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Chordates and Vertebrates

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Chordates and Vertebrates At one time in their development ALL chordates have: Notochord flexible, rod-like structure along the back of the organism – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chordates and Vertebrates


1
Chordates andVertebrates
  • At one time in their development ALL chordates
    have
  • Notochord flexible, rod-like structure along
    the back of the organism
  • Postanal Tail
  • Nerve cord-tubular bundle of nerves that lies
    above the notochord.
  • Gill Slits paired openings located in throat
    behind mouth. Develop into gills in fish.
    Traces can be seen in embryos of many vertebrates
    INCLUDING humans!

2
Vertebrates
  • Have a backbone that encloses the nerve cord.
  • Most are ECTOtherms internal body temp. changes
    with its surroundings (fish, amphibians,
    reptiles)
  • ENDOtherms animals with constant internal body
    temp. (Birds Mammals)
  • Endoskeleton internal framework of bone and
    cartilage

3
7 Vertebrate groups
  1. Jawless Fish
  2. Cartilaginous Fish
  3. Bony Fish
  4. Amphibians
  5. Reptiles
  6. Birds
  7. Mammals

4
Fish
  • Ectotherms
  • Adaptations for water
  • Gills- organs for exchanging gas
  • Fins fan like structures, used for moving,
    balance, and steering
  • Scales hard thin plates that cover skin,
    provides protection
  • 3 classes Jawless, Cartilaginous Bony

5
Jawless Fish
  • Round mouths w/ long, tube-like bodies covered in
    slimy skin w/ NO scales.
  • Flexible bodies made of cartilage.
  • EX Lamprey Hagfish

6
Lamprey
HAGFISH
7
Cartilaginous Fish
Skate
difference btw skate ray
  • Skeletons made of cartilage
  • Movable jaws Scales
  • Ex Sharks, Skates Rays

Ray
8
Bony Fish
  • 95 of all species of fish
  • Gills protected by gill cover
  • Swim Bladder
  • Most have separate sexes
  • Reproduce by females releasing large of eggs,
    then males swim over eggs and release sperm.
    Call this spawning.
  • Form of External fertilization

9
3 Classes
  1. Lobe-finned Fish
  2. Rayfinned fish
  3. Lung fish

10
Swim Bladder
  • Buoyancy ability of a liquid or gas to exert an
    upward force on an object in it.
  • Swim bladder allows it to adjust its density so
    it can rise or sink.
  • Fills with gas-rises. Deflates-sink.

11
Amphibians
  • Ectothermic vertebrates that spend part of their
    life in water part on land.
  • Ex Frog, toad salamander
  • Greek word amphibios means double life

12
Amphibian Adaptations
  • Respiration
  • -Moist, smooth, scaleless skin that allows gas
    to be exchanged (breathe through skin)
  • -Also have small lungs to aid in breathing.
  • Hibernation inactivity in winter
  • Estivation inactivity in hot, dry summer
    months.
  • Eggs have no shell, so they must return to water
    to lay eggs.

13
Difference Between Frogs Toads
  • FROGS
  • smooth or slimy skin  strong, long legs  webbed
    hind feet two bulging eyes lay eggs in
    clusters
  • TOADS
  • warty and dry skin  stubby bodies with short
    hind legs  Most have glands on their back that
    secrete poison
  • lay eggs in long chains 

14
Salamanders Newts
  • Long, slender bodies
  • Short legs that appear to come straight out of
    their side
  • Often found under dead leaves and rocks during
    the day
  • Often nocturnal, feeding on worms, crustaceans
    and insects

Difference btw salamander Newt
15
Amphibian Metamorphosis
-Egg -Tadpole (aka polliwog) spends its time
swimming in the water, eating and growing. Uses
gills to breathe, presence of a tail -Tadpole w/
legs tadpole sprouts legs and arms, head
becomes more distinct -Froglet stage before the
adult frog. Tail is less prominent.
16
Amphibian Metamorphosis
  • Metamorphosis the development of an animal from
    a larvae into an adult
  • Amphibians usually complete their life cycles in
    two environments
  • Larvae water
  • Adult land
  • Rate of metamorphosis depends on species and
    nutrients available

17
Reptiles
  • Ectothermic vertebrate
  • Dry, Scaly skin
  • Often show maternal care (take care of eggs or
    young)
  • Ex. Snakes, lizards, alligators, turtles

18
Adaptations for Life on Land
  • Thick, dry skin covered with scales
  • 4 legs with claws that hold body off ground
    (except snakes)
  • Amniotic egg
  • provides environment for embryo to develop
  • leathery shell
  • Reptiles breathe with LUNGS!

19
3 Orders of Reptiles
  1. Turtles
  2. Crocodiles Alligators
  3. Lizards Snakes

20
Turtles
  • Body covered by hard shell on both top bottom
  • Most can withdraw partially into shell for
    protection
  • Have a BEAK (no teeth)

21
Crocodiles Alligators
  • Crocs
  • Long, slender snouts
  • Both bottom (4th lower tooth) Top teeth stick
    out when jaw closed
  • Found all over world
  • Aggressive
  • Alligators
  • Broad snouts
  • Only top teeth stick out, bottom teeth have spots
    to fit in so you do not see them.
  • Found only in South East USA and China

22
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23
Lizards SnakesLargest group of Reptiles!
  • Lizards
  • Moveable eyelids
  • External ears
  • Legs with clawed toes
  • Snakes
  • No moveable eyelids, external ears, or legs with
    clawed toes
  • Hear by vibrations picked up by lower jaw bone

24
Venomous vs. Poisonous
  • There are NO poisonous snakes!!!
  • Only Venomous
  • Venom must be injected into the target
  • Poisonfound in skin or meatcan cause problems
    if eaten or you come in contact with it (ex Dart
    frogs)
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