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Growth of International Trade

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Title: Growth of International Trade


1
Growth of International Trade
  • 1000-1500 CE

2
OBJECTIVES
  • Interconnectedness of global trade pre-1450
  • Trade links from Greenland to Western Europe
  • Western and Eastern Europe to Muslim World
  • Muslim world to Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia
  • East Africa to India to SE Asia to East Asia
  • Role of Central Asia in Trans-Eurasian trade
  • Global Trade did not begin with the European
    maritime empires
  • Cultural diffusion resulted from trade
  • Facilitated rise of Europe before 1450
  • Spread civilization to periphery of established
    cultures
  • Spread religions and technology
  • Show influence of trade routes

3
TRADE MAP c. 100 C.E.
4
THE POST-CLASSICAL CENTER
  • Muslim World was the trade center
  • Muslim countries linked all continents
  • The Hajj came to link all Muslims together
  • Trade became associated with the Hajj, Muslim
    cities
  • Quran is VERY favorable to merchants
  • Required fair, honest business practices
  • Trusted merchants as Muhammad had been one
  • Exchanges not limited to goods
  • Ideas including religion exchanged
  • Technology exchanged
  • Diseases exchanged
  • Populations exchanged

5
THE MUSLIM WORLD, 1500 CE
6
TRADE IN THE MUSLIM WORLD
7
ASIAN LAND TRADE ROUTES
  • Established during Han Dynasty by Nomads
  • Chinese paid nomads tribute in silk, traded for
    horses
  • Nomads traded silk, horses for glass, iron in
    West
  • Silk Roads Across Central Asia
  • Terminals Antioch (Syria) and Changan (China)
  • Shorter trunk lines to India, Across Russia, to
    Africa
  • Products
  • Silks, teas and porcelain from Guangzhou,China
  • Woolen cloth, horses, and ivory from Central Asia
  • Rubies, silver, pepper, and ebony from India
  • Carpets, linen, brocade, ceramics, iron from
    Muslim world
  • Wine, perfume, glass, silk, slaves, olive oil
    from Byzantines
  • Furs, wood, amber, slaves, and grain from Kievan
    Russia

8
IMPORTANCE OF LAND TRADE
  • Spread Religions
  • Islam to Central, Western Asia, China
  • Buddhism to China, Korea, Japan
  • Christianity to Russia, China, India
  • Technology diffused throughout Eurasia
  • Foodstuffs, germs, flora/fauna diffused
  • Mongolians kept trade routes open, working
  • Influenced European desire to get to China
  • Influence European desire to bypass Muslims

9
MAP OF THE SILK ROAD
10
AFRO-EURASIAN TRADE c. 1400 C.E.
11
TRADE CONNECTIONS
12
TRANS-SAHARAN TRADE
  • The Camel
  • Made trade across desert possible
  • Could carry great loads to trade
  • From West Africa
  • Gold, ivory, slaves, exotic feathers, spices
  • Male slaves carried goods, then sold
  • From Muslim North Africa
  • Cloth, glass, metalwork, books
  • Merchants, missionaries, travelers visited

13
AFRICAN TRADE NETWORKS
Finished Goods, Iron Weapons, Books, Horses,
Spices
Gold, Slaves, Ivory, Feathers
14
SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANS-SAHARAN AND EAST AFRICAN
TRADE
  • Spread Civilization and Rise of Powerful African
    States
  • Aided in the rise of West African Empires
  • Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, Hausa people
  • Swahili Culture blends Islam and Bantu elements
  • Swahili trading cities Zanzibar, Pemba, Pate,
    Mogadishiu
  • Zimbabwe
  • Central African Bantu kingdom
  • Links Cultures to Wider World
  • Contact between the Mediterranean and Sahel
    Africa
  • Linked East Africa to S.W. Asia and India
  • Linked Forest West Africa to Sahel regions
  • Linked Central Africa to East Africa
  • Provided most of Eurasias pre-Columbian gold,
    Islams slaves
  • Spread Islam to West Africa

