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Age of Exploration


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Title: Age of Exploration

Age of Exploration
  • A Changing World

Stop, Think Review!
  • What are some push and pull factors causing
    individuals to migrate from one place to another?

Stop, Think Review!
  • Need for Food
  • Religious Beliefs/Persecution
  • Desire for Conquest/Expansion
  • Establish Trade Routes
  • Hunger for Gold

The Middle Ages
  • During the Middle Ages a period from about 500
    to 1350 A.D. many Europeans thought of the
    world as a disk floating on a great ocean.
  • The disk was made up of three continents Europe,
    Africa and Asia.

  • The World...

  • so they thought...

The Middle Ages
  • During the Middle Ages Europeans knew little
    about the lands beyond their small villages.
  • But that was all about to change

  • Toward the end of the Middle Ages, Europeans
    would begin to look beyond their borders.
  • Religious Wars and the lure of new products from
    far away lands would bring major changes in the
    way Europeans lived

The Middle Ages
  • But until then Back to the Middle Ages
  • During the Middle Ages weak European kings and
    queens divided their lands among powerful nobles.
  • These nobles, or lords, had their own armies
    (made up of knights) and courts but still owed
    loyalty to their king.

  • Strict Class System

The Middle Ages
  • This system of rule by lords who owe loyalty to a
    king is called feudalism.

The Feudal System Manors
  • Most of life in Europe revolved around manors of
    these powerful lords.
  • The manor included the lords castle, peasants
    huts, and surrounding villages or fields.

The Feudal System Serfs
  • Most of the people on the manor were serfs, or
    peasants bound to the land for life.
  • Serfs worked for the lord and could not leave the
    manor without the lords permission they gave
    their lord part of their harvest (taxes) in
    return for the use of land and other services
    they needed. In exchange the lord protected the
    serfs from attacks by outsiders.

The Feudal System Serfs
  • Under feudalism there were few merchants and
    traders and few roads or towns existed.
  • Almost everything made was used to pay taxes.
  • To pay the crop tax, some crops went to the lord,
    and some they kept. To pay the bread tax, some
    bread they made went to the lord, and some they
    kept. To pay the coat tax, some of the warm coats
    they made went to the lord, and some they kept.

The Church A Powerful Force
  • Most manors provided a place of worship.
  • During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church
    remained the single most powerful organization of
    Western Europe.
  • Why?

The Church A Powerful Force
  • The Role of Faith
  • Power and Wealth
  • Learning

The Church A Powerful Force
  • In time, Church teachings would lead Europeans to
    look beyond their manors

The Crusades
  • As Christianity was spreading throughout Europe,
    Islam spread throughout the Middle East and
  • European Christians feared losing access to the
    Holy Land the birth place of Christianity.
  • Palestine was also sacred to the Muslims since
    Muhammad, their prophet, had also lived there.

The Crusades
  • In 1095 the Europeans launched the first of nine
    expeditions, known as the Crusades, to regain
    control of the Holy Land from the Ottoman Turks.
  • The Europeans were not victorious in regaining
    the Holy Land.

Search for New Trade Routes
  • The Crusades did have lasting effects, however.
  • For the first time, large numbers of Europeans
    traveled beyond their small towns.

Search for New Trade Routes
  • New rulers of England, France, Portugal and Spain
    knew they could make huge profits by trading
    with China and other lands in Asia.
  • However, Arab and Italian merchants controlled
    the trade routes across the Mediterranean Sea.
  • If they wanted to share trade, European rulers
    had to find another route to Asia.

Rebirth of Knowledge
  • European citizens wanted to improve their
    knowledge of past civilizations in order to
    understand their trading partners.
  • Europeans started to use reason and science to
    create new technologies that would enable them to
    explore Asia.
  • Scientific Revolution the Renaissance

Map Improvements
  • Using reports of explorers and information from
    Arab geographers, European cartographers were
    able to create accurate land and sea maps.
  • They also created maps that showed exact
  • Better instruments were also developed for

New Navigation Technologies
  • Magnetic Compass determined direction when far
    from land.
  • Astrolabe measured position of the stars
    (determined latitude)
  • Caravel sailed faster than earlier ships and
    carried more cargo and food supplies - floated in
    shallow water.

The Printing Press
  • Invented during mid 1400s by Johannes Gutenberg
    of Germany.
  • Before the printing press monks wrote down books
    by hand.
  • As a result, only a few copies were available.
  • Now large numbers of books could be printed at a
    low cost.
  • More individuals had the opportunity to read
    about the world.

