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Water and its Treatment

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Water and its Treatment Applied Chemistry Contamination of Ground Water Shade in the area predicting the distribution of contamination from a broken pipe at the gas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water and its Treatment


1
Water and its Treatment
  • Applied Chemistry

2
I. Water Treatment
  • Sources of Water on Earth
  • Physical States
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

glaciers ice caps
oceans, rivers, lakes, water beneath the ground,
clouds, rain
water vapor in the atmosphere
3
Types of Precipitation
Snow
Sleet
Rain
Hail
4
I. Water Treatment
  • Physical Location
  • Surface water
  • Ground water

water located on the surface of the Earth
water located beneath the Earths surface
5
How does a well reach groundwater?
6
3. Replacement
  • The WATER CYCLE, aka the HYDROLOGIC cycle, is a
    continuous circulation of water between surface
    water, the atmosphere, Earths surface.
  • Precipitation
  • Evaporation
  • Transpiration
  • Condensation

Any type of moisture that falls to the Earth,
such as, rain or snow
Change of state from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation of water from plants
Change of state from gas to a liquid (seen as
clouds)
7
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8
condensation
precipitation
transpiration
evaporation
runoff
surface water
groundwater
9
B. Types of Water
  • Drinking water, aka potable water or pure or tap
    water, is water that is SAFE to drink.
  • Wastewater is used water produced by communities
  • Sources homes, businesses, schools

10
C. Water Treatments
  1. Water Treatment Plant
  2. Wastewater Treatment Plant

11
1. WATER TREATMENT PLANT
  • Operates to produce DRINKING water.
  • Our local water treatment plant is Forest Park.
  • Overview
  • From surface and/or ground water ? to water
    treatment plant ? to homes, businesses, schools
    through pipes.
  • Basic process physical process of
  • filtration

12
Lake Galena in Peace Valley Park
13
Water Filtration Planthttp//water.epa.gov/learn/
kids/drinkingwater/watertreatmentplant_index.cfm
14
Water Filtration Plant
  1. Screening physical process used to remove large
    objects from water.
  2. Flash Mixer chemical pretreatment
  3. Coagulation reaction of alum with dirt to form
    sticky globs
  4. Flocculation process of attracting more dirt to
    sticky globs to form floc.

15
  • Sedimentation process of floc settling to
    bottom
  • Sludge settled solid matter that is removed from
    the bottom of tank (aka residual
    solids)
  • Filtration physical process of passing clean
    liquid above sludge through layers of sand and
    gravel
  • Chlorination addition of chlorine to kill
    bacteria before distribution to community
  • Clear Wells storage of filtered, chlorinated
    water at the plant

16
2. WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
  • Operates to clean USED water.
  • Overview from sewer lines ? to waste water plant
    ? to surface water.
  • Basic processes physical, chemical and
    biological
  • Influent (in)
  • Effluent (exit)
  • Trickling Filters

wastewater entering plant from the community
water that leaves the plant to a receiving
system.
old cleaning system (slow) removes organic
material
17
WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
  • Influent (in)
  • Effluent (exit)
  • Trickling Filters

18
II. Wastewater Treatment the Water Pollution
Control Act was passed in 1948. Standards
controlled by EPA.
  • Primary Treatment separates large solid waste
    from liquid in wastewater
  • The entire process of screening,
    skimming/filtering, and settling
  • Includes physical processes only
  • Examples

stirring
diluting
sedimentation
settling
filtering
dissolving
change in state, size, shape
19
B. Secondary Treatment
  1. Treating wastewater through chemical and
    biological methods
  2. Relies on biological processes to remove organic
    waste.
  3. Wastewater is sent to aeration tanks or trickling
    filters where it is treated with microorganisms
    that feed on the organic waste. Next the
    wastewater is chlorinated to kill disease-causing
    organisms. Before released to a stream or river,
    the wastewater is dechlorinated.

20
4. Tests for Monitoring Activated Sludge
  • Qualitative tests involve the sensory
    observations.
  • Examples color, clarity, odor
  • Quantitative tests use instruments to make
    measurements.
  • Examples temperature, pH, oxygen levels,
    chlorine levels

21
Quantitative Tests
  • SLAM Standard Laboratory Analysis Method to
    test and monitor waste water
  • SOP Standard Operating Procedures provides a
    method of producing reliable results through
    standardization of sampling and testing
    describes plant operations.