15
MARITIME TRADE ROUTES
  • Maritime Routes co-existed with land routes
  • Often safer than land because fewer stops
  • Seas nevertheless were not as forgiving as the
    land
  • Requirements to maintain
  • Secure governments and states with agreements
  • Merchant conventions for exchanges
  • Elimination of piracy
  • Good navigation technology, knowledge of the
    seasons
  • Items with high profit margins to exchange
  • Cities on coast with protected harbors link to
    land routes
  • Primary Geographic Areas
  • North Sea, Baltic Sea, English Channel
  • Mediterranean and its adjacent bodies of water
  • Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Persian Gulf
  • Bay of Bengal, Straits of Malucca, East China Sea

16
IMPORTANT OF MARITIME ROUTES
  • Established cross-cultural contacts
  • Exchanged ideas
  • Furthered development of new ideas
  • Opened interiors to trade with coast
  • Coasts often most developed
  • New ideas, products spread inland
  • Caused rise of trading cities
  • Port cities and entrepots grow into key cities
  • Many became their cultures leading cities
  • Spread religions
  • Spread diseases

17
TRANS-ATLANTIC TRADE
  • Danish-Norwegian Empire
  • Settled Faroes and Shetland Islands,Iceland,
    Greenland
  • Conquered parts Scotland, Ireland, England
  • Created new states in Normandy, S. Italy, S.W.
    Asia
  • Products
  • Furs, fish, and walrus ivory from Greenland
  • Iron, wood, glass, and grain from Norway
  • Wheat, wool, jewelry, leather from England,
    Ireland
  • Swedish state ruled Sweden, Finland
  • Products
  • Iron, copper, wood, fish, grain from Sweden
  • Wax, honey, skins, slaves, amber from Russia,
    Finland, Baltic
  • Established state in Russia
  • Spread Christianity to Periphery lands
  • Both later established ties to Hanseatic League

18
MAP OF THE VIKING WORLD
LONGSHIP
KNÓRR
19
EUROPEAN TRADE ROUTES
  • European Revival around 1000 CE
  • Cities began to rebuild, expand
  • Church was a major supporter of this revival,
    expansion
  • Many cities on pilgrimage routes
  • Manufacturing arose again as did guilds
  • Giant Fairs arose as merchants moved goods
    between cities
  • North Sea/Baltic Trade Routes
  • Hanseatic League Northern German cities
  • Maintained factories, trading depots in
    neighboring lands
  • Cloth, wines, fish, timber, salt, iron, amber,
    copper
  • Flanders and Low Countries Brugges, Ghent
  • Cities prospered under supportive nobles
  • Came to specialize in woolens, wines, fine
    manufactures
  • Both Hansa and Venice had trading agreements with
    Flanders

20
HANSEATIC TRADE ROUTES
COG
21
MEDITERRANEAN TRADE
  • Cities Constantinople, Alexandria and Venice
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Major terminus on the Silk Roads until 1206
  • Stole technology to raise silk from Chinese
  • Provided a large market and stable currency for
    whole region
  • Venice
  • Fine glass, woolens, cloth, wines from Europe
  • Naval fleet (mude) was a middleman to transport
    goods
  • Spices, silks, and other Asian goods to Europe
    from Muslim regions
  • Egypt
  • The commercial centers between three continents
  • Linked Europe, Africa, Middle East, Indian Ocean
    regions
  • Long distance trade handled by middlemen
  • Jews between Europe and Muslim world
  • Armenians, Nestorians between Muslim world and
    Asia

22
EUROPEAN MEDITERRANEAN TRADE ROUTES
23
INDIAN OCEAN NETWORK
  • Not a united network but a series of routes
  • Parts
  • Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabia
  • Bay of Bengal to Straits of Malucca
  • Malucca to South China Sea
  • One ethnic group dominated each zone
  • Arabs in Western
  • Indians in Central
  • Chinese in Eastern
  • The largest peaceful zone of exchange of period
  • Groups had no formal agreements but cooperated
  • States kept piracy down to minimum
  • Groups met at key entrepot cities to exchange
    items
  • Linked to Mediterranean and Silk Road by land
    routes

