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AP BIOLOGY

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AP BIOLOGY Chapter 2: Chemistry Chemistry Study of matter and its forms and interactions Important to Biology Themes of hierarchy and form fits function , as well as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP BIOLOGY


1
AP BIOLOGY
  • Chapter 2 Chemistry

2
Chemistry
  • Study of matter and its forms and interactions
  • Important to Biology
  • Themes of hierarchy and form fits function , as
    well as, emergent properties are all because of
    chemistry to some degree.

3
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4
Chemical Elements and Compounds
  • Organisms are made of matter
  • Matter
  • Element
  • Atom
  • Compound
  • Organic compound
  • Molecule
  • Organic macromolecule

5
Life requires about 25 elements
  • 92 naturally occurring
  • CHNOPS 96 of dry weight
  • CHOPKINS CaFe, Mg NaCl gt99
  • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, potassium,
    iodine, nitrogen, sulfur, calcium, iron,
    magnesium, sodium and chlorine..
  • Trace elements are those required by an organism
    in quantities of lt0.01 of body mass

6
Atomic structure
  • Proton
  • Positive, central/nucleus
  • Mass 1 amu or Dalton
  • Can not leave/add
  • Atomic number
  • Neutron
  • Neutral, central/nucleus
  • Mass 1 amu or Dalton
  • Neutron proton atomic mass
  • Atomic weight vs. mass number
  • Electron
  • Negative, found in orbitals
  • Can leave, add, transfer, move
  • Creates charge as well as many properties of
    element

7
Ions
  • Elements that have a charge as a result of the
    proton number and the electron number being
    unequal.
  • Positive ions are called cations and have more
    protons than electrons
  • Negative ions are called anions and have more
    electrons than protons

8
Isotopes
  • These are atoms of the same element with varying
    numbers of neutrons, thus different masses.
  • Many elements have naturally occurring isotopes
    (decimals in atomic mass are from averaging
    these)
  • C12 and C14 are examples.
  • Radioactive isotopes spontaneously decay, giving
    off energy and particles.
  • Can be biologically harmful
  • Can also be medically/scientifically useful as
    tracers

9
Bonds
  • Covalent
  • Polar covalent
  • Nonpolar covalent
  • Ionic
  • Hydrogen
  • Van der Waals Interactions

10
Covalent bonds
  • Created when electrons are shared by several
    atoms. Orbitals overlap. Bond is tight (short)
    and strong.
  • Nonpolar covalent bonds contain equally shared
    electrons and create no charged regions
  • Polar covalent bonds share electrons UNEVENLY and
    create areas of CHARGE within the molecule.

11
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12
Ionic bonds
  • Are created between atoms when electrons are
    transferred and ions are created.
  • Ions of opposite charge then attract.
  • Relatively distant (long) and weaker.
  • Ionic bonds can dissociate or separate and
    re-bond with something else more attractive.

13
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14
Hydrogen Bonds
  • Exist between two molecules because of regions of
    charge within the molecules.
  • Water forms many H-bonds.
  • Polar covalent water has negative regions near
    the oxygen and positive regions near the hydrogen
    .
  • Oxygen region from one water attract hydrogen
    regions from other waters.
  • Water beads because of this.
  • Very, very, very weak, but collectively HUGE

15
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