Split brain a surgeon can cut through the
    corpus callosum (to eliminate seizures) (VIDEO)
  • It is as if you have two competing brains and
    will follow their own instructions- two separate
    minds
  • Left- deliberating (rationalize)
  • Right- simple requests
  • Shirt unbutton/Grocery store items
  • Walk

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  • Demos
  • -Two Brains
  • Hand/Leg
  • Hand tapping
  • Circle/Square

47
The Brain and Consciousness
48
Introduction
  • Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and
    our environment
  • Reproductive advantage?
  • Acting on long term interests rather than short
    term pain/pleasure?
  • Survival of being able to read other people?

49
Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cognitive neuroscience study of brain activity
    linked with cognition
  • Perception, thinking, memory, and language
  • How do the mind and the brain interact?
  • Non-communicative woman after car accident with
    no signs of conscious awareness was asked to
    imagine people playing tennis
  • Resulted in fMRI scan with activity

50
The Two-Track Mind
  • Two-Track Mind
  • Visual perception track
  • enables us to recognize things and to plan
    actions
  • Visual action track
  • Guides our moment-to-moment actions
  • Much of our everyday thinking, feeling, and
    acting operates outside our conscious awareness -
    - you may act before you are conscious of doing
    something (driving familiar route)
  • Seeing a bird flying
  • Cognitive- Its a cardinal!
  • Sub-processing- color, form, movement, distance

51
The End
52
Definition Slides
53
Lesion
  • tissue destruction a brain lesion is a
    naturally or experimentally caused destruction of
    brain tissue.

54
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • an amplified recording of the waves of
    electrical activity that sweep across the brains
    surface. These waves are measured by electrodes
    placed on the scalp.

55
CT (computed tomography) Scan
  • a series of X-ray photographs taken from
    different angles and combined by computer into a
    composite representation of a slice through the
    body.
  • Also called CAT scan.

56
PET (positron emission tomography) Scan
  • a visual display of brain activity that detects
    where a radioactive form of glucose goes while
    the brain performs a given task.

57
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
  • a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio
    waves to produce computer-generated images of
    soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.

58
fMRI (functional MRI)
  • a technique for revealing bloodflow and,
    therefore, brain activity by comparing successive
    MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function.

59
Brainstem
  • the oldest part of the central core of the
    brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as
    it enters the skull the brainstem is responsible
    for automatic survival functions.

60
Medulla
  • the base of the brainstem controls heartbeat
    and breathing.

61
Reticular Formation
  • a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an
    important role in controlling arousal.

62
Thalamus
  • the brains sensory switchboard, located on top
    of the brainstem it directs messages to the
    sensory receiving areas in the cortex and
    transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.

63
Cerebellum
  • the little brain at the rear of the
    brainstem functions include processing sensory
    input and coordinating movement output and
    balance.

64
Limbic System
  • doughnut-shaped neural system (including the
    hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located
    below the cerebral hemispheres associated with
    emotions and drives.

65
Amygdala
  • two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the
    limbic system linked to emotion.

66
Hypothalamus
  • a neural structure lying below (hypo) the
    thalamus it directs several maintenance
    activities (eating, drinking, body temperature),
    helps govern the endocrine system via the
    pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and
    reward.

67
Cerebral Cortex
  • the intricate fabric of interconnected neural
    cells covering the cerebral hemispheres the
    bodys ultimate control and information-processing
    center.

68
Glial Cells
  • cells in the nervous system that support,
    nourish, and protect neurons.

69
Frontal Lobes
  • portion of the cerebral cortex lying just
    behind the forehead involved in speaking and
    muscle movements and in making plans and
    judgments.

70
Parietal Lobes
  • portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top
    of the head and toward the rear receives sensory
    input for touch and body position.

71
Occipital Lobes
  • portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the
    back of the head includes areas that receive
    information from the visual fields.

72
Temporal Lobes
  • portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly
    above the ears includes the auditory areas, each
    receiving information primarily from the opposite
    ear.

73
Motor Cortex
  • an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that
    controls voluntary movements.

74
Sensory Cortex
  • area at the front of the parietal lobes that
    registers and processes body touch and movement
    sensations.

75
Association Areas
  • areas of the cerebral cortex that are not
    involved in primary motor or sensory functions
    rather, they are involved in higher mental
    functions such as learning, remembering,
    thinking, and speaking.

76
Aphasia
  • impairment of language, usually caused by left
    hemisphere damage either to Brocas area
    (impairing speaking) or to Wernickes area
    (impairing understanding).

77
Brocas Area
  • controls language expression that directs the
    muscle movements involved in speech.

78
Wernickes Area
  • controls language reception a brain area
    involved in language comprehension and
    expression usually in the left temporal lobe.

79
Plasticity
  • the brains ability to change, especially
    during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or
    by building new pathways based on experience.

80
Neurogenesis
  • the formation of new neurons.

81
Corpus Callosum
  • the large band of neural fibers connecting the
    two brain hemispheres and carrying messages
    between them.

82
Split Brain
  • a condition resulting from surgery that
    isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting
    the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum)
    connecting them.

83
Consciousness
  • our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

84
Cognitive Neuroscience
  • the interdisciplinary study of the brain
    activity linked with cognition (including
    perception, thinking, memory and language).

85
Dual Processing
  • the principle that information is often
    simultaneously processed on separate conscious
    and unconscious tracks.
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