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A critical perspective on peace through tourism

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Title: A critical perspective on peace through tourism


1
A critical perspective on peace through tourism
  • Freya Higgins-Desbiolles
  • School of Management
  • UniSA

2
Introduction
  • Tourisms many positive contributions- economic,
    social, cultural, ecological spiritual
  • Contemporary discourse focuses on economic
    business domains to the exclusion of tourisms
    social values
  • As early as Thomas Cook in the mid-1800s, tourism
    has been noted as a great beneficial social
    force ( Turner Ash, 1976). I am trying to
    revive this view.

3
Louis DAmores Dimensions of Peace through
Tourism
  • Inspired by the multiple meanings of the Russian
    word mir- which means the universe, the Earth,
    human race, peace, tranquillity, peace between
    peoples states, freedom from war DAmore seeks
    a positive multidimensional definition of the
    concept
  • Peace as peace within ourselves, peace with other
    people, peace between nations, peace with nature,
    peace with universe, peace with our God (DAmore
    1988)

4
The International Institute For Peace Through
Tourism (IIPT) is a not for profit organization
dedicated to fostering facilitating tourism
initiatives which contribute to international
understanding cooperation, an improved quality
of environment, the preservation of heritage,
through these initiatives, helping to bring
about a peaceful sustainable world. It is
based on a vision of the world's largest
industry, travel tourism - becoming the
world's first global peace industry the
belief that every traveler is potentially an
"Ambassador for Peace. A primary goal of IIPT is
to mobilize the travel tourism industry as a
leading force for poverty reduction.
                                             
5
International Institute for Peace through Tourism
  • IIPT global peace parks
  • Credo of the peaceful traveller
  • Conferences
  • Partnerships with industry on initiatives like
    the charity just a drop, Pro-poor tourism
  • IIPT Peace awards
  • World Peace travel agency
  • IIPT consultancy wing

6
Critique
  • Sustainability pro-poor rhetoric has been
    diluted as part of a PR offensive by powerful
    agencies such as World Travel Tourism Council
    IIPT seems to be collaborating on this agenda
  • Examination of the membership of Board of
    Directors Advisory Group suggests it has been
    subject to corporate capture- it has
    representatives of tourism boards, tourism
    agencies powerful politicians.
  • The second IIPT African Conference on Peace
    through Tourism received scathing comments from
    invited speaker Navaya ole Ndaskoi, Coordinator
    of Indigenous Rights for Survival, who described
    the gathering as a brutal freak show for money
    in a letter rejecting the invitation (Alcantara,
    2003). Amongst other criticisms, Ndaskoi
    challenged the hypocrisy of promoting a pro-poor
    agenda while using a five star venue in Dar es
    Salaam to hold the conference (Ndaskoi, 2003).

7
My understanding
  • Tourism industry responded to the
    anti-globalisation movement through concerted
    public relations campaign liberalisation with
    a human face in which pro-poor tourism and peace
    through tourism give them good publicity to
    overshadow the exploitation degradation of
    people environments that tourism brings- this
    is intended to prevent regulation limits

8
Justice Tourism
  • Tourism is inherently a justice issue (Fennell,
    2006 102) with its differential impacts on
    developing and developed communities. Justice
    tourism has recently emerged as a phenomenon
    worthy of further analysis.

9
Justice Tourism Principles
  • Builds solidarity between visitors and those
    visited
  • Promotes mutual understanding and relationships
    based on equality, sharing and respect
  • Supports self-sufficiency and self-determination
    of local communities and
  • Maximises local economic, cultural and social
    benefits (Scheyvens 2002).

10
Example of Justice Tourism GLOBAL EXCHANGEs
REALITY TOURS US-Mexico Border Day of the
Dead/Dia de los Muertos October 31, 2004 -
November 03, 2004 Ireland - The North of
Ireland A Lasting Peace - with Justice? August
01, 2005 - August 15, 2005 Afghanistan Women
Making Change June 12, 2005 - June 21, 2005
Brazil World Social Forum 2005- Another World
is Possible January 21, 2005 - February 01, 2005
Palestine/Israel Fact Finding
Delegation October 17, 2004 - October 28, 2004
Russia - the Former USSR Russia - A Changing
Empire June 10, 2005 - June 24, 2005
                                                
http//www.globalexchange.org/tours/index.html
11
International Society for Ecology Culture
Reciprocity in Tourism
















  • See http//www.isec.org.uk/ladakh.htmleducationa
    ndculturalexchange

12
Evidence from Research
  • Kellys study of Community Aid Abroads One World
    Tours study tours provides insights into the
    alternative tourism consumer- but it is CAAs
    Community Leadership Tour which is most exemplary
  • McGehee Normans (2002) study of Earthwatch
    argues that these tours provide social networks,
    consciousness-raising, awareness of the concept
    the personal is political and fosters social
    solidarity leading to global citizenship