Spain vs. Portugal
  • Why did Spain and Portugal want to find a sea
    route to Asia?

Spain vs. Portugal
  • Both countries wanted to get in on trading in
    Asia and Africa.
  • They wanted to bypass (avoid) Arab Italian

Portugals Interests
  • Portugal was the first European power to explore
    the boundaries of the known world.
  • Portugal lacked a Mediterranean port so they had
    to find a new route to China India.

Henry the Navigator
  • Prince Henry of Portugal (Henry the Navigator)
    set up a center for exploration or school of
    navigation where astronomers, geographers and
    mathematicians shared their knowledge with
    Portuguese sailors and shipbuilders.

Portugals Interests
  • In order to trade directly with India and China
    Portuguese ships moved south along the coast of
    West Africa.
  • There they traded for gold and ivory, established
    trading posts and began buying enslaved people
    there as well.

Bartholomeu Dias
  • 1487 King John sent Dias to explore the
    southernmost part of Africa and from there to
    sail northeast into the Indian Ocean.
  • Around the southern tip of Africa (Cape of Good
    Hope) Dias ran into a storm and was forced to
    turn back to Portugal.

Spain Joins the Race
  • Queen Isabella, a devout Catholic, was finally
    persuaded by her husbands minister to finance to
    support the expedition for two reasons.
  • Columbus promised to bring Christianity to the
    lands he found.
  • If he found a way to Asia he bring wealth to
    Spain and trade would open up.

Spain Joins the Race
  • December 1503 - Queen Isabella decreed that
    because Indiansrun away from the ChristiansI
    order youto compel the Indians to have dealings
    with the Christian settlersto work on their
    buildings, to mine and collect goldand to work
    on their farms and crop fields.

John Cabot follows Columbus
  • Another Italian sailor Giovanni Cabata, had ideas
    much like Columbus. He too thought he could
    reach Asia by sailing west.
  • He went to England dropped his Italian name and
    became John Cabot.
  • Landed somewhere on the coast of Canada in 1497
    giving the English the right to settle in North

Vasco da Gama
  • 1497 set out to India with four ships.
  • His ships made a huge semicircular sweep through
    the Atlantic Ocean and rounded Cape of Good Hope
  • He reached India in May 1498.

Pedro Alvares Cabral
  • Cabral followed da Gamas route 6 months later
    and swung so far west that he reached Brazil.
  • Cabral claimed Brazil for his king and sent one
    of his ships back to Portugal to spread the good
    news while he continued on to India.

Portuguese Trading Empire
  • Cabral not only gave Portugal a stake in the
    Americas but he returned home from India with
    cargoes of spices, porcelain and other goods.
  • Portuguese fleets repeated Cabrals success, and
    established its first permanent forts in India.
  • The Portuguese capital of Lisbon became the
    marketplace of Europe.

Columbus Discoveries
  • He explored the Caribbean islands of Hispaniola
    (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic),
    Cuba and Jamaica.

Exploring America
  • After Columbus, other voyagers explored the
  • In 1502 Amerigo Vespucci sailed along South
    Americas coast. Vespucci concluded that South
    America was a continent, not part of Asia.

Sailing Around the World
  • In 1520 Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese seaman
    sailing for Spain, reached the southernmost tip
    of South America. He began in 1519.
  • He sailed into what he later named the Pacific

Sailing Around the World
  • After he died in the Philippine Islands, his crew
    continued west arriving in Spain in 1522.
  • They became the first known people to
    circumnavigate the world.

Analyzing the Columbian Exchange
  • Was Columbus a Hero or Villain?

Columbus Hero or Villain?
  • The 1492 encounter between Native Americans and
    Europeans started an exchange of goods and ideas
    that transformed peoples lives around the globe.
  • The meeting between two old, very different
    worlds the Americas and Europe (and even Africa
    and Asia) led to the creation of one new world.

Columbus Hero or Villain?
  • Christopher Columbus visit began this exchange
    of goods.
  • Because it began with him, scholars refer to this
    transfer as the Columbian Exchange.

Columbian Exchange
  • Native American Influences
  • European Influences
  • Food Farming Taught Europeans to eat corn,
    squash, beans and potatoes.
  • Language Europeans adopted Native American words
    for animals, clothing and inventions they had not
    known before.
  • Technology Helped European settlers survive in
    North America agricultural, medicinal,
    hunting skills.
  • Other Influences pottery, leatherwork, lacrosse,
    Iroquois Political Structure League of the
    Iroquois (model of democracy).
  • Food Livestock Introduced livestock (chickens,
    goats, horses), wheat, bananas, citrus fruit and
    sugar cane.
  • Technology Europeans taught them how to use
    metals to make copper pots and iron knives.
  • Diseases Native Americans had no such resistance
    to European diseases such as measles, smallpox
    or even influenza.
  • Scholars estimate that between 50 percent and 90
    percent of Native Americans died of diseases
    introduced from Europe.

