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Leadership

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Leadership Situational Theory Module 3 Leadership – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership


1
Leadership Situational Theory
Module 3 Leadership
2
Situational Theory
Hersey and Blanchards model focuses on the
characteristics of followers as the important
element of the situation, and consequently, of
determining effective leader behavior
2
3
Situational Leadership
  • Blanchard Hersey
  • Different people have different needs
  • One-style-fits-all leadership doesnt work

3
4
Situational Approach DescriptionLeaders match
their style to the competence and commitment of
subordinates
Perspective
Definition
  • Comprised of
  • Directive dimension
  • Supportive dimension
  • Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a
    given situation
  • Leaders evaluate employees to assess their
    competence and commitment to perform a given task
  • Developed by Hersey Blanchard (1969)
  • Leader-focused perspective
  • Used extensively in organizational leadership
    training and development

4
5
Leadership Styles
Definition
Dimension Definitions
  • Directive behaviors - Help group members in goal
    achievement via one-way communication through
  • Giving directions
  • Establishing goals how to achieve them
  • Methods of evaluation time lines
  • Defining roles
  • Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via
    two-way communication in feeling comfortable with
    themselves, co-workers, and situation
  • The behavior pattern of an individual who
    attempts to influence others includes
  • Directive (task) behaviors
  • Supportive (relationship) behaviors

5
6
Development Levels
6
7
Readiness Levels
  • Low competence, high commitment low readiness
    level (D1)
  • Low/moderate competence, moderate/high commitment
    moderate readiness level (D2)
  • Moderate/high competence, moderate/low commitment
    high readiness (D3)
  • High competence, high commitment very high
    readiness (D4)

7
8
Hersey and Blanchards Situational Theory of
Leadership
Follower Characteristics
Appropriate Leader Style
Low readiness level Moderate readiness
level High readiness level Very high
readiness level
Telling (high task-low relationship)
Selling (high task-high relationship)
Participating (low task-high rel.)
Delegating (low task-low relationship)
8
9
Leadership Styles
  • Style 1 Telling
  • The leader provides specific instructions and
    closely supervises task accomplishment
  • Style 2 Selling
  • The leader continues to direct and closely
    supervise task accomplishment, but also explains
    decisions, solicits suggestions, and supports
    progress
  • Style 3 Participating
  • The leader facilitates and supports subordinates
    efforts toward task accomplishment and shares
    responsibility for decision making with them
  • Style 4 Delegating
  • The leader turns over responsibility for decision
    making and problem solving to subordinates

9
10
S1 - Telling Style
  • Leader focuses communication on goal achievement
  • Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors

10
11
S2 - Selling Style
  • Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal
    achievement and supporting subordinates
    socioemotional needs
  • Requires leader involvement through encouragement
    and soliciting subordinate input

S 2
Selling
High Directive High Supportive
11
12
S3 - Participating Style
  • Leader does NOT focus solely on goals rather the
    leader uses supportive behaviors to bring out
    employee skills in accomplishing the task
  • Leader delegates day-to-day decision-making
    control, but is available to facilitate problem
    solving

S 3
Participating
High Supportive Low Directive
12
13
S4 - Delegating Style
  • Leader offers LESS task input and social support
    facilitates subordinates confidence and
    motivation in relation to the task
  • Leader lessens involvement in planning, control
    of details, and goal clarification
  • Gives subordinates control and refrains from
    intervention and unneeded social support

13
14
How Does the Situational Approach Work?
  • Focus of Situational Approach
  • Strengths
  • Criticisms
  • Application

14
15
Situational Approach
Focus
  • The Situational approach requires leaders to
    demonstrate a strong degree of flexibility.
  • Centered on the idea subordinates vacillate along
    the developmental continuum of competence and
    commitment
  • Leader effectiveness depends on assessing
    subordinates developmental position and adapting
    his/her leadership style to match subordinate
    developmental level

15
16
Strengths
  • Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is
    perceived as providing a credible model for
    training employees to become effective leaders.
  • Practicality. Situational leadership is a
    straightforward approach that is easily
    understood and applied in a variety of settings.
  • Prescriptive value. Situational leadership
    clearly outlines what you should and should not
    do in various settings.
  • Leader flexibility. Situational leadership
    stresses that effective leaders are those who can
    change their style based on task requirements and
    subordinate needs.
  • Differential treatment. Situational leadership is
    based on the premise that leaders need to treat
    each subordinate according to his/her unique
    needs.

16
17
Criticisms
  • Lack of an empirical foundation raises
    theoretical considerations regarding the validity
    of the approach
  • Further research is required to determine how
    commitment and competence are conceptualized for
    each developmental level
  • Conceptualization of commitment itself is very
    unclear
  • Replication studies fail to support basic
    prescriptions of situational leadership model
  • Does not account for how particular demographics
    influence the leader-subordinate prescriptions of
    the model
  • Fails to adequately address the issue of
    one-to-one versus group leadership in an
    organizational setting
  • Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational
    leadership

17
18
Application
  • Often used in consulting because its easy to
    conceptualize and apply
  • Straightforward nature makes it practical for
    managers to apply
  • Breadth of situational approach facilitates its
    applicability in virtually all organizations

18
19
What do these people have in common?
20
Traits of the Servant Leader
  • Listening
  • Identify and clarify the will of the group
  • Receptive to verbal non-verbal message
  • Seek for deep understanding

21
Traits of the Servant Leader
  • Empathy
  • Assume good intentions of the group
  • Able to see through the eyes of others
  • Accepts people without conditions, but able to
    evaluate performance

Listening
22
Traits of the Servant Leader
  • Healing
  • Recognize the hurts of others
  • Help make people whole

Listening
Empathy
23
Traits of the Servant Leader
Healing
Listening
Empathy
  • Awareness
  • Of self
  • Of ethics and values
  • See situations holistically

24
Traits of the Servant Leader
  • Persuasion
  • Convince others rather than coerce
  • Build consensus
  • Cooperation over authority

Healing
Listening
Awareness
Empathy
25
Traits of the Servant Leader
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
  • Foresight
  • Able to foresee outcomes
  • Understands lessons of the past and the
    realities of the future
  • Difficult to teach

Empathy
26
Traits of the Servant Leader
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
Foresight
Empathy
  • Stewardship
  • holding something in trust for another
  • The organization belongs to others the leader
    holds a piece in trust

27
Traits of the Servant Leader
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
Foresight
Empathy
  • Commitment to Growth of People
  • People are valuable beyond their role as
    employees
  • Deeply committed to the growth of each individual
  • Commits time and resources to helping others grow
  • Involving people in decisions that affect them

Stewardship
28
Traits of the Servant Leader
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
Foresight
Empathy
Building community within the organization
Stewardship
Commitment to Growth of People
29
Traits of the Servant Leader
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
Foresight
Empathy
Building community
Stewardship
Commitment to Growth of People
30
Evidence of Servant Leadership at MCS
Persuasion
Healing
Listening
Awareness
Foresight
Empathy
Does Your Picture Go Here?
Building community
Stewardship
Commitment to Growth of People
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