24
INDIAN OCEAN TRADE ROUTES
SILVER LACQUER SILK PORCELAIN SUGAR LUXERIES TEA
CLOTH YARN SILKS INDIGO PEPPER GEMS ANIMALS DRUGS
COFFEE SLAVES IVORY HORSES SILKS GOLD STEEL
25
TRAVELERS COMPAREDMarco Polo and Ibn Battuta
26
EAST ASIA
  • China was central to East Asia
  • China was economically self-sufficient
  • During periods, trade in the nature of tribute
  • Ambassadors brought goods to Emperor
  • Emperor sent out gifts
  • Trade arose with increased contacts
  • Central Asian nomads demanded silk tribute
  • Chinese demanded horses as tribute
  • Nomads traded silk for finished goods in S. W.
    Asia
  • Buddhist missionaries to China from India traded
  • Spread of civilization to Vietnam, Korea, Japan,
    SE Asia
  • Religious artifacts, luxuries often largest part
    of trade

27
SONG CHINA
  • Greatest period of Chinese trade
  • Cities often based on trade
  • Great interest in Chinese goods
  • Coins, bank notes, banking
  • Merchants obtain great influence
  • Hangchow was built on trade
  • Chinese merchants active in Asia
  • Porcelain, lacquer, paper
  • Guns and gunpowder
  • Silk

28
MONGOL EMPIRE
  • Mongol Empire united Central Eurasia
  • Most lands of the Silk Road within empire
  • Linked distant trading partners for first time in
    history
  • Mongols tolerated, trusted merchants
  • Used foreign merchants for official business
  • Used as emissaries
  • Often used to govern lands ruled by Mongols
  • Merchants protected by order of Khan
  • Merchants could travel freely with permission
  • Exchanges
  • Ideas
  • Diseases especially the Black Death
  • Technology especially gunpowder and fire arms

29
THE MONGOL EMPIRE
30
CHANGES DISRUPTIONS
  • Challenges
  • Mongol Empire destroyed most existing states
  • Constant warfare turned friends into enemies
  • Newer technologies made war more disruptive
  • Black Death disrupted trading patterns
  • Merchants spread disease, died first
  • Cities, the basis of trade threatened, weakened
  • Rise of Gunpowder states in 15th century
  • Guns formed great power ships very different
  • Destroyed nomads (Mongols), ended Silk Road
  • Ottoman Turks monopolize SW Asian trade
  • Portugal looks to end Venetian, Turk monopoly

31
TRADE ROUTES SPREADS BLACK DEATH
32
MING CHINA
  • Ming Overthrew Mongols in China
  • Reestablished traditional belief systems
  • Neo-Confucianism becomes state philosophy
  • Merchants relegated to lower status
  • Foreign contacts distrusted
  • Trade is limited as China is economically
    autarkic
  • Ming reestablish tributary status
  • Tributary exchange of goods, gifts
  • Sends out navy to reestablish system, search
  • Foreign trade limited to one port Guangzhou

33
MING CHINA
34
PORTUGUESE ATLANTIC TRADE
  • Early Portuguese exploration
  • Establishes navigation school, trains sailors
  • Seeks to break Muslim-Italian monopoly
  • Establishes colonies at Maderia, Azores, Canaries
  • Create sugar plantation systems
  • Eliminates natives
  • Plants sugar
  • Uses African slaves precursor to New World
    acquisitions
  • Begins switch of slaves to Middle East to slaves
    to Atlantic
  • Raids and contacts along West African coast
  • Establishes contacts with Africans, trades for
    gold, slaves
  • Strengthens resolve for water route to Asia
  • Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut

35
THE PORTUGUESE WORLD
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