How does Columbus describe the islands he
  • Many havens on the seacoast incomparable to any
    other known in Christendom.
  • Plenty of rivers, honey, many kinds of birds
  • Many mines of metals, great mountains, hills,
    plains and fields.
  • Rich land for planting and sowing, for breeding
    cattle and for building towns and villages.

How does Columbus describe the Taino Indians?
  • The people of the island all go naked, men and
  • They are artless and generous with what they
  • No knowledge of arms and artillery
  • They are the most timorous creatures in the world

According to Columbus, why did he give the
Indians gifts?
  • I gave gratuitously a thousand useful things
    that I carried, in order that they may conceive
    affection, and furthermore may be made
  • Columbus thought by bribing them they would
    want to convert to Christianity.

What was Columbus goal?
  • Columbus cared most about converting those who
    go naked to Christianity no matter the cost.
  • Aware of his audience, Columbus made the
    Caribbean sound like a paradise he desired
    praise and did everything he could to portray
    himself as a just and strong leader.
  • He portrayed himself as a crusader willing to
    bring profit and honor to Spain.

Stop Think
  • How should Columbus journey be evaluated in the
    year 2008? Should Columbus be remembered as a
    hero or villain? Explain your answer

Columbus Hero or Villain
  • For years, Columbus has been remembered as the
    bold sea captain who discovered America.

Columbus Hero or Villain?
  • Hero
  • Villain

  • True, Europeans knew nothing of the Americas
    before Columbus brought them news of this new
  • His journey brought the peoples of Europe into
    lasting contact for the first time in history.
  • Hero

  • Villain
  • Native Americans paid heavily.
  • Columbus and the Europeans who came after him
    forced native peoples to work in mines or on
    farms raising sugar cane and cotton.
  • Over the next 50 years, hundreds of thousands of
    Caribbean Indians died from harsh working
    conditions and European diseases.
  • Starting with Columbus, Europeans justified
    seizing Indian lands they believed they had the
    right because Indians were not Christians.

  • Curious Europeans wanted to know more about the
    lands across the Atlantic.
  • They saw the Americas as a place where they could
    trade and grow rich.
  • Once Columbus reached the Americas, nothing could
    stop the flood of explorers and settlers who
    followed him.

Spanish Conquistadors
  • Lords of the Spanish Main

The Spanish Main
  • Consisted of the Mexican mainland and Central
    America, most of South America and much of
    Southwestern U.S.
  • It included important waterways such as The
    Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and the Florida

Who were the Conquistadors?
  • Throughout most of the 16th, 17th and 18th
    centuries Spanish conquistadors (conquerors),
    explorers, traders, and sea captains were lords
    of the Spanish Main.
  • Spain gained this empire at a terrible cost the
    destruction of other peoples and civilizations.

  • What are the characteristics of a civilization?
  • Should the Aztecs be considered one? Explain your

Characteristics of a civilization
  • civilization a highly developed society that
    developed a complex, or highly detailed system
    for writing, counting and/or tracking time.

Characteristics of a civilization
  • Usually includes
  • Cities
  • Well organized government
  • Complex religion
  • Social classes
  • Specialized skills and jobs
  • Some method of keeping records.

  • Why were the first Europeans amazed by

The Marvels of the Aztecs
  • Tenochtitlan construction was a miracle of
    engineering and human labor.
  • Created causeways or bridges of earth linking the
    island and shore. They filled parts of the lake
    with earth so they could grow crops.

The Marvels of the Aztecs
  • Tenochtitlan was also a center of trade,
    attracting thousands of merchants to its outdoor

Predict their fate!
  • Why do you think the Spanish were able to defeat
    the Aztec warriors?

Why Spain Succeeded
  • Spanish arrived with weapons guns and cannons.
  • Spanish rode horses and had huge, ferocious dogs.
  • To the natives, the Spanish seemed like gods.
  • Some Aztecs in the region turned against the
    Aztec overlords and assisted the conquistadors.
  • Disease With no immunity, their resistance to
    their invaders was weakened

Pizarro Conquers the Inca
  • Having heard tales of the incredibly wealthy Inca
    Empire in what is now Peru, Francisco Pizarro
    sailed down the Pacific coast of South America
    with about 180 Spanish soldiers.

