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The Election of Andrew Jackson


The Election of Andrew Jackson January 19, 2011 Adapting Project History – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Election of Andrew Jackson

The Election of Andrew Jackson
  • January 19, 2011
  • Adapting Project History

Hard Times After the Panic of 1819
  • Estimated that 1/3 of population effected
  • 1819 New York Society for Prevention of Pauperism
    estimated 8,000 paupers in city of
  • 1818 3.5 million acres sold---1819 .8 million
  • 1815 Pa land 150 an acre---1819 35

Effects of Panic of 1819
  • Heighten sectionalism--each section became more
    self-interested--South became more opposed to
    protective tariff--manufacturing areas want
    greater protection
  • Sharpen class antagonisms--discredit
    elites--engendered a kind of political restiveness

John C. Calhoun in 1820
  • There has been within these two years an immense
    revolution of fortunes in every part of the
    Union enormous numbers of persons utterly
    ruined multitudes in deep distress and a
    general mass of disaffection to the government,
    not concentrated in any particular direction, but
    ready to seize upon any event and looking out
    everywhere for a leader.

American Ambivalence
  • Moral note enters American politics--theme of
    moral decay, corruption, dishonesty, indolence
    and extravagance condemned
  • Dual nature--attracted to speculative
    enterprise--but feelings of guilt
  • During pre-panic times latent fears and
    suspicions of banks suppressed--seen as creative
    engines of enterprise
  • After economic collapse--many saw it as Gods way
    of punishing errant people--people who had
    expected riches without work

Benjamin Franklin
  • Franklin recommends frugality, thrift, and hard
    work and promises results of moral and material
  • Yet emphasis upon material values--equating
    wealth with moral rectitude
  • Follower of Poor Richard might forget necessary
    relationship between hard work and riches
  • Wealth based upon speculation, riches without
    work considered sinful by most Americans

Benjamin Franklin
Niles Register
  • It seems to me that the whole paper system is
    nothing more than a contrivance of knaves to
    cheat honest men.

Political Reaction to Panic
  • Most states passed stay laws or minimum appraisal
    laws protected debtor from having to sell
    property for debt at deflated prices
  • Some states establish state banks or loan offices
    in order to expand money supply--paper money they
    issued had to be accepted by creditors for debt

  • Election of 1820--majority of legislature pledged
    to relieve people
  • Legislature chartered Bank of the Commonwealth of
    Kentucky--made loans of paper money--received for
    taxes and public debts
  • If private creditor not receive bank
    paper--debtor could delay debt for 2 years

Kentucky 2
  • Bank of Commonwealth of Kentucky notes worth 50
    face value---creditor forced to accept it at face
  • Political battles in state between Relief and
    Anti-Relief parties (comprised of planters,
    businessmen and most powerful lawyers)
  • Kentucky Court of Appeals struck down relief
  • Relief Party controlled legislature and dissolved
    court and set up new court
  • Bitter fights in Kentucky between Old Court
    (anti-relief) and New Court (relief) parties
  • Relief Party strong supporters of Andrew
    Jackson---Amos Kendall and Frank Blair

Andrew Jackson 1767-1845
  • Born in S.C. ---captured by English during
    American Revolution
  • British officer demanded Jackson clean boots.
    Jackson said Sir, Im a prisoner of war, and
    claim to be treated as such. Officer slashed
    him with a sword
  • Jackson lost his brother and mother to smallpox
    during war
  • After war---life of dissipation and
    hell-raising--studied law in law office

Andrew Jackson 2
  • Moved to Nashville in 1787---held a number of
    state offices in 1790s as well as serving a short
    time in the House of Rep and US Senate.
  • But from early 19th century down to war of 1812
    lived life of planter
  • Given command of Tennessee militia and then made
    major general in U.S. forces

Battle of New Orleans
  • Jackson led forces that defeated British in New
    Orleans in January, 1815
  • 2,057 English dead, 13 Americans
  • Jackson voted thanks by Congress and given gold
  • Martin Van Buren of NY wrote leg thanking Jackson
    an event surpassing the most heroic and
    wonderful achievements which adorn the annals of

Niles Register
  • Glory be to God that the barbarians have been
    defeated and that at Orleans the intended
    plunders have found their grave! Glory to
    JacksonGlory to the militiaSons of
    freedom---saviors of Orleans--benefactors of your
    country and avengers of its wrongs, all hail!
    Hail glorious people--worthy, thrice worthy, to
    enjoy the blessing which heaven in bounteous
    profusion has heaped on your country.

Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Election of 1824
  • Five candidates Adams, Calhoun, William Henry
    Crawford, Clay and Jackson
  • Crawford caucus candidate
  • Jacksons nomination---fluke
  • Once nominated Jacksons candidacy gained popular

Election of 1824 2
  • Jackson only candidate with national
    support---Crawford (South), Clay (West) and Adams
    (Northeast) Calhoun withdrew
  • Jackson won plurality of popular vote--but no one
    had maj in electoral college
  • Top three candidates forwarded to H of
    R--Jackson, Crawford and Adams
  • Clay threw support to Adams and was appointed
    Secretary of State

Dissolution of Jeffersonian Republican Party
  • Jackson supporters charge corrupt bargain
    between Clay and Adams
  • Election of 1824 brought dissolution of old
    Jeffersonian Republican Party
  • After 1824--Adams supporters began calling
    themselves National Republicans and
    Jacksonians---Democratic Republicans

Why was Jackson so Popular
  • One historian has written a book-- Andrew
    Jackson Symbol of an Age
  • Why was he so popular---man of tremendous will,
  • Indiana newspaper There is not to be found in
    this wide universe a man so pure, spotless and
    exceptional in his moral and political character
    as Andrew Jackson. But he has no leading man in
    his favor. This is his only crime.

Why was Jackson so Popular 2
  • Seen as advocate of democracy, untainted by
    corruption of old political system
  • Second George Washington--and like Washington
    represents certain virtues of the old republic
  • Washington the peoples choice was elevated to
    the Presidency by the people--the prosperity of
    the country proved the wisdom of his
    administration. Jackson, the peoples choice is
    now before you--will you complete the parallel.

Campaigning for 1828
  • Martin Van Buren key figure--1826 we will
    support no man who does not come forward on the
    principles and in the form in which Jefferson and
    Madison were brought forward.
  • Principles states rights, strict construction of
    the constitution---appeal to radicals of former
    Crawford faction--Coalition of plain Republicans
    of the North with the planters in the South
  • Establish Jackson Committees across country and

Martin Van Buren
Election of 1828
  • Campaign one of most scurrilous in American
  • Jackson and wife Rachel charged with living in
    sin and bigamy
  • Ought a convicted adulteress and her paramour
    husband to be placed in the highest office of
    this free and Christian land? What effect, think
    you, fellow citizens, will it have upon the
    American youth?

Rachel Jackson
Election of 1828 2
  • Jacksonians charged Adams was a pimp
  • Why is Adams on ticklish grounds? Because he
    stands of slippery Clay.
  • Results
  • Jackson 178 electoral votes to Adams 83
  • Popular vote Jackson 647,000 to Adams 508,000
  • Jackson swept all states south of Potomac and
    west of NJ
  • 1,150,000 votes cast---increase of 800,000 over

Washington in Jackson Era
Jacksons Inaugural