13
Justice tourism takes on unfair globalisation
  • Anti-globalisation activists -better called
    global justice advocates- have gathered for a
    series of annual meetings in order to challenge
    the structures dynamics of unjust globalisation
    since 2001 under the title the World Social Forum
    (WSF)
  • The 2004 WSF convened in Mumbai, India placed
    tourism on the agenda for the first time at a
    Global Summit on Tourism. The theme was Who
    really benefits from tourism? The summit issued
    a call to democratise tourism!. One NGO
    participant, the Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism
    (ECOT) called for a tourism that is pro-people
    (ECOT, 2003).

14
Tourism Interventions Group
  • Those gathered at WSF 2004 formed the Tourism
    Interventions Group (TIG) which declared
  • Democracy, transparency and corporate and
    governmental accountability in tourism will be
    placed high on the agenda for concerted action
    and strategic interventions. We look forward to
    working in solidarity with local community
    representatives, activists and researchers from
    various parts of the world to strengthen our
    struggle and develop strategies for a tourism
    that is equitable, people-centred, sustainable,
    ecologically sensible, child-friendly and
    gender-just. (TIG, 2004)

15
The Promise of Tourism
  • Before the advent of the neoliberal era, tourism
    was dedicated to establishing a New International
    Economic Order (Asher 1985)
  • The Manila Declaration of 1980 held that world
    tourism can only flourish if based on equity
    and if its ultimate aim is the improvement of the
    quality of life and the creation of better living
    conditions for all peoples
  • It expected tourism to help to eliminate the
    widening economic gap between developed and
    developing countries

16
Inayatullahs tourism checklist
  • How does tourism affect the distribution of
    wealth? Does tourism create conditions where
    economic growth is sustaining?
  • Does tourism reduce structural violence (systemic
    poverty, ill-health and racism ) or does it
    contribute to further impoverishment of the
    periphery?
  • Does tourism enhance individual social peace?
  • Does tourism create the possibilities for
    cultural pluralism? Can knowledge of the Other
    reduce intolerance, creating the possibility of a
    multicultural peaceful world?
  • Does tourism help create economic democracy?
  • Is tourism progressive? Does it use resources
    progressively, from physical to mental to
    cultural-spiritual? (1995)

17
The Ultimate Promise of Tourism
  • Cohen and Kennedy (2000) contend that tourism
  • contributes to the growth of globalism a
    more intense feeling of common membership of the
    human collectivity. It does this by exposing us
    directly to a multicultural world where the
    boundaries between societies and between insiders
    and outsiders are becoming increasingly blurred.

18
Stilwells Model Can we apply this to tourism?
19
Conclusion
  • Justice tourism is about challenging this system
    engaging with alternative visions of global
    order that could be more just sustainable.

20
References
  • Ecumenical Coalition on Tourism (2003) Concept
    paper for World Social Forum. Unpublished
    document. Hong Kong ECOT.
  • Fennell, D. A. (2006) Tourism Ethics. Clevedon,
    UK Channel View.
  • Global Exchange (no date) Reality tours. Online
    documents at URL lthttp//www.globalexchange.org/to
    urs/index.htmlgt 6 June 2005.

21
  • International Society for Ecology and Culture (no
    date) The Ladakh project. Online documents at URL
    lthttp//www.isec.org.uk/ladakh.htmlgt 30 June
    2005.
  • McGehee, N. Norman, W. C. (2002). Alternative
    tourism as impetus for consciousness-raising.
    Tourism Analysis, 6, 239-251.
  • Oxfam Australia (no date) Community leadership
    program. Online documents at URL
    lthttp//www.oxfam.org.au/CLP/index.htmlgt 2
    November 2005.

22
  • Poon, A. (1993). A global transformation. In A.
    Poon. Tourism, technology and competitive
    strategies (pp. 85-92). Wallingford, UK CAB
    International.
  • Scheyvens, R. (2002) Tourism for Development
    Empowering Communities. Harlow, England
    Prentice-Hall.
  • Sklair, L. (2002) Globalization, Capitalism and
    its Alternatives. Oxford Oxford University
    Press.
  • Stilwell, F. (2002). Political economy The
    contest of economic ideas. Melbourne Oxford
    University Press.
  • Tourism Interventions Group (2004) Who really
    benefits from tourism? Statement of Concern at
    the 4th WSF. Online documents at URL
    lthttp//www.e-alliance.ch/media/media-4589.docgt
    4 April 2005.

23
  • This presentation is based on the academic
    analysis presented in
  • Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2008) Justice tourism and
    alternative globalisation. Journal of
    Sustainable Tourism, in press.
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