Pizarro Conquers the Inca
  • In 1532 Pizarro captured the Inca ruler,
    Atahualpa, and destroyed much of the Inca army.
  • The next year, the Spanish falsely accused
    Atahualpa of crimes and executed him the Inca
    were not able to fight effectively without him.
  • Pizarro gained control of the Inca Empire.

Spain in North America
  • Mexico and Peru were rich in silver and gold.
  • Hoping to find similar wealth to the north,
    conquistadors explored the southeastern and
    southwestern parts of North America.

Whos Who?
  • The Whos Who of our remaining conquistadors!

Who Am I?
  • In 1513 I landed on the coast of present-day
    Florida, leading to the first Spanish settlements
    in what is now the U.S.
  • I was looking for a fountain of youth!

  • Juan Ponce de Leon

Who Am I?
  • In 1521 I destroyed the Aztec capital of
    Tenoctitlan in Mexico.

  • Hernan Cortes

Who Am I?
  • In 1532 I captured the Inca ruler in present-day
    Peru gained control of Inca Empire.

  • Francisco Pizarro

Who Am I?
  • I was shipwrecked while trying to colonize
    Florida in 1528. Landing on an island off the
    coast of Texas, we were prisoners of the Indians
    foe several years.
  • In about 1536 I arrived in Mexico and related
    tales about 7 cities of gold.

  • Cabeza de Vaca

Who Am I?
  • I was one of the many explorers who tried to find
    the Seven Cities of Cibola.
  • I didnt find them but I became the first white
    man to explore what is now Arizona and New Mexico
    in about 1540.
  • I opened the way for Spanish settlement.

  • Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

Who Am I?
  • In 1541 I crossed the Mississippi River as part
    of 3 year exploration of the present day
    southeastern U.S.

  • Hernando de Soto

Do Now
  • Which do you think is more important to Queen
    Isabella converting the natives to Christianity
    or getting them to work? Explain your answer.

New Spain as a blending of cultures
  • By the mid 1500s a new way of life took place in
    New Spain.
  • Spanish settlers brought their own customs to the
    colonies their language, laws, religion, and
  • In 1539 first European book in Americas.
  • 1551 Spanish founded University of Mexico.

New Spain as a blending of cultures
  • Native Americans also influenced the culture of
    New Spain.
  • Colonists adopted Indian clothing, new foods
    potatoes, corn, tomatoes and chocolate forever
    changing peoples diets in Europe, Asia and
  • Indian labor made it possible for the Spanish to
    build libraries, theaters and churches (used
    adobe brick decorated the church walls).

A difficult life for the Natives
  • The Spanish treated the Indians as a conquered
  • Under Spains strict social system, Indians were
    kept in poverty for hundreds of years.

A difficult life for the Natives
  • The colonists needed workers for their ranches
    and farms.
  • The Spanish government helped by giving settlers
    encomiendas the right to demand labor or taxes
    from Native Americans living on the land.

The Mines and Plantation Life
  • The Spanish forced native laborers to work in the
    mines rickety ladders, narrow tunnels where
    they hacked out rich ore many died.
  • Spanish settlers also made large profits by
    exporting crops and raw materials West Indies
    main exports were tobacco and sugarcane.
  • To raise these crops the Spanish developed the
    plantation system a large farm.

Bartholome de Las Casas
  • A Spanish priest Las Casas condemned this cruel
    treatment of the natives and pleaded for laws to
    protect them.
  • Las Casas suggested replacing the natives with
    enslaved Africans (he regretted it later)
  • He thought the Africans could endure the labor
    better than the Natives could.
  • RESULT Thousands of Africans from West Africa
    brought to the Americas. By late 1500s
    plantation slave labor essential to colonial

1540 Las Casas reports to King Charles I
  • The Spaniards enteredlike wolves, tigers, and
    lions which had been starving for many days, and
    since forty years they have done nothing
    elsethan outrage, slay, afflict, torment, and
    destroy. In this way they have cared for
    Indian lives and for their soulsthe reason
    why the Christians have killed and destroyed such
    an infinite number of souls is that they have
    been moved by their wish for gold and their
    desire to enrich themselves.

1540 Las Casas reports to King Charles I
  • How does Las Casas describe the arrival of the
    Spainards in the New World?
  • How does Las Casas describe the way that the
    Spaniards cared for Indian lives?
  • According to Las Casas why did the Spaniards
    treat the Indians the way they did?