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Unit 5 Agricultural territory

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Unit 5 Agricultural territory Can Farmers Work the Land Without Destroying It? Nearly 80% of the Quebec population lives in the St. Lawrence Plain Region. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 5 Agricultural territory


1
Unit 5Agricultural territory
  • Can Farmers Work the Land Without Destroying It?

2
  • Nearly 80 of the Quebec population lives in the
    St. Lawrence Plain Region.
  • Its also where most of Quebecs farms are found.
  • This means city and country thus share the same
    space.
  • Most farms are located close to urban centres
    (cities).

3
Co-existence of city (urban) and country (rural)
raises several questions
  • Do cities encroach on farmlands?
  • Are farming activities harmful to the
    environment?
  • How should territories handle the problem of
    smell and pollution?
  • How should territories be developed?

4
Characteristics of Quebec Farms
  • In Quebec, cities and farms have been sharing
    space for a long time.
  • Farmers began settling along the St. Lawrence
    Region centuries ago.
  • Why this region?
  • It has ideal climate for farming.
  • It has fertile soil for farming.
  • It has a nearby river for transporting people and
    goods.

5
  • In southern Quebec, cities are taking over
    farmland.
  • Residential neighbourhoods, factories, shopping
    centres, roads and highways etc.) are taking over
    green space.

6
Why dont farmers settle farther away from
cities?
  • 1st reason
  • The climate and soil is less fertile as we travel
    farther away from the St. Lawrence Region.
  • 2nd reason
  • Transporting products becomes really expensive if
    farmers live far away from urban centres.
  • Gas is expensive!

7
  • 3rd reason
  • Farmers depend (rely) on other businesses to get
    supplies and services.
  • For example, a farmer will need quick service
    from a repairman if a machine breaks down on his
    farm.
  • These other businesses need to be close by for
    immediate help.

8
Range
  • Its land that runs along the length of the road.
  • The land is divided into rectangles.
  • Range residents lived close to one another.
  • They relied on each other for help.

9
Disagreements Arise Amongst Range Residents
  • Farmers have different approaches to land use.
  • Some farmers prefer to use chemical fertilizers
    while others use natural fertilizers.
  • It may cause conflict if the soil from one range
    contaminates the neighbouring range.

10
  • Bigger, but Fewer Farms in Quebec
  • The number of farms is decreasing, while the
    average farm size is increasing.
  • Dairy Farming in Quebec (Qc)
  • Dairy production is the most important
    agricultural industry in Quebec.
  • One in four farms is a dairy farm.
  • One third (1/3) of Canadas dairy production is
    found in Quebec.

11
Farmers and the Development of Rural Communities
  • Farmers create jobs.
  • 1 in 8 jobs is linked to the agri-food industry.
  • Farmers preserve and take care of the countryside.

12
An Agricultural Economy with Global Ties
  • One way Quebec is linked with other countries
    around the world is through imports and exports
    of agricultural products.
  • Imports Products that come from far away places.
  • Exports Products we sell to other countries.

13
  • I.e. Quebec exports pork to Japan and gets its
    fresh vegetables from California or Mexico.

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14
Importing and Exporting the Same Agricultural
Product
  • Quebec exports apples- but imports other
    varieties too.
  • Making Connections Between Agriculture and
    Environment
  • 1. AGRICULTURAL ZONED LAND (Green Zones)
  • We have laws that protect Quebec farms.
  • Only farming is permitted in green zones.

15
  • Why were such laws necessary?
  • Urban sprawl was encroaching on farmland.
  • It is the spreading of a city and its suburbs
    over farm land.
  • Is the law working? (Is it effective?)
  • The farming law remains controversial.

16
  • People in favor of Agricultural Zoned Land
  • They are against developing new neighbourhoods
    over farmland. Reserving land for farming only is
    the only solution.
  • b) People against Agricultural Zoned Land
  • They feel zoning land for farming only goes too
    far. It become impossible to build anything
    because this law goes too far.