22
III. Water Pollution
  • Ground Water
  • Formation Water travels down through the
    earths surface
  • This is called seepage.
  • Water seeps or trickles down through the earth at
    a rate of several inches to few feet per day.
  • Ground water is the largest single supply of
    fresh water. It is 30 times greater than lakes
    and 3000 times greater than streams.

23
Water Pollution
  • Watershed total drainage area over which water
    flows to a common point.
  • The watershed in our area is the Schuykill
    Watershed.
  • Runoff water that flows over a watershed after
    a rainfall or snow melt
  • Aquifer porous rock structure that holds water
    beneath the earths surface
  • Ex. of an aquifer sand or sandstone

24
Water Pollution
  • Water Table top of the aquifer
  • Aquitard earth materials that prevent the easy
    flow of water
  • Ex. of an aquitard Clay or basalt

25

precipitation
condensation
transpiration
evaporation
watershed
runoff
Groundwater
seepage
water table
surface water
aquifer
26
B. Factors Affecting the Movement of Water
  1. Sediment earth materials, such as rock
    fragments, stones, sand, and clay, that are
    deposited by water, wind, or ice
  2. Matter that settles refers to sediment

27
Factors Affecting the Movement of Water
  • Composition of the earth materials
  • Permeability the ability of a substance
    (earths materials) to allow water to pass
    through it
  • Pores holes or spaces between earths materials

28
Pore Size
LARGE MEDIUM SMALL
SAND
GRAVEL
CLAY
  1. The amount of water penetrating depends upon the
    spacing.

29
C. Contamination of Ground Water
  • Contamination any type of impurity
  • Pesticide any chemical used to kill pests
    (insects or small animals)
  • The safe concentration level for each chemical is
    different for each chemical.
  • A major cause of water pollution in Pennsylvania
    is mining.

30
Abandoned Mine Drainage
  • Water that is polluted from contact with coal
    mining activity
  • acid mine drainage (the most prevalent)
  • alkaline mine drainage (this typically occurs
    when calcite or dolomite is present)
  • metal mine drainage (high levels of lead or other
    metals drain from abandoned mines)
  • Acid mine drainage is the formation and movement
    of highly acidic water rich in heavy metals.
  • This acidic water forms through the chemical
    reaction of surface water and shallow subsurface
    water with rocks that contain sulfur-bearing
    minerals, resulting in sulfuric acid.
  • Heavy metals can be leached from rocks that come
    in contact with the acid, a process that may be
    substantially enhanced by bacterial action.
  • The resulting fluids may be highly toxic and,
    when mixed with groundwater, surface water and
    soil, may have harmful effects on humans, animals
    and plants

31
Contamination of Ground Water
  • Plume the distribution of contaminated ground
    water the spread of pollution
  • Area source pollution over a wide area
  • The plume has a fairly constant concentration of
    pollutant.
  • There are no regions of very high or low levels
    of pollutant.
  • Example agricultural application

32
Contamination of Ground Water
  • Shade in the area predicting the distribution of
    contamination from pesticide application on farm
    land.

Farm Land
33
Contamination of Ground Water
  • Point Source pollution over a single or small
    point
  • The plume has a wide range concentration of
    pollutant.
  • High levels of pollutant are close to the source.
  • Low levels of pollutant are far from the source.
  • Example leaks from storage tanks

34
Contamination of Ground Water
  • Shade in the area predicting the distribution of
    contamination from a broken pipe at the gas
    station.

Gas station
35
Fruitvale Activity
  • Hypothesis testable statement
  • Universal indicator a mixture of compounds used
    to provide information on pH over a wide range of
    values
  • ppb parts per billion

36
Draw a plume to show unsafe areas where pesticide
levels in the water exceed 1 ppb. Mark the
source with an X.
  • 1 1 1 1
  • 1 2 3 4
  • 1 4 5 3
  • 2 4
  • 3 3
  • 1 2 1

Concentration Range Code
Not detected less than .1 ppb 1
.11 ppb - .9 ppb 2
.81 ppb 4 ppb 3
4.1 ppb 32 ppb 4
More than 32 ppb 5
X
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