17
  • c) People not satisfied with currrent law
  • Some people feel the current law is not strict
    enough because it still allows for polluting
    farming practises to continue (straying chemicals
    and pesticides etc.).
  • 2. Production without Destruction
  • The 6 requirements for farming
  • Clearing and working the land
  • Planting

18
  • c) Spreading fertilizers and pesticides
  • Fertilizers
  • Organic or chemical substance added to the soil
    to make it fertile.
  • Pesticides
  • A chemical used to kill pests.
  • Pests are rodents and insects that attack and
    destroy crop fields.
  • d) Using heavy Machinery
  • e) Digging ditches

19
  • f) Diverting streams or even rivers
  • Changing the direction of the flow of water
  • Farming activities have a negative impact on the
    environment.

20
What are the negative consequences of farming
activities?
  • 1. Fertilizers/pesticides contaminate water.
  • Its absorbed by the soil and ends up in rivers,
    lakes and groundwater.
  • 2. Habitats are transformed which threatens
    biodiversity.
  • 3. Pesticides, fertilizers and antibiotics can
    be hazardous to the health of farm workers and
    consumers.

21
How did farming come to this?
  • Profoundly changed since 1950s.
  • Farms are fewer but bigger.
  • Farming is much more intensive
  • Fuels, pesticides and fertilizers are used in
    massive quantities increase production.
  • Harmful products to the environment are absorbed
    into the soil and make their way into the
    groundwater, rivers and lakes .

22
Point Source Pollution vs. Non-Point Source
Pollution
  • Point Source Pollution
  • Linked to industrial and urban activities.
  • The source has been identified (i.e. pulp and
    paper industry).
  • Non-Point Source Pollution
  • Linked to farming actvities.
  • The pollution (pesticides etc.) spreads beyond
    the farmed area as it infiltrates the soil and
    travels into the groundwater, rivers, lakes etc.

23
  • 3. Watershed-based management
  • It involves preserving both the quantity and
    quality of the water flowing through a territory.
  • Farming activities often contaminate water.
  • How?
  • Whatever fertilizers/pesticides cannot be
    absorbed by the crops runs off the surface, is
    absorbed into the soil and makes its way into the
    streams, rivers and lakes.

24
  • What is a watershed?
  • A watershed is an area of land where all of the
    water (surface and groundwater) flows to the
    lowest point - usually a lake, river, or stream.

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d_diagram.jpg
25
  • 4. Hog farms
  • Quebec produces more pork than any other Canadian
    province.
  • Located mostly in the Chaudiere, Yamaska and
    l'Assomption regions.
  • Hog production has increased in the last 40
    years.
  • Number of hog farms has decreased.
  • This means more pigs are being crammed into
    closed spaces.
  • More liquid manure is affecting water quality in
    watersheds (there is more liquid manure than
    there is farmland to spread it on).

26
Protecting the Environment While Satisfying
Demand
  • It is possible to reduce hog farm pollution.
  • Create balance between number of hogs and the
    area available for spreading liquid manure.

27
Quebec Pork Exports
  • World market demands are strong.
  • Nearly ½ of all Quebec pork is exported.
  • Pork is leading agricultural export in Quebec.
  • Hog farming has become an economic issue
  • Striking a balance between building a strong
    economy while addressing environmental concerns.

28
Intensive Farming vs. Sustainable Farming
  • Intensive Farming aims for higher productivity
    and more profits.
  • Characteristics
  • Large-sized farms
  • Farmers invests a lot in machinery, fertilizers,
    buildings, pesticides, labour.
  • Specialize in one type of production (Ex. hog
    farm).
  • Concentration of production (more and more
    livestock in the same area).
  • Fierce competition among farmers

29
  • Sustainable Agriculture aims to meet human food
    needs while protecting natural resources (soil,
    water, air, plant and animal biodiversity).
  • Its specific goals
  • To protect, nourish and enrich the soil.
  • To sow natural seeds and farm the land using crop
    rotation and organic fertilizers.

30
  • These farmers reject animal overcrowding in
    closed farm buildings.
  • 5. Organic Farming
  • It refers to
  • A way of farming without chemical fertilizers,
    pesticides, GMOs (Genetically modified organism)
  • Farmers view their farms as ecosystems and work
    as much as possible with natural products and
    practises (Animal feed, insect control, organic
    fertilizers) maintain a balance of number of
    animals and size of farm and they preserve
    wooded areas to prevent clear-cutting of trees.
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